Abstract

A novel secure wavelength hopping passive optical network (WH-PON) is presented in which physical layer security is introduced to the access network. The WH-PON design uses a pair of matched tunable lasers in the optical line terminal to create a time division multiplexed signal in which each data frame is transmitted at a unique wavelength. The transmission results for a 32-channel WH-PON operating at a data rate of 2.5 Gb/s are presented in this paper. The inherent security of the WH-PON design is verified through an attempted cross-channel eavesdropping attempt at an optical network unit. The results presented verify that the WH-PON provides secure broadband service in the access network.

© 2012 OSA

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. D. Kettler, H. Kafka, and D. Spears, “Driving fiber to the home,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 38, no. 11, pp. 106–110, Nov.2000.
    [CrossRef]
  2. F. J. Effenberger, H. Ichibangase, and H. Yamashiti, “Advances in broadband passive optical networking technologies,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 39, no. 12, pp. 118–124, Dec.2001.
  3. G. Kramer and G. Pesavento, “Ethernet passive optical network (EPON): Building a next-generation optical access network,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 66–73, Feb.2002.
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. Abrams, P. Becker, Y. Fujimoto, V. O’Bryne, and D. Peihler, “FTTP deployments in the United States and Japan—Equipment choices and service provider imperatives,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 236–246, Jan.2005.
    [CrossRef]
  5. P. Green, “Fiber to the home: the next big broadband thing,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 42, no. 9, pp. 100–106, Sept.2004.
    [CrossRef]
  6. L. Tancevski and I. Andonovic, “Secure optical network architectures utilizing wavelength hopping/time spreading codes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 7, no. 5, pp. 573–575, May1995.
    [CrossRef]
  7. W. Shawbaki and A. Kamal, “Security for FTTx optical access networks,” in Proc. IEEE Conf. Local Computer Networks, 2006, pp. 221–228[p2] is deleted in Ref. [7]. Please check, and correct if necessary..
  8. A. Harris, A. Sierra, S. V. Kartalopoulos, and J. J. Slus, “Security enhancements in novel passive optical networks,” in Proc. of ICC, 2007, pp. 1399–1403.
  9. W. Wells, R. Stone, and E. Miles, “Secure communications by optical homodyne,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 11, no. 5, pp. 770–777, 1993.
    [CrossRef]
  10. G. Kramer, Ethernet Passive Optical Networks. McGraw-Hill, New Jersey, 2005.
  11. S. Roh and S. Kim, “Security model and authentication protocol in EPON-based optical access network,” in 5th Annu. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks, June 2003, vol. 1, pp. 99–102.
  12. K. Kim, K. Han, and T. Yoo, “The implementation of the link security module in an EPON access network,” in Asia-Pacific Conf. on Commun., Oct. 2005, pp. 1–5.
  13. IEEE Standards Department, IEEE Standard 802.1ae, New Jersey (2005).
  14. J. Buus, “Tunable lasers in optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 5–11, Jan.2006.
    [CrossRef]
  15. T. E. Stern and G. B. Ellinas Krishna, Multiwavelength Optical Networks Architecture, Design, and Control. Cambridge University Press, New York, 2009.
  16. Optisystem 9.0, Optical Communication Design [Online]. Available: http://www.optiwave.com.
  17. IEEE Standards Department, IEEE Standard 802.3ah, New Jersey (2004).

2006 (1)

2005 (1)

2004 (1)

P. Green, “Fiber to the home: the next big broadband thing,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 42, no. 9, pp. 100–106, Sept.2004.
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

G. Kramer and G. Pesavento, “Ethernet passive optical network (EPON): Building a next-generation optical access network,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 66–73, Feb.2002.
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

F. J. Effenberger, H. Ichibangase, and H. Yamashiti, “Advances in broadband passive optical networking technologies,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 39, no. 12, pp. 118–124, Dec.2001.

2000 (1)

D. Kettler, H. Kafka, and D. Spears, “Driving fiber to the home,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 38, no. 11, pp. 106–110, Nov.2000.
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

L. Tancevski and I. Andonovic, “Secure optical network architectures utilizing wavelength hopping/time spreading codes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 7, no. 5, pp. 573–575, May1995.
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

W. Wells, R. Stone, and E. Miles, “Secure communications by optical homodyne,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 11, no. 5, pp. 770–777, 1993.
[CrossRef]

Abrams, M.

Andonovic, I.

L. Tancevski and I. Andonovic, “Secure optical network architectures utilizing wavelength hopping/time spreading codes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 7, no. 5, pp. 573–575, May1995.
[CrossRef]

Becker, P.

Buus, J.

Effenberger, F. J.

F. J. Effenberger, H. Ichibangase, and H. Yamashiti, “Advances in broadband passive optical networking technologies,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 39, no. 12, pp. 118–124, Dec.2001.

Ellinas Krishna, G. B.

T. E. Stern and G. B. Ellinas Krishna, Multiwavelength Optical Networks Architecture, Design, and Control. Cambridge University Press, New York, 2009.

Fujimoto, Y.

Green, P.

P. Green, “Fiber to the home: the next big broadband thing,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 42, no. 9, pp. 100–106, Sept.2004.
[CrossRef]

Han, K.

K. Kim, K. Han, and T. Yoo, “The implementation of the link security module in an EPON access network,” in Asia-Pacific Conf. on Commun., Oct. 2005, pp. 1–5.

Harris, A.

A. Harris, A. Sierra, S. V. Kartalopoulos, and J. J. Slus, “Security enhancements in novel passive optical networks,” in Proc. of ICC, 2007, pp. 1399–1403.

Ichibangase, H.

F. J. Effenberger, H. Ichibangase, and H. Yamashiti, “Advances in broadband passive optical networking technologies,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 39, no. 12, pp. 118–124, Dec.2001.

Kafka, H.

D. Kettler, H. Kafka, and D. Spears, “Driving fiber to the home,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 38, no. 11, pp. 106–110, Nov.2000.
[CrossRef]

Kamal, A.

W. Shawbaki and A. Kamal, “Security for FTTx optical access networks,” in Proc. IEEE Conf. Local Computer Networks, 2006, pp. 221–228[p2] is deleted in Ref. [7]. Please check, and correct if necessary..

Kartalopoulos, S. V.

A. Harris, A. Sierra, S. V. Kartalopoulos, and J. J. Slus, “Security enhancements in novel passive optical networks,” in Proc. of ICC, 2007, pp. 1399–1403.

Kettler, D.

D. Kettler, H. Kafka, and D. Spears, “Driving fiber to the home,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 38, no. 11, pp. 106–110, Nov.2000.
[CrossRef]

Kim, K.

K. Kim, K. Han, and T. Yoo, “The implementation of the link security module in an EPON access network,” in Asia-Pacific Conf. on Commun., Oct. 2005, pp. 1–5.

Kim, S.

S. Roh and S. Kim, “Security model and authentication protocol in EPON-based optical access network,” in 5th Annu. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks, June 2003, vol. 1, pp. 99–102.

Kramer, G.

G. Kramer and G. Pesavento, “Ethernet passive optical network (EPON): Building a next-generation optical access network,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 66–73, Feb.2002.
[CrossRef]

G. Kramer, Ethernet Passive Optical Networks. McGraw-Hill, New Jersey, 2005.

Miles, E.

W. Wells, R. Stone, and E. Miles, “Secure communications by optical homodyne,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 11, no. 5, pp. 770–777, 1993.
[CrossRef]

O’Bryne, V.

Peihler, D.

Pesavento, G.

G. Kramer and G. Pesavento, “Ethernet passive optical network (EPON): Building a next-generation optical access network,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 66–73, Feb.2002.
[CrossRef]

Roh, S.

S. Roh and S. Kim, “Security model and authentication protocol in EPON-based optical access network,” in 5th Annu. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks, June 2003, vol. 1, pp. 99–102.

Shawbaki, W.

W. Shawbaki and A. Kamal, “Security for FTTx optical access networks,” in Proc. IEEE Conf. Local Computer Networks, 2006, pp. 221–228[p2] is deleted in Ref. [7]. Please check, and correct if necessary..

Sierra, A.

A. Harris, A. Sierra, S. V. Kartalopoulos, and J. J. Slus, “Security enhancements in novel passive optical networks,” in Proc. of ICC, 2007, pp. 1399–1403.

Slus, J. J.

A. Harris, A. Sierra, S. V. Kartalopoulos, and J. J. Slus, “Security enhancements in novel passive optical networks,” in Proc. of ICC, 2007, pp. 1399–1403.

Spears, D.

D. Kettler, H. Kafka, and D. Spears, “Driving fiber to the home,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 38, no. 11, pp. 106–110, Nov.2000.
[CrossRef]

Stern, T. E.

T. E. Stern and G. B. Ellinas Krishna, Multiwavelength Optical Networks Architecture, Design, and Control. Cambridge University Press, New York, 2009.

Stone, R.

W. Wells, R. Stone, and E. Miles, “Secure communications by optical homodyne,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 11, no. 5, pp. 770–777, 1993.
[CrossRef]

Tancevski, L.

L. Tancevski and I. Andonovic, “Secure optical network architectures utilizing wavelength hopping/time spreading codes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 7, no. 5, pp. 573–575, May1995.
[CrossRef]

Wells, W.

W. Wells, R. Stone, and E. Miles, “Secure communications by optical homodyne,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 11, no. 5, pp. 770–777, 1993.
[CrossRef]

Yamashiti, H.

F. J. Effenberger, H. Ichibangase, and H. Yamashiti, “Advances in broadband passive optical networking technologies,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 39, no. 12, pp. 118–124, Dec.2001.

Yoo, T.

K. Kim, K. Han, and T. Yoo, “The implementation of the link security module in an EPON access network,” in Asia-Pacific Conf. on Commun., Oct. 2005, pp. 1–5.

IEEE Commun. Mag. (4)

D. Kettler, H. Kafka, and D. Spears, “Driving fiber to the home,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 38, no. 11, pp. 106–110, Nov.2000.
[CrossRef]

F. J. Effenberger, H. Ichibangase, and H. Yamashiti, “Advances in broadband passive optical networking technologies,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 39, no. 12, pp. 118–124, Dec.2001.

G. Kramer and G. Pesavento, “Ethernet passive optical network (EPON): Building a next-generation optical access network,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 66–73, Feb.2002.
[CrossRef]

P. Green, “Fiber to the home: the next big broadband thing,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 42, no. 9, pp. 100–106, Sept.2004.
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. (1)

W. Wells, R. Stone, and E. Miles, “Secure communications by optical homodyne,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 11, no. 5, pp. 770–777, 1993.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

L. Tancevski and I. Andonovic, “Secure optical network architectures utilizing wavelength hopping/time spreading codes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 7, no. 5, pp. 573–575, May1995.
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

Other (9)

T. E. Stern and G. B. Ellinas Krishna, Multiwavelength Optical Networks Architecture, Design, and Control. Cambridge University Press, New York, 2009.

Optisystem 9.0, Optical Communication Design [Online]. Available: http://www.optiwave.com.

IEEE Standards Department, IEEE Standard 802.3ah, New Jersey (2004).

G. Kramer, Ethernet Passive Optical Networks. McGraw-Hill, New Jersey, 2005.

S. Roh and S. Kim, “Security model and authentication protocol in EPON-based optical access network,” in 5th Annu. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks, June 2003, vol. 1, pp. 99–102.

K. Kim, K. Han, and T. Yoo, “The implementation of the link security module in an EPON access network,” in Asia-Pacific Conf. on Commun., Oct. 2005, pp. 1–5.

IEEE Standards Department, IEEE Standard 802.1ae, New Jersey (2005).

W. Shawbaki and A. Kamal, “Security for FTTx optical access networks,” in Proc. IEEE Conf. Local Computer Networks, 2006, pp. 221–228[p2] is deleted in Ref. [7]. Please check, and correct if necessary..

A. Harris, A. Sierra, S. V. Kartalopoulos, and J. J. Slus, “Security enhancements in novel passive optical networks,” in Proc. of ICC, 2007, pp. 1399–1403.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (14)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

A schematic view of a WH-PON.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

TDM data stream generated by two TLs.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic showing the downstream operation of a WH-PON.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

A schematic view of the upstream WH-PON operation.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Schematic view of eavesdropping in a TDM PON.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Optical spectrum at input to demultiplexer.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Optical spectrum of (a) ONU1 and (b) ONU22.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(a) Optical time domain TL 1. (b) Magnified optical time domain TL 1.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

BER/eye diagrams ONU1 and ONU22.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Plot of PON length versus log(BER).

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Schematic showing eavesdropping attempt at ONU1.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Optical spectrum of filtered eavesdropped signal.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Optical time domain of eavesdropped signal.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Eye diagram of eavesdropped channel.

Equations (1)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

N=Tmints.