Abstract

We propose a band-separated, bidirectional amplifier based on a bismuth-based erbium-doped fiber for use in long-reach hybrid dense wavelength division multiplexing– time division multiplexing passive optical networks (DWDM– TDM-PONs). We also propose a long-reach hybrid DWDM–TDM-PON architecture in which the proposed amplifier can be effectively used. The feasibility of using the proposed amplifier for long-reach hybrid DWDM–TDM-PONs is experimentally investigated by performing a series of signal transmission experiments with an exemplary PON configuration having a total reach of 75 km and 8 split users. Error-free bidirectional signal transmission at a line rate of 10 Gbit/s is successfully demonstrated. A theoretical investigation also shows that the reach/split limitation issue associated with an insufficient WDM signal gain in the experimental demonstration can be easily solved by optimizing the amplifier.

© 2012 OSA

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  1. M. Zirngibl, C. H. Joyner, L. W. Stulz, C. Dragone, H. M. Presby, and I. P. Kaminov, “Larnet, a local access router network,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 215–217, Feb.1995.
    [CrossRef]
  2. C.-J. Chae, H. Park, and J.-H. Eom, “An ATM PON system overlaid with a 155-Mb/s optical star network for customer networking and fiber to the premises,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 13, pp. 1133–1135, Oct.2001.
    [CrossRef]
  3. H. Ueda, K. Okada, B. Ford, G. Mahony, S. Hornung, D. Faulkner, J. Abiven, S. Durel, R. Ballart, and J. Erickson, “Deployment status and common technical pecifications for a B-PON system,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 39, no. 12, pp. 134–141, Dec.2001.
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. P. McGarry, M. Maier, and M. Reisslein, “Ethernet PONs: A survey of dynamic bandwidth allocation (DBA) algorithms,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 42, no. 8, pp. S8–S15, Aug.2004.
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. Cauvin, J. Brannan, and K. Saito, “Common technical specification of the G-PON system among major worldwide access carriers,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 44, no. 10, pp. 34–40, Oct.2006.
    [CrossRef]
  6. R. P. Davey, D. B. Grossman, M. Rasztovits-Wiech, D. B. Payne, D. Nesset, A. E. Kelly, A. Rafel, S. Appathurai, and S.-H. Yang, “Long-reach passive optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 273–291, Feb.2009Please check the third and fourth author names in Ref. [6]..
    [CrossRef]
  7. I. Van de Voorde, C. M. Martin, J. Vandewege, and X. Z. Qiu, “The superPON demonstrator: An exploration of possible evolution paths for optical access networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 38, no. 2, pp. 74–82, Feb.2000.
    [CrossRef]
  8. D. Nesset, M. Scope, R. Davey, D. Shea, P. Healey, A. Borghesani, D. Moodie, A. Poustie, and R. Wyatt, “Demonstration of 100 km reach amplified PONs with upstream bit-rates of 2.5 Gb/s and 10 Gb/s,” in Proc. 30th European Conf. Optical Communication (ECOC2004), 2004, We2.6.3.
  9. G. Talli and P. D. Townsend, “Hybrid DWDM–TDM long-reach PON for next-generation optical access,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 24, no. 7, pp. 2827–2834, July2006.
    [CrossRef]
  10. C. W. Chow and C. H. Yeh, “Long-Reach WDM-PON,” in Proc. 23rd Annu. Meeting of the IEEE Photonics Society, 2010, pp. 343–344.
  11. P. P. Iannone, H. H. Lee, K. C. Reichmann, X. Zhou, M. Du, B. Pálsdóttir, K. Feder, P. Westbrook, K. Brar, J. Mann, and L. Spiekman, “Four extended-reach TDM PONs sharing a bidirectional hybrid CWDM amplifier,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 138–143, Jan.2008.
    [CrossRef]
  12. I. T. Monroy, F. Öhman, K. Yvind, R. Kjær, C. Peucheret, A. M. J. Koonen, and P. Jeppesen, “85 km long reach PON system using a reflective SOA-EA modulator and distributed Raman fiber amplification,” in Proc. 19th Annu. Meeting of the IEEE Lasers and Electro-optics Society (LEOS), 2006, pp. 705–706.
  13. J. M. Oh, S. G. Koo, D. Lee, and S.-J. Park, “Enhancement of the performance of a reflective SOA-based hybrid WDM/TDM PON system with a remotely pumped erbium-doped fiber amplifier,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 144–149, Jan.2008.
    [CrossRef]
  14. M. Jung, Y. M. Chang, and J. H. Lee, “Combined effect of pump excited absorption and pair-induced quenching on gain and noise figure in bismuth oxide-based Er3+-doped fiber amplifiers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B., vol. 28, no. 11, pp. 2667–2673, Nov.2011.
    [CrossRef]
  15. C.-H. Yeh, M.-C. Lin, and S. Chi, “Gain flattened erbium-doped amplifier with 34 nm flat bandwidth,” Electron. Lett., vol. 42, no. 19, pp. 1086–1087, Sept.2006.
    [CrossRef]
  16. J. H. Lee, K. Lee, S. B. Lee, and C. H. Kim, “Extended-reach WDM-PON based on CW supercontinuum light source for colorless FP-LD based OLT and RSOA-based ONUs,” Opt. Fiber Technol., vol. 15, pp. 310–319, June2009.
    [CrossRef]
  17. H. Hayashi, S. Tanabe, and N. Sugimoto, “Quantitative analysis of optical power budget of bismuth oxide-based erbium-doped fiber,” J. Lumin., vol. 128, no. 3, pp. 333–340, Aug.2008.
    [CrossRef]
  18. M. Jung, J. H. Shin, Y. M. Jhon, and J. H. Lee, “A theoretical and experimental investigation into pair-induced quenching in bismuth oxide-based erbium-doped fiber amplifiers,” J. Opt. Soc. Korea, vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 298–304, Dec.2010.
    [CrossRef]
  19. M. Zirngibl, “Gain control in erbium-doped fiber amplifiers by an all-optical feedback loop,” Electron. Lett., vol. 27, pp. 560–561, Mar.1991.
    [CrossRef]
  20. N. Sato, K. Ota, N. Mishima, Y. Oikawa, and N. Shiga, “Less than 0.19-dB transient gain excursion AGC-EDFA with digital control for 20-channel add/drop equivalent operation,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2011, OMH3.

2011 (1)

M. Jung, Y. M. Chang, and J. H. Lee, “Combined effect of pump excited absorption and pair-induced quenching on gain and noise figure in bismuth oxide-based Er3+-doped fiber amplifiers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B., vol. 28, no. 11, pp. 2667–2673, Nov.2011.
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

2009 (2)

R. P. Davey, D. B. Grossman, M. Rasztovits-Wiech, D. B. Payne, D. Nesset, A. E. Kelly, A. Rafel, S. Appathurai, and S.-H. Yang, “Long-reach passive optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 273–291, Feb.2009Please check the third and fourth author names in Ref. [6]..
[CrossRef]

J. H. Lee, K. Lee, S. B. Lee, and C. H. Kim, “Extended-reach WDM-PON based on CW supercontinuum light source for colorless FP-LD based OLT and RSOA-based ONUs,” Opt. Fiber Technol., vol. 15, pp. 310–319, June2009.
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

2006 (3)

G. Talli and P. D. Townsend, “Hybrid DWDM–TDM long-reach PON for next-generation optical access,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 24, no. 7, pp. 2827–2834, July2006.
[CrossRef]

C.-H. Yeh, M.-C. Lin, and S. Chi, “Gain flattened erbium-doped amplifier with 34 nm flat bandwidth,” Electron. Lett., vol. 42, no. 19, pp. 1086–1087, Sept.2006.
[CrossRef]

A. Cauvin, J. Brannan, and K. Saito, “Common technical specification of the G-PON system among major worldwide access carriers,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 44, no. 10, pp. 34–40, Oct.2006.
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

M. P. McGarry, M. Maier, and M. Reisslein, “Ethernet PONs: A survey of dynamic bandwidth allocation (DBA) algorithms,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 42, no. 8, pp. S8–S15, Aug.2004.
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

C.-J. Chae, H. Park, and J.-H. Eom, “An ATM PON system overlaid with a 155-Mb/s optical star network for customer networking and fiber to the premises,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 13, pp. 1133–1135, Oct.2001.
[CrossRef]

H. Ueda, K. Okada, B. Ford, G. Mahony, S. Hornung, D. Faulkner, J. Abiven, S. Durel, R. Ballart, and J. Erickson, “Deployment status and common technical pecifications for a B-PON system,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 39, no. 12, pp. 134–141, Dec.2001.
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

I. Van de Voorde, C. M. Martin, J. Vandewege, and X. Z. Qiu, “The superPON demonstrator: An exploration of possible evolution paths for optical access networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 38, no. 2, pp. 74–82, Feb.2000.
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

M. Zirngibl, C. H. Joyner, L. W. Stulz, C. Dragone, H. M. Presby, and I. P. Kaminov, “Larnet, a local access router network,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 215–217, Feb.1995.
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

M. Zirngibl, “Gain control in erbium-doped fiber amplifiers by an all-optical feedback loop,” Electron. Lett., vol. 27, pp. 560–561, Mar.1991.
[CrossRef]

Abiven, J.

H. Ueda, K. Okada, B. Ford, G. Mahony, S. Hornung, D. Faulkner, J. Abiven, S. Durel, R. Ballart, and J. Erickson, “Deployment status and common technical pecifications for a B-PON system,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 39, no. 12, pp. 134–141, Dec.2001.
[CrossRef]

Appathurai, S.

Ballart, R.

H. Ueda, K. Okada, B. Ford, G. Mahony, S. Hornung, D. Faulkner, J. Abiven, S. Durel, R. Ballart, and J. Erickson, “Deployment status and common technical pecifications for a B-PON system,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 39, no. 12, pp. 134–141, Dec.2001.
[CrossRef]

Borghesani, A.

D. Nesset, M. Scope, R. Davey, D. Shea, P. Healey, A. Borghesani, D. Moodie, A. Poustie, and R. Wyatt, “Demonstration of 100 km reach amplified PONs with upstream bit-rates of 2.5 Gb/s and 10 Gb/s,” in Proc. 30th European Conf. Optical Communication (ECOC2004), 2004, We2.6.3.

Brannan, J.

A. Cauvin, J. Brannan, and K. Saito, “Common technical specification of the G-PON system among major worldwide access carriers,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 44, no. 10, pp. 34–40, Oct.2006.
[CrossRef]

Brar, K.

Cauvin, A.

A. Cauvin, J. Brannan, and K. Saito, “Common technical specification of the G-PON system among major worldwide access carriers,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 44, no. 10, pp. 34–40, Oct.2006.
[CrossRef]

Chae, C.-J.

C.-J. Chae, H. Park, and J.-H. Eom, “An ATM PON system overlaid with a 155-Mb/s optical star network for customer networking and fiber to the premises,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 13, pp. 1133–1135, Oct.2001.
[CrossRef]

Chang, Y. M.

M. Jung, Y. M. Chang, and J. H. Lee, “Combined effect of pump excited absorption and pair-induced quenching on gain and noise figure in bismuth oxide-based Er3+-doped fiber amplifiers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B., vol. 28, no. 11, pp. 2667–2673, Nov.2011.
[CrossRef]

Chi, S.

C.-H. Yeh, M.-C. Lin, and S. Chi, “Gain flattened erbium-doped amplifier with 34 nm flat bandwidth,” Electron. Lett., vol. 42, no. 19, pp. 1086–1087, Sept.2006.
[CrossRef]

Chow, C. W.

C. W. Chow and C. H. Yeh, “Long-Reach WDM-PON,” in Proc. 23rd Annu. Meeting of the IEEE Photonics Society, 2010, pp. 343–344.

Davey, R.

D. Nesset, M. Scope, R. Davey, D. Shea, P. Healey, A. Borghesani, D. Moodie, A. Poustie, and R. Wyatt, “Demonstration of 100 km reach amplified PONs with upstream bit-rates of 2.5 Gb/s and 10 Gb/s,” in Proc. 30th European Conf. Optical Communication (ECOC2004), 2004, We2.6.3.

Davey, R. P.

Dragone, C.

M. Zirngibl, C. H. Joyner, L. W. Stulz, C. Dragone, H. M. Presby, and I. P. Kaminov, “Larnet, a local access router network,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 215–217, Feb.1995.
[CrossRef]

Du, M.

Durel, S.

H. Ueda, K. Okada, B. Ford, G. Mahony, S. Hornung, D. Faulkner, J. Abiven, S. Durel, R. Ballart, and J. Erickson, “Deployment status and common technical pecifications for a B-PON system,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 39, no. 12, pp. 134–141, Dec.2001.
[CrossRef]

Eom, J.-H.

C.-J. Chae, H. Park, and J.-H. Eom, “An ATM PON system overlaid with a 155-Mb/s optical star network for customer networking and fiber to the premises,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 13, pp. 1133–1135, Oct.2001.
[CrossRef]

Erickson, J.

H. Ueda, K. Okada, B. Ford, G. Mahony, S. Hornung, D. Faulkner, J. Abiven, S. Durel, R. Ballart, and J. Erickson, “Deployment status and common technical pecifications for a B-PON system,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 39, no. 12, pp. 134–141, Dec.2001.
[CrossRef]

Faulkner, D.

H. Ueda, K. Okada, B. Ford, G. Mahony, S. Hornung, D. Faulkner, J. Abiven, S. Durel, R. Ballart, and J. Erickson, “Deployment status and common technical pecifications for a B-PON system,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 39, no. 12, pp. 134–141, Dec.2001.
[CrossRef]

Feder, K.

Ford, B.

H. Ueda, K. Okada, B. Ford, G. Mahony, S. Hornung, D. Faulkner, J. Abiven, S. Durel, R. Ballart, and J. Erickson, “Deployment status and common technical pecifications for a B-PON system,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 39, no. 12, pp. 134–141, Dec.2001.
[CrossRef]

Grossman, D. B.

Hayashi, H.

H. Hayashi, S. Tanabe, and N. Sugimoto, “Quantitative analysis of optical power budget of bismuth oxide-based erbium-doped fiber,” J. Lumin., vol. 128, no. 3, pp. 333–340, Aug.2008.
[CrossRef]

Healey, P.

D. Nesset, M. Scope, R. Davey, D. Shea, P. Healey, A. Borghesani, D. Moodie, A. Poustie, and R. Wyatt, “Demonstration of 100 km reach amplified PONs with upstream bit-rates of 2.5 Gb/s and 10 Gb/s,” in Proc. 30th European Conf. Optical Communication (ECOC2004), 2004, We2.6.3.

Hornung, S.

H. Ueda, K. Okada, B. Ford, G. Mahony, S. Hornung, D. Faulkner, J. Abiven, S. Durel, R. Ballart, and J. Erickson, “Deployment status and common technical pecifications for a B-PON system,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 39, no. 12, pp. 134–141, Dec.2001.
[CrossRef]

Iannone, P. P.

Jeppesen, P.

I. T. Monroy, F. Öhman, K. Yvind, R. Kjær, C. Peucheret, A. M. J. Koonen, and P. Jeppesen, “85 km long reach PON system using a reflective SOA-EA modulator and distributed Raman fiber amplification,” in Proc. 19th Annu. Meeting of the IEEE Lasers and Electro-optics Society (LEOS), 2006, pp. 705–706.

Jhon, Y. M.

Joyner, C. H.

M. Zirngibl, C. H. Joyner, L. W. Stulz, C. Dragone, H. M. Presby, and I. P. Kaminov, “Larnet, a local access router network,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 215–217, Feb.1995.
[CrossRef]

Jung, M.

M. Jung, Y. M. Chang, and J. H. Lee, “Combined effect of pump excited absorption and pair-induced quenching on gain and noise figure in bismuth oxide-based Er3+-doped fiber amplifiers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B., vol. 28, no. 11, pp. 2667–2673, Nov.2011.
[CrossRef]

M. Jung, J. H. Shin, Y. M. Jhon, and J. H. Lee, “A theoretical and experimental investigation into pair-induced quenching in bismuth oxide-based erbium-doped fiber amplifiers,” J. Opt. Soc. Korea, vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 298–304, Dec.2010.
[CrossRef]

Kaminov, I. P.

M. Zirngibl, C. H. Joyner, L. W. Stulz, C. Dragone, H. M. Presby, and I. P. Kaminov, “Larnet, a local access router network,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 215–217, Feb.1995.
[CrossRef]

Kelly, A. E.

Kim, C. H.

J. H. Lee, K. Lee, S. B. Lee, and C. H. Kim, “Extended-reach WDM-PON based on CW supercontinuum light source for colorless FP-LD based OLT and RSOA-based ONUs,” Opt. Fiber Technol., vol. 15, pp. 310–319, June2009.
[CrossRef]

Kjær, R.

I. T. Monroy, F. Öhman, K. Yvind, R. Kjær, C. Peucheret, A. M. J. Koonen, and P. Jeppesen, “85 km long reach PON system using a reflective SOA-EA modulator and distributed Raman fiber amplification,” in Proc. 19th Annu. Meeting of the IEEE Lasers and Electro-optics Society (LEOS), 2006, pp. 705–706.

Koo, S. G.

Koonen, A. M. J.

I. T. Monroy, F. Öhman, K. Yvind, R. Kjær, C. Peucheret, A. M. J. Koonen, and P. Jeppesen, “85 km long reach PON system using a reflective SOA-EA modulator and distributed Raman fiber amplification,” in Proc. 19th Annu. Meeting of the IEEE Lasers and Electro-optics Society (LEOS), 2006, pp. 705–706.

Lee, D.

Lee, H. H.

Lee, J. H.

M. Jung, Y. M. Chang, and J. H. Lee, “Combined effect of pump excited absorption and pair-induced quenching on gain and noise figure in bismuth oxide-based Er3+-doped fiber amplifiers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B., vol. 28, no. 11, pp. 2667–2673, Nov.2011.
[CrossRef]

M. Jung, J. H. Shin, Y. M. Jhon, and J. H. Lee, “A theoretical and experimental investigation into pair-induced quenching in bismuth oxide-based erbium-doped fiber amplifiers,” J. Opt. Soc. Korea, vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 298–304, Dec.2010.
[CrossRef]

J. H. Lee, K. Lee, S. B. Lee, and C. H. Kim, “Extended-reach WDM-PON based on CW supercontinuum light source for colorless FP-LD based OLT and RSOA-based ONUs,” Opt. Fiber Technol., vol. 15, pp. 310–319, June2009.
[CrossRef]

Lee, K.

J. H. Lee, K. Lee, S. B. Lee, and C. H. Kim, “Extended-reach WDM-PON based on CW supercontinuum light source for colorless FP-LD based OLT and RSOA-based ONUs,” Opt. Fiber Technol., vol. 15, pp. 310–319, June2009.
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. B.

J. H. Lee, K. Lee, S. B. Lee, and C. H. Kim, “Extended-reach WDM-PON based on CW supercontinuum light source for colorless FP-LD based OLT and RSOA-based ONUs,” Opt. Fiber Technol., vol. 15, pp. 310–319, June2009.
[CrossRef]

Lin, M.-C.

C.-H. Yeh, M.-C. Lin, and S. Chi, “Gain flattened erbium-doped amplifier with 34 nm flat bandwidth,” Electron. Lett., vol. 42, no. 19, pp. 1086–1087, Sept.2006.
[CrossRef]

Mahony, G.

H. Ueda, K. Okada, B. Ford, G. Mahony, S. Hornung, D. Faulkner, J. Abiven, S. Durel, R. Ballart, and J. Erickson, “Deployment status and common technical pecifications for a B-PON system,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 39, no. 12, pp. 134–141, Dec.2001.
[CrossRef]

Maier, M.

M. P. McGarry, M. Maier, and M. Reisslein, “Ethernet PONs: A survey of dynamic bandwidth allocation (DBA) algorithms,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 42, no. 8, pp. S8–S15, Aug.2004.
[CrossRef]

Mann, J.

Martin, C. M.

I. Van de Voorde, C. M. Martin, J. Vandewege, and X. Z. Qiu, “The superPON demonstrator: An exploration of possible evolution paths for optical access networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 38, no. 2, pp. 74–82, Feb.2000.
[CrossRef]

McGarry, M. P.

M. P. McGarry, M. Maier, and M. Reisslein, “Ethernet PONs: A survey of dynamic bandwidth allocation (DBA) algorithms,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 42, no. 8, pp. S8–S15, Aug.2004.
[CrossRef]

Mishima, N.

N. Sato, K. Ota, N. Mishima, Y. Oikawa, and N. Shiga, “Less than 0.19-dB transient gain excursion AGC-EDFA with digital control for 20-channel add/drop equivalent operation,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2011, OMH3.

Monroy, I. T.

I. T. Monroy, F. Öhman, K. Yvind, R. Kjær, C. Peucheret, A. M. J. Koonen, and P. Jeppesen, “85 km long reach PON system using a reflective SOA-EA modulator and distributed Raman fiber amplification,” in Proc. 19th Annu. Meeting of the IEEE Lasers and Electro-optics Society (LEOS), 2006, pp. 705–706.

Moodie, D.

D. Nesset, M. Scope, R. Davey, D. Shea, P. Healey, A. Borghesani, D. Moodie, A. Poustie, and R. Wyatt, “Demonstration of 100 km reach amplified PONs with upstream bit-rates of 2.5 Gb/s and 10 Gb/s,” in Proc. 30th European Conf. Optical Communication (ECOC2004), 2004, We2.6.3.

Nesset, D.

R. P. Davey, D. B. Grossman, M. Rasztovits-Wiech, D. B. Payne, D. Nesset, A. E. Kelly, A. Rafel, S. Appathurai, and S.-H. Yang, “Long-reach passive optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 273–291, Feb.2009Please check the third and fourth author names in Ref. [6]..
[CrossRef]

D. Nesset, M. Scope, R. Davey, D. Shea, P. Healey, A. Borghesani, D. Moodie, A. Poustie, and R. Wyatt, “Demonstration of 100 km reach amplified PONs with upstream bit-rates of 2.5 Gb/s and 10 Gb/s,” in Proc. 30th European Conf. Optical Communication (ECOC2004), 2004, We2.6.3.

Oh, J. M.

Öhman, F.

I. T. Monroy, F. Öhman, K. Yvind, R. Kjær, C. Peucheret, A. M. J. Koonen, and P. Jeppesen, “85 km long reach PON system using a reflective SOA-EA modulator and distributed Raman fiber amplification,” in Proc. 19th Annu. Meeting of the IEEE Lasers and Electro-optics Society (LEOS), 2006, pp. 705–706.

Oikawa, Y.

N. Sato, K. Ota, N. Mishima, Y. Oikawa, and N. Shiga, “Less than 0.19-dB transient gain excursion AGC-EDFA with digital control for 20-channel add/drop equivalent operation,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2011, OMH3.

Okada, K.

H. Ueda, K. Okada, B. Ford, G. Mahony, S. Hornung, D. Faulkner, J. Abiven, S. Durel, R. Ballart, and J. Erickson, “Deployment status and common technical pecifications for a B-PON system,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 39, no. 12, pp. 134–141, Dec.2001.
[CrossRef]

Ota, K.

N. Sato, K. Ota, N. Mishima, Y. Oikawa, and N. Shiga, “Less than 0.19-dB transient gain excursion AGC-EDFA with digital control for 20-channel add/drop equivalent operation,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2011, OMH3.

Pálsdóttir, B.

Park, H.

C.-J. Chae, H. Park, and J.-H. Eom, “An ATM PON system overlaid with a 155-Mb/s optical star network for customer networking and fiber to the premises,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 13, pp. 1133–1135, Oct.2001.
[CrossRef]

Park, S.-J.

Payne, D. B.

Peucheret, C.

I. T. Monroy, F. Öhman, K. Yvind, R. Kjær, C. Peucheret, A. M. J. Koonen, and P. Jeppesen, “85 km long reach PON system using a reflective SOA-EA modulator and distributed Raman fiber amplification,” in Proc. 19th Annu. Meeting of the IEEE Lasers and Electro-optics Society (LEOS), 2006, pp. 705–706.

Poustie, A.

D. Nesset, M. Scope, R. Davey, D. Shea, P. Healey, A. Borghesani, D. Moodie, A. Poustie, and R. Wyatt, “Demonstration of 100 km reach amplified PONs with upstream bit-rates of 2.5 Gb/s and 10 Gb/s,” in Proc. 30th European Conf. Optical Communication (ECOC2004), 2004, We2.6.3.

Presby, H. M.

M. Zirngibl, C. H. Joyner, L. W. Stulz, C. Dragone, H. M. Presby, and I. P. Kaminov, “Larnet, a local access router network,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 215–217, Feb.1995.
[CrossRef]

Qiu, X. Z.

I. Van de Voorde, C. M. Martin, J. Vandewege, and X. Z. Qiu, “The superPON demonstrator: An exploration of possible evolution paths for optical access networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 38, no. 2, pp. 74–82, Feb.2000.
[CrossRef]

Rafel, A.

Rasztovits-Wiech, M.

Reichmann, K. C.

Reisslein, M.

M. P. McGarry, M. Maier, and M. Reisslein, “Ethernet PONs: A survey of dynamic bandwidth allocation (DBA) algorithms,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 42, no. 8, pp. S8–S15, Aug.2004.
[CrossRef]

Saito, K.

A. Cauvin, J. Brannan, and K. Saito, “Common technical specification of the G-PON system among major worldwide access carriers,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 44, no. 10, pp. 34–40, Oct.2006.
[CrossRef]

Sato, N.

N. Sato, K. Ota, N. Mishima, Y. Oikawa, and N. Shiga, “Less than 0.19-dB transient gain excursion AGC-EDFA with digital control for 20-channel add/drop equivalent operation,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2011, OMH3.

Scope, M.

D. Nesset, M. Scope, R. Davey, D. Shea, P. Healey, A. Borghesani, D. Moodie, A. Poustie, and R. Wyatt, “Demonstration of 100 km reach amplified PONs with upstream bit-rates of 2.5 Gb/s and 10 Gb/s,” in Proc. 30th European Conf. Optical Communication (ECOC2004), 2004, We2.6.3.

Shea, D.

D. Nesset, M. Scope, R. Davey, D. Shea, P. Healey, A. Borghesani, D. Moodie, A. Poustie, and R. Wyatt, “Demonstration of 100 km reach amplified PONs with upstream bit-rates of 2.5 Gb/s and 10 Gb/s,” in Proc. 30th European Conf. Optical Communication (ECOC2004), 2004, We2.6.3.

Shiga, N.

N. Sato, K. Ota, N. Mishima, Y. Oikawa, and N. Shiga, “Less than 0.19-dB transient gain excursion AGC-EDFA with digital control for 20-channel add/drop equivalent operation,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2011, OMH3.

Shin, J. H.

Spiekman, L.

Stulz, L. W.

M. Zirngibl, C. H. Joyner, L. W. Stulz, C. Dragone, H. M. Presby, and I. P. Kaminov, “Larnet, a local access router network,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 215–217, Feb.1995.
[CrossRef]

Sugimoto, N.

H. Hayashi, S. Tanabe, and N. Sugimoto, “Quantitative analysis of optical power budget of bismuth oxide-based erbium-doped fiber,” J. Lumin., vol. 128, no. 3, pp. 333–340, Aug.2008.
[CrossRef]

Talli, G.

Tanabe, S.

H. Hayashi, S. Tanabe, and N. Sugimoto, “Quantitative analysis of optical power budget of bismuth oxide-based erbium-doped fiber,” J. Lumin., vol. 128, no. 3, pp. 333–340, Aug.2008.
[CrossRef]

Townsend, P. D.

Ueda, H.

H. Ueda, K. Okada, B. Ford, G. Mahony, S. Hornung, D. Faulkner, J. Abiven, S. Durel, R. Ballart, and J. Erickson, “Deployment status and common technical pecifications for a B-PON system,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 39, no. 12, pp. 134–141, Dec.2001.
[CrossRef]

Van de Voorde, I.

I. Van de Voorde, C. M. Martin, J. Vandewege, and X. Z. Qiu, “The superPON demonstrator: An exploration of possible evolution paths for optical access networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 38, no. 2, pp. 74–82, Feb.2000.
[CrossRef]

Vandewege, J.

I. Van de Voorde, C. M. Martin, J. Vandewege, and X. Z. Qiu, “The superPON demonstrator: An exploration of possible evolution paths for optical access networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 38, no. 2, pp. 74–82, Feb.2000.
[CrossRef]

Westbrook, P.

Wyatt, R.

D. Nesset, M. Scope, R. Davey, D. Shea, P. Healey, A. Borghesani, D. Moodie, A. Poustie, and R. Wyatt, “Demonstration of 100 km reach amplified PONs with upstream bit-rates of 2.5 Gb/s and 10 Gb/s,” in Proc. 30th European Conf. Optical Communication (ECOC2004), 2004, We2.6.3.

Yang, S.-H.

Yeh, C. H.

C. W. Chow and C. H. Yeh, “Long-Reach WDM-PON,” in Proc. 23rd Annu. Meeting of the IEEE Photonics Society, 2010, pp. 343–344.

Yeh, C.-H.

C.-H. Yeh, M.-C. Lin, and S. Chi, “Gain flattened erbium-doped amplifier with 34 nm flat bandwidth,” Electron. Lett., vol. 42, no. 19, pp. 1086–1087, Sept.2006.
[CrossRef]

Yvind, K.

I. T. Monroy, F. Öhman, K. Yvind, R. Kjær, C. Peucheret, A. M. J. Koonen, and P. Jeppesen, “85 km long reach PON system using a reflective SOA-EA modulator and distributed Raman fiber amplification,” in Proc. 19th Annu. Meeting of the IEEE Lasers and Electro-optics Society (LEOS), 2006, pp. 705–706.

Zhou, X.

Zirngibl, M.

M. Zirngibl, C. H. Joyner, L. W. Stulz, C. Dragone, H. M. Presby, and I. P. Kaminov, “Larnet, a local access router network,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 215–217, Feb.1995.
[CrossRef]

M. Zirngibl, “Gain control in erbium-doped fiber amplifiers by an all-optical feedback loop,” Electron. Lett., vol. 27, pp. 560–561, Mar.1991.
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (2)

C.-H. Yeh, M.-C. Lin, and S. Chi, “Gain flattened erbium-doped amplifier with 34 nm flat bandwidth,” Electron. Lett., vol. 42, no. 19, pp. 1086–1087, Sept.2006.
[CrossRef]

M. Zirngibl, “Gain control in erbium-doped fiber amplifiers by an all-optical feedback loop,” Electron. Lett., vol. 27, pp. 560–561, Mar.1991.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Commun. Mag. (4)

H. Ueda, K. Okada, B. Ford, G. Mahony, S. Hornung, D. Faulkner, J. Abiven, S. Durel, R. Ballart, and J. Erickson, “Deployment status and common technical pecifications for a B-PON system,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 39, no. 12, pp. 134–141, Dec.2001.
[CrossRef]

M. P. McGarry, M. Maier, and M. Reisslein, “Ethernet PONs: A survey of dynamic bandwidth allocation (DBA) algorithms,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 42, no. 8, pp. S8–S15, Aug.2004.
[CrossRef]

A. Cauvin, J. Brannan, and K. Saito, “Common technical specification of the G-PON system among major worldwide access carriers,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 44, no. 10, pp. 34–40, Oct.2006.
[CrossRef]

I. Van de Voorde, C. M. Martin, J. Vandewege, and X. Z. Qiu, “The superPON demonstrator: An exploration of possible evolution paths for optical access networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 38, no. 2, pp. 74–82, Feb.2000.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

M. Zirngibl, C. H. Joyner, L. W. Stulz, C. Dragone, H. M. Presby, and I. P. Kaminov, “Larnet, a local access router network,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 215–217, Feb.1995.
[CrossRef]

C.-J. Chae, H. Park, and J.-H. Eom, “An ATM PON system overlaid with a 155-Mb/s optical star network for customer networking and fiber to the premises,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 13, pp. 1133–1135, Oct.2001.
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (4)

J. Lumin. (1)

H. Hayashi, S. Tanabe, and N. Sugimoto, “Quantitative analysis of optical power budget of bismuth oxide-based erbium-doped fiber,” J. Lumin., vol. 128, no. 3, pp. 333–340, Aug.2008.
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. (1)

M. Jung, Y. M. Chang, and J. H. Lee, “Combined effect of pump excited absorption and pair-induced quenching on gain and noise figure in bismuth oxide-based Er3+-doped fiber amplifiers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B., vol. 28, no. 11, pp. 2667–2673, Nov.2011.
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Korea (1)

Opt. Fiber Technol. (1)

J. H. Lee, K. Lee, S. B. Lee, and C. H. Kim, “Extended-reach WDM-PON based on CW supercontinuum light source for colorless FP-LD based OLT and RSOA-based ONUs,” Opt. Fiber Technol., vol. 15, pp. 310–319, June2009.
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

D. Nesset, M. Scope, R. Davey, D. Shea, P. Healey, A. Borghesani, D. Moodie, A. Poustie, and R. Wyatt, “Demonstration of 100 km reach amplified PONs with upstream bit-rates of 2.5 Gb/s and 10 Gb/s,” in Proc. 30th European Conf. Optical Communication (ECOC2004), 2004, We2.6.3.

C. W. Chow and C. H. Yeh, “Long-Reach WDM-PON,” in Proc. 23rd Annu. Meeting of the IEEE Photonics Society, 2010, pp. 343–344.

I. T. Monroy, F. Öhman, K. Yvind, R. Kjær, C. Peucheret, A. M. J. Koonen, and P. Jeppesen, “85 km long reach PON system using a reflective SOA-EA modulator and distributed Raman fiber amplification,” in Proc. 19th Annu. Meeting of the IEEE Lasers and Electro-optics Society (LEOS), 2006, pp. 705–706.

N. Sato, K. Ota, N. Mishima, Y. Oikawa, and N. Shiga, “Less than 0.19-dB transient gain excursion AGC-EDFA with digital control for 20-channel add/drop equivalent operation,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2011, OMH3.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(Color online) (a) Band-separated channel allocation plan. (b) Schematic of a band-separated, bidirectional amplifier based on conventional silica-based EDFs or SOAs. (c) Schematic of a band-separated, bidirectional amplifier based on distributed Raman amplification.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic of the proposed band-separated, bidirectional amplifier based on a bismuth-based erbium-doped fiber.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(Color online) Experimentally measured values of the (a) signal gain and (b) noise figure. These measurements were performed by using a method based on the combination of a saturating tone (0 dBm) and a tunable-wavelength probe signal (−20 dBm). The saturating tone wavelengths were 1558.9 and 1569.1 nm for L-band downstream and C-band upstream measurements, respectively.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(Color online) Experimentally measured values of the (a) signal gain and (b) noise figure. The saturating tone wavelengths were 1595 and 1535 nm for L-band downstream and C-band upstream measurements, respectively.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Experimental schematic of the proposed hybrid DWDM–TDM-PON architecture using the band-separated, bidirectional amplifier shown in Fig. 2.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Measured optical spectra of (a) downstream signals in the L-band and (b) upstream signals in the C-band.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(Color online) Measured (a) eye diagrams, (b) BER for the downstream signals, and (c) BER for the upstream signals after 75-km transmission.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(Color online) Theoretically optimized signal gain and noise figure values for three different splitter ratios: (a) 1×8, (b) 1×16, (c) 1×32.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table I System Component Parameters

Tables Icon

Table II Simulation Parameters for the Amplifier Optimization

Tables Icon

Table III Optimum Amplifier Parameters