Abstract

The emerging high-speed Ethernet is expected to take full advantage of the currently deployed optical infrastructure, i.e., optical transport network over wavelength division multiplexing (OTN/WDM) networks. Parallel transmission is a viable option towards this goal, as exemplified by several IEEE and ITU-T standards. The optical virtual concatenation protocol in the OTN layer defined in ITU-T G.709 enables high-speed Ethernet signals to be decoupled into low rate virtual containers. The multiple lane distribution layer defined in IEEE 802.3ba facilitates the optical parallel transmission by stripping Ethernet signals into multiple low rate lanes which can be mapped onto optical channels. In this paper, we propose a new optimization framework for parallel transmission in OTN/WDM networks to support high-speed Ethernet. We formulate the parallel transmission optimization as an integer linear programming problem encompassing three sub-problems: parallel wavelength routing and assignment, usage of electronic buffering for skew compensation, and bufferless parallel transmission. To reduce computational complexity, we deploy multi-objective evolutionary optimization. The numerical results show that parallel transmission in OTN/WDM networks is feasible, and optimal solutions can be obtained with minimum resource consumption and bufferless system design.

© 2012 OSA

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References

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  1. J. Santos, J. Pedro, P. Monteiro, and J. Pires, “Multilayer optimization of inverse-multiplexed 100 Gb/s Ethernet services over optical transport networks,” in Proc. of the 5th Euro-NGI Conf. on Next Generation Internet Networks (NGI’09), pp. 167–174.
  2. “Carrier sense multiple access with collision detection (CSMA/CD) access method and physical layer specifications,” IEEE Standard 802.3ba, 2010.
  3. A. Gumaste and N. Krishnaswamy, “Proliferation of the optical transport network: A use case based study,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 48, no. 9, pp. 54–61, Sept.2010.
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. Ahuja, T. Korkmaz, and M. Krunz, “Minimizing the differential delay for virtually concatenated Ethernet over SONET systems,” in Proc. ICCCN 2004, pp. 205–210.
  5. A. Srivastava, S. Acharya, M. Alicherry, B. Gupta, and P. Risbood, “Differential delay aware routing for Ethernet over SONET/SDH,” in Proc. IEEE INFOCOM 2005, pp. 1117–1127.
  6. A. Srivastava and A. Srivastava, “Flow aware differential delay routing for next-generation Ethernet over SONET/SDH,” in Proc. IEEE ICC 2006, pp. 140–145.
  7. C. Ou, L. H. Sahasrabuddhe, K. Zhu, C. U. Martel, and B. Mukherjee, “Survivable virtual concatenation for data over SONET/SDH in optical transport networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 218–231, Feb.2006.
    [CrossRef]
  8. S. Kobayashi, Y. Yamada, K. Hisadome, and O. Ishida, “Packet-based lane bundling for terabit-LAN,” in Proc. APCC 2008.
  9. M. Tomizawa, J. Yamawaku, Y. Takigawa, M. Koga, Y. Miyamoto, T. Morioka, and K. Hagimoto, “Terabit LAN with optical virtual concatenation for Grid applications with super-computers,” in Proc. OFC 2005, OThG6.
  10. X. Chen, M. Chamania, A. Jukan, A. C. Drummond, and N. L. S. da Fonseca, “QoS-constrained multi-path routing for high-end network applications,” in Proc. IEEE High-Speed Networks Workshop, Apr. 2009.
  11. X. Chen, A. Jukan, A. Drummond, and N. L. S. Fonseca, “A multipath routing mechanism in optical networks with extremely high bandwidth requests,” in Proc. IEEE Globecom 2009.
  12. M. Lukasiewycz, M. Glass, C. Haubelt, and J. Teich, “Sat-decoding in evolutionary algorithms for discrete constrained optimization problems,” in Proc. CEC 2007, 2007, pp. 935–942.
  13. Opt4J: Meta-heuristic optimization framework for Java [Online]. Available: http://www.opt4j.org.
  14. M. Lukasiewycz, M. Glass, F. Reimann, and J. Teich, “Opt4J-A modular framework for meta-heuristic optimization,” in Proc. GECCO, 2011, pp. 1723–1730.
  15. E. Zitzler, D. Brockhoff, and L. Thiele, “The hypervolume indicator revisited: On the design of Pareto-compliant indicators via weighted integration,” in Evolutionary Multi-Criterion Optimization, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 4403, 2007, pp. 862–876.
  16. S. Rai, L. Song, C. Cavdar, D. Andrei, and B. Mukherjee, “A novel approach to provision differentiated services in survivable IP-over-WDM networks,” Opt. Switching Networking, vol. 5, no. 2–3, pp. 170–176, 2008.
    [CrossRef]
  17. K. Deb and R. B. Agrawal, “Simulated binary crossover for continuous search space,” Complex Syst., vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 115–148, 1995.

2010

A. Gumaste and N. Krishnaswamy, “Proliferation of the optical transport network: A use case based study,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 48, no. 9, pp. 54–61, Sept.2010.
[CrossRef]

2008

S. Rai, L. Song, C. Cavdar, D. Andrei, and B. Mukherjee, “A novel approach to provision differentiated services in survivable IP-over-WDM networks,” Opt. Switching Networking, vol. 5, no. 2–3, pp. 170–176, 2008.
[CrossRef]

2006

C. Ou, L. H. Sahasrabuddhe, K. Zhu, C. U. Martel, and B. Mukherjee, “Survivable virtual concatenation for data over SONET/SDH in optical transport networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 218–231, Feb.2006.
[CrossRef]

1995

K. Deb and R. B. Agrawal, “Simulated binary crossover for continuous search space,” Complex Syst., vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 115–148, 1995.

Acharya, S.

A. Srivastava, S. Acharya, M. Alicherry, B. Gupta, and P. Risbood, “Differential delay aware routing for Ethernet over SONET/SDH,” in Proc. IEEE INFOCOM 2005, pp. 1117–1127.

Agrawal, R. B.

K. Deb and R. B. Agrawal, “Simulated binary crossover for continuous search space,” Complex Syst., vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 115–148, 1995.

Ahuja, S.

S. Ahuja, T. Korkmaz, and M. Krunz, “Minimizing the differential delay for virtually concatenated Ethernet over SONET systems,” in Proc. ICCCN 2004, pp. 205–210.

Alicherry, M.

A. Srivastava, S. Acharya, M. Alicherry, B. Gupta, and P. Risbood, “Differential delay aware routing for Ethernet over SONET/SDH,” in Proc. IEEE INFOCOM 2005, pp. 1117–1127.

Andrei, D.

S. Rai, L. Song, C. Cavdar, D. Andrei, and B. Mukherjee, “A novel approach to provision differentiated services in survivable IP-over-WDM networks,” Opt. Switching Networking, vol. 5, no. 2–3, pp. 170–176, 2008.
[CrossRef]

Brockhoff, D.

E. Zitzler, D. Brockhoff, and L. Thiele, “The hypervolume indicator revisited: On the design of Pareto-compliant indicators via weighted integration,” in Evolutionary Multi-Criterion Optimization, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 4403, 2007, pp. 862–876.

Cavdar, C.

S. Rai, L. Song, C. Cavdar, D. Andrei, and B. Mukherjee, “A novel approach to provision differentiated services in survivable IP-over-WDM networks,” Opt. Switching Networking, vol. 5, no. 2–3, pp. 170–176, 2008.
[CrossRef]

Chamania, M.

X. Chen, M. Chamania, A. Jukan, A. C. Drummond, and N. L. S. da Fonseca, “QoS-constrained multi-path routing for high-end network applications,” in Proc. IEEE High-Speed Networks Workshop, Apr. 2009.

Chen, X.

X. Chen, M. Chamania, A. Jukan, A. C. Drummond, and N. L. S. da Fonseca, “QoS-constrained multi-path routing for high-end network applications,” in Proc. IEEE High-Speed Networks Workshop, Apr. 2009.

X. Chen, A. Jukan, A. Drummond, and N. L. S. Fonseca, “A multipath routing mechanism in optical networks with extremely high bandwidth requests,” in Proc. IEEE Globecom 2009.

da Fonseca, N. L. S.

X. Chen, M. Chamania, A. Jukan, A. C. Drummond, and N. L. S. da Fonseca, “QoS-constrained multi-path routing for high-end network applications,” in Proc. IEEE High-Speed Networks Workshop, Apr. 2009.

Deb, K.

K. Deb and R. B. Agrawal, “Simulated binary crossover for continuous search space,” Complex Syst., vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 115–148, 1995.

Drummond, A.

X. Chen, A. Jukan, A. Drummond, and N. L. S. Fonseca, “A multipath routing mechanism in optical networks with extremely high bandwidth requests,” in Proc. IEEE Globecom 2009.

Drummond, A. C.

X. Chen, M. Chamania, A. Jukan, A. C. Drummond, and N. L. S. da Fonseca, “QoS-constrained multi-path routing for high-end network applications,” in Proc. IEEE High-Speed Networks Workshop, Apr. 2009.

Fonseca, N. L. S.

X. Chen, A. Jukan, A. Drummond, and N. L. S. Fonseca, “A multipath routing mechanism in optical networks with extremely high bandwidth requests,” in Proc. IEEE Globecom 2009.

Glass, M.

M. Lukasiewycz, M. Glass, F. Reimann, and J. Teich, “Opt4J-A modular framework for meta-heuristic optimization,” in Proc. GECCO, 2011, pp. 1723–1730.

M. Lukasiewycz, M. Glass, C. Haubelt, and J. Teich, “Sat-decoding in evolutionary algorithms for discrete constrained optimization problems,” in Proc. CEC 2007, 2007, pp. 935–942.

Gumaste, A.

A. Gumaste and N. Krishnaswamy, “Proliferation of the optical transport network: A use case based study,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 48, no. 9, pp. 54–61, Sept.2010.
[CrossRef]

Gupta, B.

A. Srivastava, S. Acharya, M. Alicherry, B. Gupta, and P. Risbood, “Differential delay aware routing for Ethernet over SONET/SDH,” in Proc. IEEE INFOCOM 2005, pp. 1117–1127.

Hagimoto, K.

M. Tomizawa, J. Yamawaku, Y. Takigawa, M. Koga, Y. Miyamoto, T. Morioka, and K. Hagimoto, “Terabit LAN with optical virtual concatenation for Grid applications with super-computers,” in Proc. OFC 2005, OThG6.

Haubelt, C.

M. Lukasiewycz, M. Glass, C. Haubelt, and J. Teich, “Sat-decoding in evolutionary algorithms for discrete constrained optimization problems,” in Proc. CEC 2007, 2007, pp. 935–942.

Hisadome, K.

S. Kobayashi, Y. Yamada, K. Hisadome, and O. Ishida, “Packet-based lane bundling for terabit-LAN,” in Proc. APCC 2008.

Ishida, O.

S. Kobayashi, Y. Yamada, K. Hisadome, and O. Ishida, “Packet-based lane bundling for terabit-LAN,” in Proc. APCC 2008.

Jukan, A.

X. Chen, M. Chamania, A. Jukan, A. C. Drummond, and N. L. S. da Fonseca, “QoS-constrained multi-path routing for high-end network applications,” in Proc. IEEE High-Speed Networks Workshop, Apr. 2009.

X. Chen, A. Jukan, A. Drummond, and N. L. S. Fonseca, “A multipath routing mechanism in optical networks with extremely high bandwidth requests,” in Proc. IEEE Globecom 2009.

Kobayashi, S.

S. Kobayashi, Y. Yamada, K. Hisadome, and O. Ishida, “Packet-based lane bundling for terabit-LAN,” in Proc. APCC 2008.

Koga, M.

M. Tomizawa, J. Yamawaku, Y. Takigawa, M. Koga, Y. Miyamoto, T. Morioka, and K. Hagimoto, “Terabit LAN with optical virtual concatenation for Grid applications with super-computers,” in Proc. OFC 2005, OThG6.

Korkmaz, T.

S. Ahuja, T. Korkmaz, and M. Krunz, “Minimizing the differential delay for virtually concatenated Ethernet over SONET systems,” in Proc. ICCCN 2004, pp. 205–210.

Krishnaswamy, N.

A. Gumaste and N. Krishnaswamy, “Proliferation of the optical transport network: A use case based study,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 48, no. 9, pp. 54–61, Sept.2010.
[CrossRef]

Krunz, M.

S. Ahuja, T. Korkmaz, and M. Krunz, “Minimizing the differential delay for virtually concatenated Ethernet over SONET systems,” in Proc. ICCCN 2004, pp. 205–210.

Lukasiewycz, M.

M. Lukasiewycz, M. Glass, F. Reimann, and J. Teich, “Opt4J-A modular framework for meta-heuristic optimization,” in Proc. GECCO, 2011, pp. 1723–1730.

M. Lukasiewycz, M. Glass, C. Haubelt, and J. Teich, “Sat-decoding in evolutionary algorithms for discrete constrained optimization problems,” in Proc. CEC 2007, 2007, pp. 935–942.

Martel, C. U.

C. Ou, L. H. Sahasrabuddhe, K. Zhu, C. U. Martel, and B. Mukherjee, “Survivable virtual concatenation for data over SONET/SDH in optical transport networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 218–231, Feb.2006.
[CrossRef]

Miyamoto, Y.

M. Tomizawa, J. Yamawaku, Y. Takigawa, M. Koga, Y. Miyamoto, T. Morioka, and K. Hagimoto, “Terabit LAN with optical virtual concatenation for Grid applications with super-computers,” in Proc. OFC 2005, OThG6.

Monteiro, P.

J. Santos, J. Pedro, P. Monteiro, and J. Pires, “Multilayer optimization of inverse-multiplexed 100 Gb/s Ethernet services over optical transport networks,” in Proc. of the 5th Euro-NGI Conf. on Next Generation Internet Networks (NGI’09), pp. 167–174.

Morioka, T.

M. Tomizawa, J. Yamawaku, Y. Takigawa, M. Koga, Y. Miyamoto, T. Morioka, and K. Hagimoto, “Terabit LAN with optical virtual concatenation for Grid applications with super-computers,” in Proc. OFC 2005, OThG6.

Mukherjee, B.

S. Rai, L. Song, C. Cavdar, D. Andrei, and B. Mukherjee, “A novel approach to provision differentiated services in survivable IP-over-WDM networks,” Opt. Switching Networking, vol. 5, no. 2–3, pp. 170–176, 2008.
[CrossRef]

C. Ou, L. H. Sahasrabuddhe, K. Zhu, C. U. Martel, and B. Mukherjee, “Survivable virtual concatenation for data over SONET/SDH in optical transport networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 218–231, Feb.2006.
[CrossRef]

Ou, C.

C. Ou, L. H. Sahasrabuddhe, K. Zhu, C. U. Martel, and B. Mukherjee, “Survivable virtual concatenation for data over SONET/SDH in optical transport networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 218–231, Feb.2006.
[CrossRef]

Pedro, J.

J. Santos, J. Pedro, P. Monteiro, and J. Pires, “Multilayer optimization of inverse-multiplexed 100 Gb/s Ethernet services over optical transport networks,” in Proc. of the 5th Euro-NGI Conf. on Next Generation Internet Networks (NGI’09), pp. 167–174.

Pires, J.

J. Santos, J. Pedro, P. Monteiro, and J. Pires, “Multilayer optimization of inverse-multiplexed 100 Gb/s Ethernet services over optical transport networks,” in Proc. of the 5th Euro-NGI Conf. on Next Generation Internet Networks (NGI’09), pp. 167–174.

Rai, S.

S. Rai, L. Song, C. Cavdar, D. Andrei, and B. Mukherjee, “A novel approach to provision differentiated services in survivable IP-over-WDM networks,” Opt. Switching Networking, vol. 5, no. 2–3, pp. 170–176, 2008.
[CrossRef]

Reimann, F.

M. Lukasiewycz, M. Glass, F. Reimann, and J. Teich, “Opt4J-A modular framework for meta-heuristic optimization,” in Proc. GECCO, 2011, pp. 1723–1730.

Risbood, P.

A. Srivastava, S. Acharya, M. Alicherry, B. Gupta, and P. Risbood, “Differential delay aware routing for Ethernet over SONET/SDH,” in Proc. IEEE INFOCOM 2005, pp. 1117–1127.

Sahasrabuddhe, L. H.

C. Ou, L. H. Sahasrabuddhe, K. Zhu, C. U. Martel, and B. Mukherjee, “Survivable virtual concatenation for data over SONET/SDH in optical transport networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 218–231, Feb.2006.
[CrossRef]

Santos, J.

J. Santos, J. Pedro, P. Monteiro, and J. Pires, “Multilayer optimization of inverse-multiplexed 100 Gb/s Ethernet services over optical transport networks,” in Proc. of the 5th Euro-NGI Conf. on Next Generation Internet Networks (NGI’09), pp. 167–174.

Song, L.

S. Rai, L. Song, C. Cavdar, D. Andrei, and B. Mukherjee, “A novel approach to provision differentiated services in survivable IP-over-WDM networks,” Opt. Switching Networking, vol. 5, no. 2–3, pp. 170–176, 2008.
[CrossRef]

Srivastava, A.

A. Srivastava, S. Acharya, M. Alicherry, B. Gupta, and P. Risbood, “Differential delay aware routing for Ethernet over SONET/SDH,” in Proc. IEEE INFOCOM 2005, pp. 1117–1127.

A. Srivastava and A. Srivastava, “Flow aware differential delay routing for next-generation Ethernet over SONET/SDH,” in Proc. IEEE ICC 2006, pp. 140–145.

A. Srivastava and A. Srivastava, “Flow aware differential delay routing for next-generation Ethernet over SONET/SDH,” in Proc. IEEE ICC 2006, pp. 140–145.

Takigawa, Y.

M. Tomizawa, J. Yamawaku, Y. Takigawa, M. Koga, Y. Miyamoto, T. Morioka, and K. Hagimoto, “Terabit LAN with optical virtual concatenation for Grid applications with super-computers,” in Proc. OFC 2005, OThG6.

Teich, J.

M. Lukasiewycz, M. Glass, C. Haubelt, and J. Teich, “Sat-decoding in evolutionary algorithms for discrete constrained optimization problems,” in Proc. CEC 2007, 2007, pp. 935–942.

M. Lukasiewycz, M. Glass, F. Reimann, and J. Teich, “Opt4J-A modular framework for meta-heuristic optimization,” in Proc. GECCO, 2011, pp. 1723–1730.

Thiele, L.

E. Zitzler, D. Brockhoff, and L. Thiele, “The hypervolume indicator revisited: On the design of Pareto-compliant indicators via weighted integration,” in Evolutionary Multi-Criterion Optimization, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 4403, 2007, pp. 862–876.

Tomizawa, M.

M. Tomizawa, J. Yamawaku, Y. Takigawa, M. Koga, Y. Miyamoto, T. Morioka, and K. Hagimoto, “Terabit LAN with optical virtual concatenation for Grid applications with super-computers,” in Proc. OFC 2005, OThG6.

Yamada, Y.

S. Kobayashi, Y. Yamada, K. Hisadome, and O. Ishida, “Packet-based lane bundling for terabit-LAN,” in Proc. APCC 2008.

Yamawaku, J.

M. Tomizawa, J. Yamawaku, Y. Takigawa, M. Koga, Y. Miyamoto, T. Morioka, and K. Hagimoto, “Terabit LAN with optical virtual concatenation for Grid applications with super-computers,” in Proc. OFC 2005, OThG6.

Zhu, K.

C. Ou, L. H. Sahasrabuddhe, K. Zhu, C. U. Martel, and B. Mukherjee, “Survivable virtual concatenation for data over SONET/SDH in optical transport networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 218–231, Feb.2006.
[CrossRef]

Zitzler, E.

E. Zitzler, D. Brockhoff, and L. Thiele, “The hypervolume indicator revisited: On the design of Pareto-compliant indicators via weighted integration,” in Evolutionary Multi-Criterion Optimization, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 4403, 2007, pp. 862–876.

Complex Syst.

K. Deb and R. B. Agrawal, “Simulated binary crossover for continuous search space,” Complex Syst., vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 115–148, 1995.

IEEE Commun. Mag.

A. Gumaste and N. Krishnaswamy, “Proliferation of the optical transport network: A use case based study,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 48, no. 9, pp. 54–61, Sept.2010.
[CrossRef]

IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw.

C. Ou, L. H. Sahasrabuddhe, K. Zhu, C. U. Martel, and B. Mukherjee, “Survivable virtual concatenation for data over SONET/SDH in optical transport networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 218–231, Feb.2006.
[CrossRef]

Opt. Switching Networking

S. Rai, L. Song, C. Cavdar, D. Andrei, and B. Mukherjee, “A novel approach to provision differentiated services in survivable IP-over-WDM networks,” Opt. Switching Networking, vol. 5, no. 2–3, pp. 170–176, 2008.
[CrossRef]

Other

J. Santos, J. Pedro, P. Monteiro, and J. Pires, “Multilayer optimization of inverse-multiplexed 100 Gb/s Ethernet services over optical transport networks,” in Proc. of the 5th Euro-NGI Conf. on Next Generation Internet Networks (NGI’09), pp. 167–174.

“Carrier sense multiple access with collision detection (CSMA/CD) access method and physical layer specifications,” IEEE Standard 802.3ba, 2010.

S. Ahuja, T. Korkmaz, and M. Krunz, “Minimizing the differential delay for virtually concatenated Ethernet over SONET systems,” in Proc. ICCCN 2004, pp. 205–210.

A. Srivastava, S. Acharya, M. Alicherry, B. Gupta, and P. Risbood, “Differential delay aware routing for Ethernet over SONET/SDH,” in Proc. IEEE INFOCOM 2005, pp. 1117–1127.

A. Srivastava and A. Srivastava, “Flow aware differential delay routing for next-generation Ethernet over SONET/SDH,” in Proc. IEEE ICC 2006, pp. 140–145.

S. Kobayashi, Y. Yamada, K. Hisadome, and O. Ishida, “Packet-based lane bundling for terabit-LAN,” in Proc. APCC 2008.

M. Tomizawa, J. Yamawaku, Y. Takigawa, M. Koga, Y. Miyamoto, T. Morioka, and K. Hagimoto, “Terabit LAN with optical virtual concatenation for Grid applications with super-computers,” in Proc. OFC 2005, OThG6.

X. Chen, M. Chamania, A. Jukan, A. C. Drummond, and N. L. S. da Fonseca, “QoS-constrained multi-path routing for high-end network applications,” in Proc. IEEE High-Speed Networks Workshop, Apr. 2009.

X. Chen, A. Jukan, A. Drummond, and N. L. S. Fonseca, “A multipath routing mechanism in optical networks with extremely high bandwidth requests,” in Proc. IEEE Globecom 2009.

M. Lukasiewycz, M. Glass, C. Haubelt, and J. Teich, “Sat-decoding in evolutionary algorithms for discrete constrained optimization problems,” in Proc. CEC 2007, 2007, pp. 935–942.

Opt4J: Meta-heuristic optimization framework for Java [Online]. Available: http://www.opt4j.org.

M. Lukasiewycz, M. Glass, F. Reimann, and J. Teich, “Opt4J-A modular framework for meta-heuristic optimization,” in Proc. GECCO, 2011, pp. 1723–1730.

E. Zitzler, D. Brockhoff, and L. Thiele, “The hypervolume indicator revisited: On the design of Pareto-compliant indicators via weighted integration,” in Evolutionary Multi-Criterion Optimization, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 4403, 2007, pp. 862–876.

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(Color online) Architecture and issues of parallel transmission in OTN/WDM networks to support high-speed Ethernet.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(Color online) Illustration of bufferless parallel transmission with round robin frame distribution.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The scalability comparison.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The quality of solutions comparison.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The USA national network topology.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

The impact of | P | on the performance of the bandwidth blocking ratio versus network load.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Bandwidth blocking ratio versus requested bandwidth versus | P | : A = 100 Erl.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Frame size versus bandwidth blocking ratio versus network load: | P | = 2 .

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Average differential delay of bufferless parallel transmission versus network load.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

(Color online) Illustration of backtracking for a feasible solution for chromosome individual 1.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table I An Example of Two Chromosome Individuals