Abstract

Long-reach passive optical networks (LR-PONs) suffer from extremely long propagation delays that degrade the performance of centralized algorithms proposed for upstream bandwidth allocation in traditional PONs. This is because these algorithms are based on bandwidth negotiation messages frequently exchanged between the optical line terminal in the central office and optical network units near the users, which become seriously delayed when the network is extended causing the performance to degrade. In this paper, we review and analyze two centralized dynamic bandwidth allocation algorithms, online interleaved polling and offline multi-thread polling that was recently proposed in the literature for LR-PONs. We investigate and compare their performances together in detail, by studying and observing their elemental delays. Unexpectedly, simulation results show that, although multi-thread polling succeeds in decreasing reporting and queueing delays, interleaved polling keeps a lower grant delay and therefore has better overall delay performance. The latter also achieves better throughput compared to multi-thread polling.

© 2012 OSA

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References

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  1. G. Kramer, Ethernet Passive Optical Networks. McGraw Hill, New York, 2005.
  2. F. Effenberger, J. Kani, and Y. Maeda, “Standardization trends and prospective views on the next generation of broadband optical access systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 28, no. 6, pp. 773–780, Aug.2010.
    [CrossRef]
  3. L. Shi, S. Lee, H. Song, and B. Mukherjee, “Energy-efficient long reach passive optical network,” IEEE Syst. J., vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 449–457, Dec.2010Please provide page number in Ref. [3]..
    [CrossRef]
  4. D. Payne and R. Davey, “Long reach access networks—Avoiding the bandwidth-price dilemma,” in Proc. Broadband Europe, Dec. 2004.
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    [CrossRef]
  6. D. Shea and J. Mitchell, “Architecture to integrate multiple PONs with long reach DWDM backhaul,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 126–133, Feb.2009.
    [CrossRef]
  7. H. Song, B. Kim, and B. Mukherjee, “Long-reach optical access networks: A survey,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 112–123, Feb.2010.
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. Zhenga and H. Mouftah, “A survey of DBA algorithms for Ethernet passive optical networks,” Opt. Switching Networking, vol. 6, pp. 151–162, Mar.2009.
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. McGarry, M. Reisslein, and M. Maier, “Ethernet passive optical network archetectures and dynamic bandwidth allocation algorithms,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 151–162, Sept.2008.
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  11. G. Kramer, B. Mukherjee, and G. Pesavento, “IPACT: A dynamic protocol for EPON,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 74–80, Feb.2002.
    [CrossRef]
  12. H. Song, B. Kim, and B. Mukherjee, “Multi-thread polling: A dynamic bandwidth distribution scheme in long-reach PON,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 134–142, Feb.2009.
    [CrossRef]
  13. G. Kramer, “Synthetic traffic generation,” 2007 [Online]. Availble: http://glenkramer.com/ucdavis/research.html.

2010 (3)

H. Song, B. Kim, and B. Mukherjee, “Long-reach optical access networks: A survey,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 112–123, Feb.2010.
[CrossRef]

F. Effenberger, J. Kani, and Y. Maeda, “Standardization trends and prospective views on the next generation of broadband optical access systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 28, no. 6, pp. 773–780, Aug.2010.
[CrossRef]

L. Shi, S. Lee, H. Song, and B. Mukherjee, “Energy-efficient long reach passive optical network,” IEEE Syst. J., vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 449–457, Dec.2010Please provide page number in Ref. [3]..
[CrossRef]

2009 (4)

J. Zhenga and H. Mouftah, “A survey of DBA algorithms for Ethernet passive optical networks,” Opt. Switching Networking, vol. 6, pp. 151–162, Mar.2009.
[CrossRef]

H. Song, B. Kim, and B. Mukherjee, “Multi-thread polling: A dynamic bandwidth distribution scheme in long-reach PON,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 134–142, Feb.2009.
[CrossRef]

D. Shea and J. Mitchell, “Architecture to integrate multiple PONs with long reach DWDM backhaul,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 126–133, Feb.2009.
[CrossRef]

R. Davey, D. Grossman, M. Rasztovits-Wiech, D. Payne, D. Nesset, A. Kelly, A. Rafel, S. Appathurai, and S. Yang, “Long-Reach passive optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 273–291, Feb.2009.
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

M. McGarry, M. Reisslein, and M. Maier, “Ethernet passive optical network archetectures and dynamic bandwidth allocation algorithms,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 151–162, Sept.2008.
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

2002 (1)

G. Kramer, B. Mukherjee, and G. Pesavento, “IPACT: A dynamic protocol for EPON,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 74–80, Feb.2002.
[CrossRef]

Ali, M.

Appathurai, S.

Assi, C.

Davey, R.

Effenberger, F.

F. Effenberger, J. Kani, and Y. Maeda, “Standardization trends and prospective views on the next generation of broadband optical access systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 28, no. 6, pp. 773–780, Aug.2010.
[CrossRef]

Ellinas, G.

Grossman, D.

Hadjiantonis, A.

Kani, J.

F. Effenberger, J. Kani, and Y. Maeda, “Standardization trends and prospective views on the next generation of broadband optical access systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 28, no. 6, pp. 773–780, Aug.2010.
[CrossRef]

Kelly, A.

Kim, B.

H. Song, B. Kim, and B. Mukherjee, “Long-reach optical access networks: A survey,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 112–123, Feb.2010.
[CrossRef]

H. Song, B. Kim, and B. Mukherjee, “Multi-thread polling: A dynamic bandwidth distribution scheme in long-reach PON,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 134–142, Feb.2009.
[CrossRef]

Kramer, G.

G. Kramer, B. Mukherjee, and G. Pesavento, “IPACT: A dynamic protocol for EPON,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 74–80, Feb.2002.
[CrossRef]

G. Kramer, “Synthetic traffic generation,” 2007 [Online]. Availble: http://glenkramer.com/ucdavis/research.html.

G. Kramer, Ethernet Passive Optical Networks. McGraw Hill, New York, 2005.

Lee, S.

L. Shi, S. Lee, H. Song, and B. Mukherjee, “Energy-efficient long reach passive optical network,” IEEE Syst. J., vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 449–457, Dec.2010Please provide page number in Ref. [3]..
[CrossRef]

Maeda, Y.

F. Effenberger, J. Kani, and Y. Maeda, “Standardization trends and prospective views on the next generation of broadband optical access systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 28, no. 6, pp. 773–780, Aug.2010.
[CrossRef]

Maier, M.

M. McGarry, M. Reisslein, and M. Maier, “Ethernet passive optical network archetectures and dynamic bandwidth allocation algorithms,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 151–162, Sept.2008.
[CrossRef]

McGarry, M.

M. McGarry, M. Reisslein, and M. Maier, “Ethernet passive optical network archetectures and dynamic bandwidth allocation algorithms,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 151–162, Sept.2008.
[CrossRef]

Mitchell, J.

D. Shea and J. Mitchell, “Architecture to integrate multiple PONs with long reach DWDM backhaul,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 126–133, Feb.2009.
[CrossRef]

Mouftah, H.

J. Zhenga and H. Mouftah, “A survey of DBA algorithms for Ethernet passive optical networks,” Opt. Switching Networking, vol. 6, pp. 151–162, Mar.2009.
[CrossRef]

Mukherjee, B.

L. Shi, S. Lee, H. Song, and B. Mukherjee, “Energy-efficient long reach passive optical network,” IEEE Syst. J., vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 449–457, Dec.2010Please provide page number in Ref. [3]..
[CrossRef]

H. Song, B. Kim, and B. Mukherjee, “Long-reach optical access networks: A survey,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 112–123, Feb.2010.
[CrossRef]

H. Song, B. Kim, and B. Mukherjee, “Multi-thread polling: A dynamic bandwidth distribution scheme in long-reach PON,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 134–142, Feb.2009.
[CrossRef]

G. Kramer, B. Mukherjee, and G. Pesavento, “IPACT: A dynamic protocol for EPON,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 74–80, Feb.2002.
[CrossRef]

Nesset, D.

Payne, D.

Pesavento, G.

G. Kramer, B. Mukherjee, and G. Pesavento, “IPACT: A dynamic protocol for EPON,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 74–80, Feb.2002.
[CrossRef]

Rafel, A.

Rasztovits-Wiech, M.

Reisslein, M.

M. McGarry, M. Reisslein, and M. Maier, “Ethernet passive optical network archetectures and dynamic bandwidth allocation algorithms,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 151–162, Sept.2008.
[CrossRef]

Shea, D.

D. Shea and J. Mitchell, “Architecture to integrate multiple PONs with long reach DWDM backhaul,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 126–133, Feb.2009.
[CrossRef]

Sherif, S.

Shi, L.

L. Shi, S. Lee, H. Song, and B. Mukherjee, “Energy-efficient long reach passive optical network,” IEEE Syst. J., vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 449–457, Dec.2010Please provide page number in Ref. [3]..
[CrossRef]

Song, H.

H. Song, B. Kim, and B. Mukherjee, “Long-reach optical access networks: A survey,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 112–123, Feb.2010.
[CrossRef]

L. Shi, S. Lee, H. Song, and B. Mukherjee, “Energy-efficient long reach passive optical network,” IEEE Syst. J., vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 449–457, Dec.2010Please provide page number in Ref. [3]..
[CrossRef]

H. Song, B. Kim, and B. Mukherjee, “Multi-thread polling: A dynamic bandwidth distribution scheme in long-reach PON,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 134–142, Feb.2009.
[CrossRef]

Yang, S.

Zhenga, J.

J. Zhenga and H. Mouftah, “A survey of DBA algorithms for Ethernet passive optical networks,” Opt. Switching Networking, vol. 6, pp. 151–162, Mar.2009.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Commun. Mag. (1)

G. Kramer, B. Mukherjee, and G. Pesavento, “IPACT: A dynamic protocol for EPON,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 74–80, Feb.2002.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials (2)

H. Song, B. Kim, and B. Mukherjee, “Long-reach optical access networks: A survey,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 112–123, Feb.2010.
[CrossRef]

M. McGarry, M. Reisslein, and M. Maier, “Ethernet passive optical network archetectures and dynamic bandwidth allocation algorithms,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 151–162, Sept.2008.
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. (3)

H. Song, B. Kim, and B. Mukherjee, “Multi-thread polling: A dynamic bandwidth distribution scheme in long-reach PON,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 134–142, Feb.2009.
[CrossRef]

F. Effenberger, J. Kani, and Y. Maeda, “Standardization trends and prospective views on the next generation of broadband optical access systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 28, no. 6, pp. 773–780, Aug.2010.
[CrossRef]

D. Shea and J. Mitchell, “Architecture to integrate multiple PONs with long reach DWDM backhaul,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 126–133, Feb.2009.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Syst. J. (1)

L. Shi, S. Lee, H. Song, and B. Mukherjee, “Energy-efficient long reach passive optical network,” IEEE Syst. J., vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 449–457, Dec.2010Please provide page number in Ref. [3]..
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

Opt. Switching Networking (1)

J. Zhenga and H. Mouftah, “A survey of DBA algorithms for Ethernet passive optical networks,” Opt. Switching Networking, vol. 6, pp. 151–162, Mar.2009.
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

G. Kramer, “Synthetic traffic generation,” 2007 [Online]. Availble: http://glenkramer.com/ucdavis/research.html.

D. Payne and R. Davey, “Long reach access networks—Avoiding the bandwidth-price dilemma,” in Proc. Broadband Europe, Dec. 2004.

G. Kramer, Ethernet Passive Optical Networks. McGraw Hill, New York, 2005.

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Figures (15)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(Color online) Basic LR-PON architectures: ring-and-spur (left) and tree-and-branch (right).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(Color online) Logical connection between the OLT and the ONUs in an LR-PON.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(Color online) Idle time (walk time) in offline scheduling.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(Color online) Delays of online interleaved polling.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(Color online) Degradation of IPACT due to network extension.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(Color online) Multi-thread polling.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(Color online) Inter-thread scheduling; the reports of the second thread are considered in the bandwidth allocation of the first thread.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Pseudo-code for updating requests in inter-thread scheduling.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(Color online) Average reporting delays.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

(Color online) Average grant delays.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

(Color online) Average queueing delays.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

(Color online) Average pre-transmission delays.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

(Color online) Throughput comparison.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

(Color online) Feeder extension effect on pre-transmission delays.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

(Color online) Feeder extension effect on total packet delays.

Equations (11)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Wi=min(Ri,Wi,max),
Cmax=i=1NWi,max+NTg,
Ceff=i=1NWi+NTgCmax,
Ceff=i=1MTeff,i+MTMCmax,
Teff,n1/Teff,n>Ttune,
Teff,n1ΔTeff,n+Δ<Ttune,
Wi,n=Ri,nifi=1NRi,nTmax,n,
Wexcess=iJ(Wi,n,maxRi,n).
Wi,n=Ri,n,ifRi,nWi,n,max,Wi,n,max+Ri,n×WexcessiJRi,n,ifRi,n>Wi,n,max.
Wi,n=Ri,n,ifRi,nWi,n,max,Wi,n,max+(Ri,nWi,n,max)WexcessiJ(Ri,nWi,n,max),ifRi,n>Wi,n,max,
Rexcess=Tmax,nΔi=1NRi,n,