Abstract

In this paper, we address the problem of survivable traffic grooming and regenerator placement in optical wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) networks with impairment constraints. The working connections are protected end to end by provisioning bandwidth along a sequence of lightpaths through either a dedicated or a shared connection-level protection scheme. We propose an auxiliary-graph-based approach to address the placement of regenerators and grooming equipment for both working and backup connections in the network in order to minimize the total equipment cost. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithms outperform lightpath-level protection algorithms, in which each lightpath is protected separately. We also show the performance of connection-level protection under both dedicated and shared protection schemes in terms of the network cost, along with the effect of different cost models on equipment placement and performance for networks with different line rates. The restoration time of dedicated and shared connection-level protection is also investigated.

© 2012 OSA

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  1. S.-W. Kim and S.-W. Seo, “Regenerator placement algorithms for connection establishment in all-optical networks,” IEE Proc.-Commun., vol. 148, no. 1, pp. 25–30, 2001.
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. Flammini, A. Marchetti-Spaccamela, G. Monaco, L. Moscardelli, and S. Zaks, “On the complexity of the regenerator placement problem in optical networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 498–511, Apr.2011Please provide page number in Refs. [2, 9, 11, 12] and volume in Refs. [7, 11]..
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. N. Patel, C. Gao, J. P. Jue, X. Wang, Q. Zhang, P. Palacharla, and T. Naito, “Traffic grooming and regenerator placement in impairment-aware WDM networks,” in IFIP ONDM, Feb. 2010.
  4. A. N. Patel, J. P. Jue, X. Wang, Q. Zhang, P. Palacharla, and T. Naito, “Survivable impairment-aware traffic grooming with dedicated path protection,” in ECOC, 2010.
  5. A. N. Patel, J. P. Jue, X. Wang, Q. Zhang, P. Palacharla, and T. Naito, “Survivable traffic grooming with impairment constraints,” in ICCCN, 2010.
  6. S. Azodolmolky, Y. Pointurier, M. Angelou, J. Sole Pareta, and I. Tomkos, “An offline impairment aware RWA algorithm with dedicated path protection consideration,” in IEEE/OSA OFC/NFOEC, 2009.
  7. X. Yang, S. Lu, and B. Ramamurthy, “Survivable lightpath provisioning in WDM mesh networks under shared path protection and signal quality constraints,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 1556–1567, 2005.
    [CrossRef]
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  9. Y. Ouyang, Q. Zeng, and W. Wei, “Dynamic lightpath provisioning with signal quality guarantees in survivable translucent optical networks,” Opt. Express, vol. 13, no. 26, pp. 10457–10468, 2005.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. J. Fang and A. K. Somani, “Enabling subwavelength level traffic grooming in survivable WDM optical network design,” in GLOBECOM, 2003.
  11. C. Ou, K. Zhu, H. Zang, L. H. Sahasrabuddhe, and B. Mukherjee, “Traffic grooming for survivable WDM networks–shared protection,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 21, no. 9, pp. 1367–1383, Nov.2003.
    [CrossRef]
  12. C. Ou, K. Zhu, H. Zang, J. Zhang, H. Zhu, L. H. Sahasrabuddhe, and B. Mukherjee, “Traffic grooming for survivable WDM networks: dedicated protection,” J. Opt. Netw., vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 50–74, Jan.2004.
    [CrossRef]

2011

M. Flammini, A. Marchetti-Spaccamela, G. Monaco, L. Moscardelli, and S. Zaks, “On the complexity of the regenerator placement problem in optical networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 498–511, Apr.2011Please provide page number in Refs. [2, 9, 11, 12] and volume in Refs. [7, 11]..
[CrossRef]

2005

2004

2003

C. Ou, K. Zhu, H. Zang, L. H. Sahasrabuddhe, and B. Mukherjee, “Traffic grooming for survivable WDM networks–shared protection,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 21, no. 9, pp. 1367–1383, Nov.2003.
[CrossRef]

2001

S.-W. Kim and S.-W. Seo, “Regenerator placement algorithms for connection establishment in all-optical networks,” IEE Proc.-Commun., vol. 148, no. 1, pp. 25–30, 2001.
[CrossRef]

Angelou, M.

S. Azodolmolky, Y. Pointurier, M. Angelou, J. Sole Pareta, and I. Tomkos, “An offline impairment aware RWA algorithm with dedicated path protection consideration,” in IEEE/OSA OFC/NFOEC, 2009.

Azodolmolky, S.

S. Azodolmolky, Y. Pointurier, M. Angelou, J. Sole Pareta, and I. Tomkos, “An offline impairment aware RWA algorithm with dedicated path protection consideration,” in IEEE/OSA OFC/NFOEC, 2009.

Brandt-Pearce, M.

Y. Zhai, Y. Pointurier, S. Subramaniam, and M. Brandt-Pearce, “QoS-aware RWA algorithms for path-protected DWDM networks,” in IEEE/OSA OFC/NFOEC, 2007.

Fang, J.

J. Fang and A. K. Somani, “Enabling subwavelength level traffic grooming in survivable WDM optical network design,” in GLOBECOM, 2003.

Flammini, M.

M. Flammini, A. Marchetti-Spaccamela, G. Monaco, L. Moscardelli, and S. Zaks, “On the complexity of the regenerator placement problem in optical networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 498–511, Apr.2011Please provide page number in Refs. [2, 9, 11, 12] and volume in Refs. [7, 11]..
[CrossRef]

Gao, C.

A. N. Patel, C. Gao, J. P. Jue, X. Wang, Q. Zhang, P. Palacharla, and T. Naito, “Traffic grooming and regenerator placement in impairment-aware WDM networks,” in IFIP ONDM, Feb. 2010.

Jue, J. P.

A. N. Patel, C. Gao, J. P. Jue, X. Wang, Q. Zhang, P. Palacharla, and T. Naito, “Traffic grooming and regenerator placement in impairment-aware WDM networks,” in IFIP ONDM, Feb. 2010.

A. N. Patel, J. P. Jue, X. Wang, Q. Zhang, P. Palacharla, and T. Naito, “Survivable impairment-aware traffic grooming with dedicated path protection,” in ECOC, 2010.

A. N. Patel, J. P. Jue, X. Wang, Q. Zhang, P. Palacharla, and T. Naito, “Survivable traffic grooming with impairment constraints,” in ICCCN, 2010.

Kim, S.-W.

S.-W. Kim and S.-W. Seo, “Regenerator placement algorithms for connection establishment in all-optical networks,” IEE Proc.-Commun., vol. 148, no. 1, pp. 25–30, 2001.
[CrossRef]

Lu, S.

Marchetti-Spaccamela, A.

M. Flammini, A. Marchetti-Spaccamela, G. Monaco, L. Moscardelli, and S. Zaks, “On the complexity of the regenerator placement problem in optical networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 498–511, Apr.2011Please provide page number in Refs. [2, 9, 11, 12] and volume in Refs. [7, 11]..
[CrossRef]

Monaco, G.

M. Flammini, A. Marchetti-Spaccamela, G. Monaco, L. Moscardelli, and S. Zaks, “On the complexity of the regenerator placement problem in optical networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 498–511, Apr.2011Please provide page number in Refs. [2, 9, 11, 12] and volume in Refs. [7, 11]..
[CrossRef]

Moscardelli, L.

M. Flammini, A. Marchetti-Spaccamela, G. Monaco, L. Moscardelli, and S. Zaks, “On the complexity of the regenerator placement problem in optical networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 498–511, Apr.2011Please provide page number in Refs. [2, 9, 11, 12] and volume in Refs. [7, 11]..
[CrossRef]

Mukherjee, B.

C. Ou, K. Zhu, H. Zang, J. Zhang, H. Zhu, L. H. Sahasrabuddhe, and B. Mukherjee, “Traffic grooming for survivable WDM networks: dedicated protection,” J. Opt. Netw., vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 50–74, Jan.2004.
[CrossRef]

C. Ou, K. Zhu, H. Zang, L. H. Sahasrabuddhe, and B. Mukherjee, “Traffic grooming for survivable WDM networks–shared protection,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 21, no. 9, pp. 1367–1383, Nov.2003.
[CrossRef]

Naito, T.

A. N. Patel, J. P. Jue, X. Wang, Q. Zhang, P. Palacharla, and T. Naito, “Survivable traffic grooming with impairment constraints,” in ICCCN, 2010.

A. N. Patel, C. Gao, J. P. Jue, X. Wang, Q. Zhang, P. Palacharla, and T. Naito, “Traffic grooming and regenerator placement in impairment-aware WDM networks,” in IFIP ONDM, Feb. 2010.

A. N. Patel, J. P. Jue, X. Wang, Q. Zhang, P. Palacharla, and T. Naito, “Survivable impairment-aware traffic grooming with dedicated path protection,” in ECOC, 2010.

Ou, C.

C. Ou, K. Zhu, H. Zang, J. Zhang, H. Zhu, L. H. Sahasrabuddhe, and B. Mukherjee, “Traffic grooming for survivable WDM networks: dedicated protection,” J. Opt. Netw., vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 50–74, Jan.2004.
[CrossRef]

C. Ou, K. Zhu, H. Zang, L. H. Sahasrabuddhe, and B. Mukherjee, “Traffic grooming for survivable WDM networks–shared protection,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 21, no. 9, pp. 1367–1383, Nov.2003.
[CrossRef]

Ouyang, Y.

Palacharla, P.

A. N. Patel, J. P. Jue, X. Wang, Q. Zhang, P. Palacharla, and T. Naito, “Survivable impairment-aware traffic grooming with dedicated path protection,” in ECOC, 2010.

A. N. Patel, J. P. Jue, X. Wang, Q. Zhang, P. Palacharla, and T. Naito, “Survivable traffic grooming with impairment constraints,” in ICCCN, 2010.

A. N. Patel, C. Gao, J. P. Jue, X. Wang, Q. Zhang, P. Palacharla, and T. Naito, “Traffic grooming and regenerator placement in impairment-aware WDM networks,” in IFIP ONDM, Feb. 2010.

Patel, A. N.

A. N. Patel, C. Gao, J. P. Jue, X. Wang, Q. Zhang, P. Palacharla, and T. Naito, “Traffic grooming and regenerator placement in impairment-aware WDM networks,” in IFIP ONDM, Feb. 2010.

A. N. Patel, J. P. Jue, X. Wang, Q. Zhang, P. Palacharla, and T. Naito, “Survivable impairment-aware traffic grooming with dedicated path protection,” in ECOC, 2010.

A. N. Patel, J. P. Jue, X. Wang, Q. Zhang, P. Palacharla, and T. Naito, “Survivable traffic grooming with impairment constraints,” in ICCCN, 2010.

Pointurier, Y.

S. Azodolmolky, Y. Pointurier, M. Angelou, J. Sole Pareta, and I. Tomkos, “An offline impairment aware RWA algorithm with dedicated path protection consideration,” in IEEE/OSA OFC/NFOEC, 2009.

Y. Zhai, Y. Pointurier, S. Subramaniam, and M. Brandt-Pearce, “QoS-aware RWA algorithms for path-protected DWDM networks,” in IEEE/OSA OFC/NFOEC, 2007.

Ramamurthy, B.

Sahasrabuddhe, L. H.

C. Ou, K. Zhu, H. Zang, J. Zhang, H. Zhu, L. H. Sahasrabuddhe, and B. Mukherjee, “Traffic grooming for survivable WDM networks: dedicated protection,” J. Opt. Netw., vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 50–74, Jan.2004.
[CrossRef]

C. Ou, K. Zhu, H. Zang, L. H. Sahasrabuddhe, and B. Mukherjee, “Traffic grooming for survivable WDM networks–shared protection,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 21, no. 9, pp. 1367–1383, Nov.2003.
[CrossRef]

Seo, S.-W.

S.-W. Kim and S.-W. Seo, “Regenerator placement algorithms for connection establishment in all-optical networks,” IEE Proc.-Commun., vol. 148, no. 1, pp. 25–30, 2001.
[CrossRef]

Sole Pareta, J.

S. Azodolmolky, Y. Pointurier, M. Angelou, J. Sole Pareta, and I. Tomkos, “An offline impairment aware RWA algorithm with dedicated path protection consideration,” in IEEE/OSA OFC/NFOEC, 2009.

Somani, A. K.

J. Fang and A. K. Somani, “Enabling subwavelength level traffic grooming in survivable WDM optical network design,” in GLOBECOM, 2003.

Subramaniam, S.

Y. Zhai, Y. Pointurier, S. Subramaniam, and M. Brandt-Pearce, “QoS-aware RWA algorithms for path-protected DWDM networks,” in IEEE/OSA OFC/NFOEC, 2007.

Tomkos, I.

S. Azodolmolky, Y. Pointurier, M. Angelou, J. Sole Pareta, and I. Tomkos, “An offline impairment aware RWA algorithm with dedicated path protection consideration,” in IEEE/OSA OFC/NFOEC, 2009.

Wang, X.

A. N. Patel, J. P. Jue, X. Wang, Q. Zhang, P. Palacharla, and T. Naito, “Survivable traffic grooming with impairment constraints,” in ICCCN, 2010.

A. N. Patel, J. P. Jue, X. Wang, Q. Zhang, P. Palacharla, and T. Naito, “Survivable impairment-aware traffic grooming with dedicated path protection,” in ECOC, 2010.

A. N. Patel, C. Gao, J. P. Jue, X. Wang, Q. Zhang, P. Palacharla, and T. Naito, “Traffic grooming and regenerator placement in impairment-aware WDM networks,” in IFIP ONDM, Feb. 2010.

Wei, W.

Yang, X.

Zaks, S.

M. Flammini, A. Marchetti-Spaccamela, G. Monaco, L. Moscardelli, and S. Zaks, “On the complexity of the regenerator placement problem in optical networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 498–511, Apr.2011Please provide page number in Refs. [2, 9, 11, 12] and volume in Refs. [7, 11]..
[CrossRef]

Zang, H.

C. Ou, K. Zhu, H. Zang, J. Zhang, H. Zhu, L. H. Sahasrabuddhe, and B. Mukherjee, “Traffic grooming for survivable WDM networks: dedicated protection,” J. Opt. Netw., vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 50–74, Jan.2004.
[CrossRef]

C. Ou, K. Zhu, H. Zang, L. H. Sahasrabuddhe, and B. Mukherjee, “Traffic grooming for survivable WDM networks–shared protection,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 21, no. 9, pp. 1367–1383, Nov.2003.
[CrossRef]

Zeng, Q.

Zhai, Y.

Y. Zhai, Y. Pointurier, S. Subramaniam, and M. Brandt-Pearce, “QoS-aware RWA algorithms for path-protected DWDM networks,” in IEEE/OSA OFC/NFOEC, 2007.

Zhang, J.

Zhang, Q.

A. N. Patel, J. P. Jue, X. Wang, Q. Zhang, P. Palacharla, and T. Naito, “Survivable traffic grooming with impairment constraints,” in ICCCN, 2010.

A. N. Patel, C. Gao, J. P. Jue, X. Wang, Q. Zhang, P. Palacharla, and T. Naito, “Traffic grooming and regenerator placement in impairment-aware WDM networks,” in IFIP ONDM, Feb. 2010.

A. N. Patel, J. P. Jue, X. Wang, Q. Zhang, P. Palacharla, and T. Naito, “Survivable impairment-aware traffic grooming with dedicated path protection,” in ECOC, 2010.

Zhu, H.

Zhu, K.

C. Ou, K. Zhu, H. Zang, J. Zhang, H. Zhu, L. H. Sahasrabuddhe, and B. Mukherjee, “Traffic grooming for survivable WDM networks: dedicated protection,” J. Opt. Netw., vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 50–74, Jan.2004.
[CrossRef]

C. Ou, K. Zhu, H. Zang, L. H. Sahasrabuddhe, and B. Mukherjee, “Traffic grooming for survivable WDM networks–shared protection,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 21, no. 9, pp. 1367–1383, Nov.2003.
[CrossRef]

IEE Proc.-Commun.

S.-W. Kim and S.-W. Seo, “Regenerator placement algorithms for connection establishment in all-optical networks,” IEE Proc.-Commun., vol. 148, no. 1, pp. 25–30, 2001.
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun.

C. Ou, K. Zhu, H. Zang, L. H. Sahasrabuddhe, and B. Mukherjee, “Traffic grooming for survivable WDM networks–shared protection,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 21, no. 9, pp. 1367–1383, Nov.2003.
[CrossRef]

IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw.

M. Flammini, A. Marchetti-Spaccamela, G. Monaco, L. Moscardelli, and S. Zaks, “On the complexity of the regenerator placement problem in optical networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 498–511, Apr.2011Please provide page number in Refs. [2, 9, 11, 12] and volume in Refs. [7, 11]..
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

J. Opt. Netw.

Opt. Express

Other

J. Fang and A. K. Somani, “Enabling subwavelength level traffic grooming in survivable WDM optical network design,” in GLOBECOM, 2003.

Y. Zhai, Y. Pointurier, S. Subramaniam, and M. Brandt-Pearce, “QoS-aware RWA algorithms for path-protected DWDM networks,” in IEEE/OSA OFC/NFOEC, 2007.

A. N. Patel, C. Gao, J. P. Jue, X. Wang, Q. Zhang, P. Palacharla, and T. Naito, “Traffic grooming and regenerator placement in impairment-aware WDM networks,” in IFIP ONDM, Feb. 2010.

A. N. Patel, J. P. Jue, X. Wang, Q. Zhang, P. Palacharla, and T. Naito, “Survivable impairment-aware traffic grooming with dedicated path protection,” in ECOC, 2010.

A. N. Patel, J. P. Jue, X. Wang, Q. Zhang, P. Palacharla, and T. Naito, “Survivable traffic grooming with impairment constraints,” in ICCCN, 2010.

S. Azodolmolky, Y. Pointurier, M. Angelou, J. Sole Pareta, and I. Tomkos, “An offline impairment aware RWA algorithm with dedicated path protection consideration,” in IEEE/OSA OFC/NFOEC, 2009.

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Figures (19)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(Color online) ROADM node architecture.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(Color online) Cost model for various cards.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(Color online) Illustrative example.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

100-node network topology.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

14-node NSF network topology.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(Color online) Network cost versus load.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(Color online) Network costs of various weight factors at a load of 10,000 requests.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(Color online) Equipment usages for different protection schemes.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(Color online) Regenerator usage.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

(Color online) Network cost for various line rates with dedicated protection.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

(Color online) Lightpaths established versus load.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

(Color online) Network equipment for 100 Gbps with different reachabilities.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

(Color online) Network costs for various line rates with shared protection.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

(Color online) Signaling cost.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

(Color online) Average hop counts of connections.

Fig. 16
Fig. 16

(Color online) Network cost versus load in the 14-node NSF network.

Fig. 17
Fig. 17

(Color online) Equipment usage in the 14-node NSF network.

Fig. 18
Fig. 18

(Color online) Network cost for various line rates and reachabilities.

Fig. 19
Fig. 19

(Color online) Performance with double reachability.