Abstract

Load adaptive energy saving schemes for backbone IP networks use dynamic transport circuit services to adapt the active network resources to the current traffic demand in order to reduce the network’s energy consumption. Recently, several approaches, categorized as Switch-Off schemes, have been proposed which attempt to reduce the energy consumption of already existing networks by switching off IP ports and links during periods of low traffic. Although it has been shown that these schemes can notably decrease the network’s energy consumption, they are prone to instabilities in the IP routing service and decreased resilience due to reduced connectivity, and they may induce monitoring reconfigurations. To address these challenges, we propose the Switch-On scheme in an IP-over-WDM network, where the network is designed so that the essential IP connectivity is maintained during low traffic periods while dynamic circuits are switched on in the optical layer to boost network capacity during periods of high traffic demand. Switching on the optical links during peak network loads can address some of the challenges associated with switching off IP ports and links during the low traffic periods. In this paper, we provide a comparative analysis of load adaptive energy saving schemes and present a discussion of the trade-off between energy efficiency and routing stability. The performance results and analytical study show that the multilayer approaches in IP-over-WDM networks carry significant potential for improvement in energy efficiency.

© 2012 OSA

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References

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  1. Annual Cisco Visual Networking Index Forecast Projects Global IP Traffic to Increase More Than Fourfold by 2014, Cisco Press Release [Online]. Availble: http://newsroom.cisco.com/dlls/2010/prod_060210.html.
  2. J. Baliga, K. Hinton, and R. S. Tucker, “Energy consumption of the Internet,” in COIN-ACOFT 2007, Melbourne, June 2007.
  3. M. Walker, Surfing the Green Wave in Telecom, Ovum, May9, 2008.
  4. S. Mingay, “Green IT: The new industry shock wave,” Gartner Report, Dec.2007.
  5. O. Tamm, C. Hermsmeyer, and A. M. Rush, “Eco-sustainable system and network architectures for future transport networks,” Bell Labs Tech. J., vol. 14, pp. 311–327, 2010.
    [Crossref]
  6. B. Wu, K. L. Yeung, and P.-H. Ho, “Virtual topology design for minimizing network diameter and average hop count in WDM networks,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol. 2, no. 12, pp. 1077–1086, Dec.2010.
    [Crossref]
  7. K. Thompson, G. J. Miller, and R. Wilder, “Wide-area Internet traffic patterns and characteristics,” IEEE Network, vol. 11, no. 6, pp. 10–23, 1997.
  8. C. Lange and A. Gladisch, “Energy efficiency limits of load adaptive networks,” in OFC/NFOEC’10, San Diego, CA, Mar. 2010.
  9. G. Frederic, M. Dorian, M. Joanna, and O. Brice, “Minimizing routing energy consumption: From theoretical to practical results,” in GreenCom 2010, Hangzhou, China, Dec. 2010.
  10. B. Sanso and H. Mellah, “On reliability, performance and Internet power consumption,” in IEEE DRCN’09, Washington, DC, Oct. 2009.
  11. L. Chiaraviglio, M. Mellia, and F. Neri, “Reducing power consumption in backbone networks,” in IEEE ICC’09, Dresden, Germany, June2009.
  12. L. Chiaraviglio, M. Mellia, and F. Neri, “Energy-aware backbone networks: A case study,” in IEEE Int. Workshop on Green Communications (GreenComm’09), Dresden, Germany, June 2009.
  13. W. Fisher, M. Suchara, and J. Rexford, “Greening backbone networks: reducing energy consumption by shutting off cables in bundled links,” in ACM SIGCOMM Workshop on Green Networking 2010, New York, Aug. 2010.
  14. A. Coiro, M. Listanti, A. Valenti, and F. Matera, “Reducing power consumption in wavelength routed networks by selective switch off of optical links,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 428–436, Apr.2011.
    [Crossref]
  15. S. Zhang, D. Shen, and C. Chan, “Energy efficient time-aware traffic grooming in wavelength routing networks,” in GLOBECOM 2010, Miami, Dec. 2010.
  16. F. Farahmand, I. Cerutti, M. M. Hasan, and J. P. Jue, “Energy-efficiency of drop-and-continue traffic grooming,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2011, OTuR6.
  17. G. Shen and R. S. Tucker, “Energy-minimized design for IP over WDM networks,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 176–186, June2009.
    [Crossref]
  18. F. Idzikowski, S. Orlowski, C. Raack, H. Woesner, and A. Wolisz, “Saving energy in IP-over-WDM networks by switching off line cards in low-demand scenarios,” in ONDM’10, Kyoto, Japan, Feb. 2010.
  19. B. Puype, W. Vereecken, D. Colle, M. Pickavet, and P. Demeester, “Power reduction techniques in multilayer traffic engineering,” in ICTON 09, Island of Sao Miguel, Azores, Portugal, July 2009.
  20. E. Yetginer and G. N. Rouskas, “Power efficient traffic grooming in optical WDM networks,” in GLOBECOM 2009, Honolulu, USA, Dec. 2009.
  21. Y. Zhang, M. Tornatore, P. Chowdhury, and B. Mukherjee, “Energy optimization in IP-over-WDM networks,” Opt. Switching Networking, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 171–180, July2011.
    [Crossref]
  22. M. Caria, M. Chamania, and A. Jukan, “Trading IP routing stability for energy efficiency: A case for traffic offloading with optical bypass,” in ONDM 2011, Bologna, Italy, Feb. 2011.
  23. M. Caria, M. Chamania, and A. Jukan, “To switch on or off: A simple case study on energy efficiency in IP-over-WDM networks,” in HPSR 2011, Cartagena, Spain, July 2011.
  24. M. Chamania, M. Caria, and A. Jukan, “Achieving IP routing stability with optical bypass,” in IEEE ANTS 2009, Delhi, India, Dec. 2009.
  25. “Energy efficiency for network equipment: two steps beyond greenwashing,” Juniper Networks White Paper, 2010.
  26. M. Chamania, M. Caria, and A. Jukan, “A comparative performance analysis of IP traffic offloading schemes over dynamic circuits,” in INFOCOM 2011—Mini Conf., Shanghai, China, Apr. 2011.
  27. B. Mukherjee, Optical WDM Networks. Springer, 2006, p. 422.
  28. Gurobi Optimizer 3.0 [Online]. Available: http://www.gurobi.com/.

2011 (2)

A. Coiro, M. Listanti, A. Valenti, and F. Matera, “Reducing power consumption in wavelength routed networks by selective switch off of optical links,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 428–436, Apr.2011.
[Crossref]

Y. Zhang, M. Tornatore, P. Chowdhury, and B. Mukherjee, “Energy optimization in IP-over-WDM networks,” Opt. Switching Networking, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 171–180, July2011.
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

O. Tamm, C. Hermsmeyer, and A. M. Rush, “Eco-sustainable system and network architectures for future transport networks,” Bell Labs Tech. J., vol. 14, pp. 311–327, 2010.
[Crossref]

B. Wu, K. L. Yeung, and P.-H. Ho, “Virtual topology design for minimizing network diameter and average hop count in WDM networks,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol. 2, no. 12, pp. 1077–1086, Dec.2010.
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

1997 (1)

K. Thompson, G. J. Miller, and R. Wilder, “Wide-area Internet traffic patterns and characteristics,” IEEE Network, vol. 11, no. 6, pp. 10–23, 1997.

Baliga, J.

J. Baliga, K. Hinton, and R. S. Tucker, “Energy consumption of the Internet,” in COIN-ACOFT 2007, Melbourne, June 2007.

Brice, O.

G. Frederic, M. Dorian, M. Joanna, and O. Brice, “Minimizing routing energy consumption: From theoretical to practical results,” in GreenCom 2010, Hangzhou, China, Dec. 2010.

Caria, M.

M. Chamania, M. Caria, and A. Jukan, “A comparative performance analysis of IP traffic offloading schemes over dynamic circuits,” in INFOCOM 2011—Mini Conf., Shanghai, China, Apr. 2011.

M. Caria, M. Chamania, and A. Jukan, “Trading IP routing stability for energy efficiency: A case for traffic offloading with optical bypass,” in ONDM 2011, Bologna, Italy, Feb. 2011.

M. Caria, M. Chamania, and A. Jukan, “To switch on or off: A simple case study on energy efficiency in IP-over-WDM networks,” in HPSR 2011, Cartagena, Spain, July 2011.

M. Chamania, M. Caria, and A. Jukan, “Achieving IP routing stability with optical bypass,” in IEEE ANTS 2009, Delhi, India, Dec. 2009.

Cerutti, I.

F. Farahmand, I. Cerutti, M. M. Hasan, and J. P. Jue, “Energy-efficiency of drop-and-continue traffic grooming,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2011, OTuR6.

Chamania, M.

M. Caria, M. Chamania, and A. Jukan, “To switch on or off: A simple case study on energy efficiency in IP-over-WDM networks,” in HPSR 2011, Cartagena, Spain, July 2011.

M. Caria, M. Chamania, and A. Jukan, “Trading IP routing stability for energy efficiency: A case for traffic offloading with optical bypass,” in ONDM 2011, Bologna, Italy, Feb. 2011.

M. Chamania, M. Caria, and A. Jukan, “Achieving IP routing stability with optical bypass,” in IEEE ANTS 2009, Delhi, India, Dec. 2009.

M. Chamania, M. Caria, and A. Jukan, “A comparative performance analysis of IP traffic offloading schemes over dynamic circuits,” in INFOCOM 2011—Mini Conf., Shanghai, China, Apr. 2011.

Chan, C.

S. Zhang, D. Shen, and C. Chan, “Energy efficient time-aware traffic grooming in wavelength routing networks,” in GLOBECOM 2010, Miami, Dec. 2010.

Chiaraviglio, L.

L. Chiaraviglio, M. Mellia, and F. Neri, “Reducing power consumption in backbone networks,” in IEEE ICC’09, Dresden, Germany, June2009.

L. Chiaraviglio, M. Mellia, and F. Neri, “Energy-aware backbone networks: A case study,” in IEEE Int. Workshop on Green Communications (GreenComm’09), Dresden, Germany, June 2009.

Chowdhury, P.

Y. Zhang, M. Tornatore, P. Chowdhury, and B. Mukherjee, “Energy optimization in IP-over-WDM networks,” Opt. Switching Networking, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 171–180, July2011.
[Crossref]

Coiro, A.

A. Coiro, M. Listanti, A. Valenti, and F. Matera, “Reducing power consumption in wavelength routed networks by selective switch off of optical links,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 428–436, Apr.2011.
[Crossref]

Colle, D.

B. Puype, W. Vereecken, D. Colle, M. Pickavet, and P. Demeester, “Power reduction techniques in multilayer traffic engineering,” in ICTON 09, Island of Sao Miguel, Azores, Portugal, July 2009.

Demeester, P.

B. Puype, W. Vereecken, D. Colle, M. Pickavet, and P. Demeester, “Power reduction techniques in multilayer traffic engineering,” in ICTON 09, Island of Sao Miguel, Azores, Portugal, July 2009.

Dorian, M.

G. Frederic, M. Dorian, M. Joanna, and O. Brice, “Minimizing routing energy consumption: From theoretical to practical results,” in GreenCom 2010, Hangzhou, China, Dec. 2010.

Farahmand, F.

F. Farahmand, I. Cerutti, M. M. Hasan, and J. P. Jue, “Energy-efficiency of drop-and-continue traffic grooming,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2011, OTuR6.

Fisher, W.

W. Fisher, M. Suchara, and J. Rexford, “Greening backbone networks: reducing energy consumption by shutting off cables in bundled links,” in ACM SIGCOMM Workshop on Green Networking 2010, New York, Aug. 2010.

Frederic, G.

G. Frederic, M. Dorian, M. Joanna, and O. Brice, “Minimizing routing energy consumption: From theoretical to practical results,” in GreenCom 2010, Hangzhou, China, Dec. 2010.

Gladisch, A.

C. Lange and A. Gladisch, “Energy efficiency limits of load adaptive networks,” in OFC/NFOEC’10, San Diego, CA, Mar. 2010.

Hasan, M. M.

F. Farahmand, I. Cerutti, M. M. Hasan, and J. P. Jue, “Energy-efficiency of drop-and-continue traffic grooming,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2011, OTuR6.

Hermsmeyer, C.

O. Tamm, C. Hermsmeyer, and A. M. Rush, “Eco-sustainable system and network architectures for future transport networks,” Bell Labs Tech. J., vol. 14, pp. 311–327, 2010.
[Crossref]

Hinton, K.

J. Baliga, K. Hinton, and R. S. Tucker, “Energy consumption of the Internet,” in COIN-ACOFT 2007, Melbourne, June 2007.

Ho, P.-H.

Idzikowski, F.

F. Idzikowski, S. Orlowski, C. Raack, H. Woesner, and A. Wolisz, “Saving energy in IP-over-WDM networks by switching off line cards in low-demand scenarios,” in ONDM’10, Kyoto, Japan, Feb. 2010.

Joanna, M.

G. Frederic, M. Dorian, M. Joanna, and O. Brice, “Minimizing routing energy consumption: From theoretical to practical results,” in GreenCom 2010, Hangzhou, China, Dec. 2010.

Jue, J. P.

F. Farahmand, I. Cerutti, M. M. Hasan, and J. P. Jue, “Energy-efficiency of drop-and-continue traffic grooming,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2011, OTuR6.

Jukan, A.

M. Chamania, M. Caria, and A. Jukan, “A comparative performance analysis of IP traffic offloading schemes over dynamic circuits,” in INFOCOM 2011—Mini Conf., Shanghai, China, Apr. 2011.

M. Caria, M. Chamania, and A. Jukan, “Trading IP routing stability for energy efficiency: A case for traffic offloading with optical bypass,” in ONDM 2011, Bologna, Italy, Feb. 2011.

M. Caria, M. Chamania, and A. Jukan, “To switch on or off: A simple case study on energy efficiency in IP-over-WDM networks,” in HPSR 2011, Cartagena, Spain, July 2011.

M. Chamania, M. Caria, and A. Jukan, “Achieving IP routing stability with optical bypass,” in IEEE ANTS 2009, Delhi, India, Dec. 2009.

Lange, C.

C. Lange and A. Gladisch, “Energy efficiency limits of load adaptive networks,” in OFC/NFOEC’10, San Diego, CA, Mar. 2010.

Listanti, M.

A. Coiro, M. Listanti, A. Valenti, and F. Matera, “Reducing power consumption in wavelength routed networks by selective switch off of optical links,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 428–436, Apr.2011.
[Crossref]

Matera, F.

A. Coiro, M. Listanti, A. Valenti, and F. Matera, “Reducing power consumption in wavelength routed networks by selective switch off of optical links,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 428–436, Apr.2011.
[Crossref]

Mellah, H.

B. Sanso and H. Mellah, “On reliability, performance and Internet power consumption,” in IEEE DRCN’09, Washington, DC, Oct. 2009.

Mellia, M.

L. Chiaraviglio, M. Mellia, and F. Neri, “Energy-aware backbone networks: A case study,” in IEEE Int. Workshop on Green Communications (GreenComm’09), Dresden, Germany, June 2009.

L. Chiaraviglio, M. Mellia, and F. Neri, “Reducing power consumption in backbone networks,” in IEEE ICC’09, Dresden, Germany, June2009.

Miller, G. J.

K. Thompson, G. J. Miller, and R. Wilder, “Wide-area Internet traffic patterns and characteristics,” IEEE Network, vol. 11, no. 6, pp. 10–23, 1997.

Mingay, S.

S. Mingay, “Green IT: The new industry shock wave,” Gartner Report, Dec.2007.

Mukherjee, B.

Y. Zhang, M. Tornatore, P. Chowdhury, and B. Mukherjee, “Energy optimization in IP-over-WDM networks,” Opt. Switching Networking, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 171–180, July2011.
[Crossref]

B. Mukherjee, Optical WDM Networks. Springer, 2006, p. 422.

Neri, F.

L. Chiaraviglio, M. Mellia, and F. Neri, “Reducing power consumption in backbone networks,” in IEEE ICC’09, Dresden, Germany, June2009.

L. Chiaraviglio, M. Mellia, and F. Neri, “Energy-aware backbone networks: A case study,” in IEEE Int. Workshop on Green Communications (GreenComm’09), Dresden, Germany, June 2009.

Orlowski, S.

F. Idzikowski, S. Orlowski, C. Raack, H. Woesner, and A. Wolisz, “Saving energy in IP-over-WDM networks by switching off line cards in low-demand scenarios,” in ONDM’10, Kyoto, Japan, Feb. 2010.

Pickavet, M.

B. Puype, W. Vereecken, D. Colle, M. Pickavet, and P. Demeester, “Power reduction techniques in multilayer traffic engineering,” in ICTON 09, Island of Sao Miguel, Azores, Portugal, July 2009.

Puype, B.

B. Puype, W. Vereecken, D. Colle, M. Pickavet, and P. Demeester, “Power reduction techniques in multilayer traffic engineering,” in ICTON 09, Island of Sao Miguel, Azores, Portugal, July 2009.

Raack, C.

F. Idzikowski, S. Orlowski, C. Raack, H. Woesner, and A. Wolisz, “Saving energy in IP-over-WDM networks by switching off line cards in low-demand scenarios,” in ONDM’10, Kyoto, Japan, Feb. 2010.

Rexford, J.

W. Fisher, M. Suchara, and J. Rexford, “Greening backbone networks: reducing energy consumption by shutting off cables in bundled links,” in ACM SIGCOMM Workshop on Green Networking 2010, New York, Aug. 2010.

Rouskas, G. N.

E. Yetginer and G. N. Rouskas, “Power efficient traffic grooming in optical WDM networks,” in GLOBECOM 2009, Honolulu, USA, Dec. 2009.

Rush, A. M.

O. Tamm, C. Hermsmeyer, and A. M. Rush, “Eco-sustainable system and network architectures for future transport networks,” Bell Labs Tech. J., vol. 14, pp. 311–327, 2010.
[Crossref]

Sanso, B.

B. Sanso and H. Mellah, “On reliability, performance and Internet power consumption,” in IEEE DRCN’09, Washington, DC, Oct. 2009.

Shen, D.

S. Zhang, D. Shen, and C. Chan, “Energy efficient time-aware traffic grooming in wavelength routing networks,” in GLOBECOM 2010, Miami, Dec. 2010.

Shen, G.

Suchara, M.

W. Fisher, M. Suchara, and J. Rexford, “Greening backbone networks: reducing energy consumption by shutting off cables in bundled links,” in ACM SIGCOMM Workshop on Green Networking 2010, New York, Aug. 2010.

Tamm, O.

O. Tamm, C. Hermsmeyer, and A. M. Rush, “Eco-sustainable system and network architectures for future transport networks,” Bell Labs Tech. J., vol. 14, pp. 311–327, 2010.
[Crossref]

Thompson, K.

K. Thompson, G. J. Miller, and R. Wilder, “Wide-area Internet traffic patterns and characteristics,” IEEE Network, vol. 11, no. 6, pp. 10–23, 1997.

Tornatore, M.

Y. Zhang, M. Tornatore, P. Chowdhury, and B. Mukherjee, “Energy optimization in IP-over-WDM networks,” Opt. Switching Networking, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 171–180, July2011.
[Crossref]

Tucker, R. S.

G. Shen and R. S. Tucker, “Energy-minimized design for IP over WDM networks,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 176–186, June2009.
[Crossref]

J. Baliga, K. Hinton, and R. S. Tucker, “Energy consumption of the Internet,” in COIN-ACOFT 2007, Melbourne, June 2007.

Valenti, A.

A. Coiro, M. Listanti, A. Valenti, and F. Matera, “Reducing power consumption in wavelength routed networks by selective switch off of optical links,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 428–436, Apr.2011.
[Crossref]

Vereecken, W.

B. Puype, W. Vereecken, D. Colle, M. Pickavet, and P. Demeester, “Power reduction techniques in multilayer traffic engineering,” in ICTON 09, Island of Sao Miguel, Azores, Portugal, July 2009.

Walker, M.

M. Walker, Surfing the Green Wave in Telecom, Ovum, May9, 2008.

Wilder, R.

K. Thompson, G. J. Miller, and R. Wilder, “Wide-area Internet traffic patterns and characteristics,” IEEE Network, vol. 11, no. 6, pp. 10–23, 1997.

Woesner, H.

F. Idzikowski, S. Orlowski, C. Raack, H. Woesner, and A. Wolisz, “Saving energy in IP-over-WDM networks by switching off line cards in low-demand scenarios,” in ONDM’10, Kyoto, Japan, Feb. 2010.

Wolisz, A.

F. Idzikowski, S. Orlowski, C. Raack, H. Woesner, and A. Wolisz, “Saving energy in IP-over-WDM networks by switching off line cards in low-demand scenarios,” in ONDM’10, Kyoto, Japan, Feb. 2010.

Wu, B.

Yetginer, E.

E. Yetginer and G. N. Rouskas, “Power efficient traffic grooming in optical WDM networks,” in GLOBECOM 2009, Honolulu, USA, Dec. 2009.

Yeung, K. L.

Zhang, S.

S. Zhang, D. Shen, and C. Chan, “Energy efficient time-aware traffic grooming in wavelength routing networks,” in GLOBECOM 2010, Miami, Dec. 2010.

Zhang, Y.

Y. Zhang, M. Tornatore, P. Chowdhury, and B. Mukherjee, “Energy optimization in IP-over-WDM networks,” Opt. Switching Networking, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 171–180, July2011.
[Crossref]

Bell Labs Tech. J. (1)

O. Tamm, C. Hermsmeyer, and A. M. Rush, “Eco-sustainable system and network architectures for future transport networks,” Bell Labs Tech. J., vol. 14, pp. 311–327, 2010.
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

A. Coiro, M. Listanti, A. Valenti, and F. Matera, “Reducing power consumption in wavelength routed networks by selective switch off of optical links,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 428–436, Apr.2011.
[Crossref]

IEEE Network (1)

K. Thompson, G. J. Miller, and R. Wilder, “Wide-area Internet traffic patterns and characteristics,” IEEE Network, vol. 11, no. 6, pp. 10–23, 1997.

J. Opt. Commun. Netw. (2)

Opt. Switching Networking (1)

Y. Zhang, M. Tornatore, P. Chowdhury, and B. Mukherjee, “Energy optimization in IP-over-WDM networks,” Opt. Switching Networking, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 171–180, July2011.
[Crossref]

Other (22)

M. Caria, M. Chamania, and A. Jukan, “Trading IP routing stability for energy efficiency: A case for traffic offloading with optical bypass,” in ONDM 2011, Bologna, Italy, Feb. 2011.

M. Caria, M. Chamania, and A. Jukan, “To switch on or off: A simple case study on energy efficiency in IP-over-WDM networks,” in HPSR 2011, Cartagena, Spain, July 2011.

M. Chamania, M. Caria, and A. Jukan, “Achieving IP routing stability with optical bypass,” in IEEE ANTS 2009, Delhi, India, Dec. 2009.

“Energy efficiency for network equipment: two steps beyond greenwashing,” Juniper Networks White Paper, 2010.

M. Chamania, M. Caria, and A. Jukan, “A comparative performance analysis of IP traffic offloading schemes over dynamic circuits,” in INFOCOM 2011—Mini Conf., Shanghai, China, Apr. 2011.

B. Mukherjee, Optical WDM Networks. Springer, 2006, p. 422.

Gurobi Optimizer 3.0 [Online]. Available: http://www.gurobi.com/.

Annual Cisco Visual Networking Index Forecast Projects Global IP Traffic to Increase More Than Fourfold by 2014, Cisco Press Release [Online]. Availble: http://newsroom.cisco.com/dlls/2010/prod_060210.html.

J. Baliga, K. Hinton, and R. S. Tucker, “Energy consumption of the Internet,” in COIN-ACOFT 2007, Melbourne, June 2007.

M. Walker, Surfing the Green Wave in Telecom, Ovum, May9, 2008.

S. Mingay, “Green IT: The new industry shock wave,” Gartner Report, Dec.2007.

C. Lange and A. Gladisch, “Energy efficiency limits of load adaptive networks,” in OFC/NFOEC’10, San Diego, CA, Mar. 2010.

G. Frederic, M. Dorian, M. Joanna, and O. Brice, “Minimizing routing energy consumption: From theoretical to practical results,” in GreenCom 2010, Hangzhou, China, Dec. 2010.

B. Sanso and H. Mellah, “On reliability, performance and Internet power consumption,” in IEEE DRCN’09, Washington, DC, Oct. 2009.

L. Chiaraviglio, M. Mellia, and F. Neri, “Reducing power consumption in backbone networks,” in IEEE ICC’09, Dresden, Germany, June2009.

L. Chiaraviglio, M. Mellia, and F. Neri, “Energy-aware backbone networks: A case study,” in IEEE Int. Workshop on Green Communications (GreenComm’09), Dresden, Germany, June 2009.

W. Fisher, M. Suchara, and J. Rexford, “Greening backbone networks: reducing energy consumption by shutting off cables in bundled links,” in ACM SIGCOMM Workshop on Green Networking 2010, New York, Aug. 2010.

S. Zhang, D. Shen, and C. Chan, “Energy efficient time-aware traffic grooming in wavelength routing networks,” in GLOBECOM 2010, Miami, Dec. 2010.

F. Farahmand, I. Cerutti, M. M. Hasan, and J. P. Jue, “Energy-efficiency of drop-and-continue traffic grooming,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2011, OTuR6.

F. Idzikowski, S. Orlowski, C. Raack, H. Woesner, and A. Wolisz, “Saving energy in IP-over-WDM networks by switching off line cards in low-demand scenarios,” in ONDM’10, Kyoto, Japan, Feb. 2010.

B. Puype, W. Vereecken, D. Colle, M. Pickavet, and P. Demeester, “Power reduction techniques in multilayer traffic engineering,” in ICTON 09, Island of Sao Miguel, Azores, Portugal, July 2009.

E. Yetginer and G. N. Rouskas, “Power efficient traffic grooming in optical WDM networks,” in GLOBECOM 2009, Honolulu, USA, Dec. 2009.

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Figures (13)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(Color online) Illustration of the Switch-Off and Switch-On schemes. (a) Switch-Off: IP links are designed to support peak loads in the basic topology during the day and some links are switched off or reduced in capacity during off-peak hours in the night. (b) Switch-On: IP links are designed for optimum operation only during off-peak hours in the night, while, for high daytime loads, dynamic circuits are added and/or the capacity of existing IP links is increased using dynamic circuits.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(Color online) Example for a hidden bypass (highlighted red): The WDM connection via ( b ̇ , a ̇ ) and ( a ̇ , e ̇ ) is commissioned in order to offload traffic from b to e.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(Color online) Example of the resulting invalid IP forwarding model, when only the shortest path constraint is considered. Router i forwards packets to the same destination on different outgoing links.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The expanded T1 topology of the NSFnet from 1991.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The energy saved (compared to a static network with no saving scheme deployed) for each scheme depending on the nighttime–daytime traffic ratio.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Fraction of flows that undergo rerouting during the transition from the peak to the off-peak time interval depending on the nighttime–daytime traffic ratio.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Number of routing changes for each scheme depending on the nighttime–daytime traffic ratio.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

For the Switch-On scheme using conventional Network Engineering: trade-off between the number of routing changes and energy saved per day depending on σ (weighting factor for IP routing stability). The constant values of Switch-On using hidden bypasses and Switch-Off are given as straight lines for orientation.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Network resilience measured in the average nodal degree. The static value of the basic topology represents the values for both Switch-On schemes in the night as well as the value for the Switch-Off scheme in the day. The critical limit shows the lower bound below which the 14-node network becomes disconnected.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Impact of elephant flows on the main performance parameters depending on the hop count of the elephant flows.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Impact of five elephant flows on the main performance parameters of the energy saving schemes depending on the bandwidth of the elephant flows.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Impact of the number of elephant flows on the main performance parameters of the energy saving schemes.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Impact of elephant flows during the night, e.g., in the case of online backup services.

Tables (5)

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Table I Summary of Notation

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Table II Traffic Matrix (in Megabits per Second) of the NSFnet Backbone

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Table III Scaling of Traffic Values From Table II

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Table IV Power Consumption

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Table V Installed Interfaces in the Case of 50% Off-Peak/Peak Traffic Ratio

Equations (19)

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P x y n = t X x y n , t P ̇ x y t + P t ,
Punish n = s d i j R s d n ( i , j ) R s d n 1 ( i , j ) .
Minimize n x y σ P u n i s h n + P x y n ,
t X x y n , t M L x y n t X x y n , t .
C i j n = t X i , j n , t C t .
s d λ s d n R s d n ( i , j ) α C i j n
R s d n ( i , j ) L i j n ,
p R s d n ( s , p ) = q R s d n ( q , d ) = 1 ,
p R s d n ( p , k ) = q R s d n ( k , q ) .
R C s d n = x y R s d n ( x , y ) w x y .
R C s d n R C s x n + L x d n w x d + 1 L x d n w .
j F T i j d n = 1
R s d n ( i j ) F T i j d n L i j n
s , d , x , y V , L ˆ x y = 0 : f x y s d t X x y t ,
s , d , x , y V , L ˆ x y = 0 : f x y s d s d n ( x , y ) ,
s , d , i , j V : x y R x y n ( i , j ) f x y s d 1 .
s d λ s d peak R s d n ( i , j ) 1 x y R x y n ( i , j ) f x y s d α C i j
x , y V , L ˆ x y = 0 : s d λ s d peak f x y s d α t X x y t C t .
X x y off-peak , t X x y peak , t .