Abstract

The advent of reconfigurable optical add/drop multiplexers with colorless and non-directional add/drop ports enables transponders and regenerators to be pre-deployed, without a priori knowledge of which wavelength or direction they will eventually serve. We study pre-deployment of optical regenerators as a means to drastically reduce the provisioning time, using Monte Carlo simulation of an optical backbone network. With appropriate placement strategies, regenerators can be efficiently pre-deployed so that new connections can be established rapidly, without the delays caused by service visits to intermediate network nodes.

© 2012 OSA

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References

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  1. M. D. Feuer, D. C. Kilper, and S. L. Woodward, “ROADMs and their system applications” in Optical Fiber Telecommunications, Volume B: Systems and Networks. Elsevier Inc., London, UK, 2008, and references therein.
  2. A. L. Chiu, G. Choudhury, G. Clapp, R. Doverspike, M. Feuer, J. W. Gannett, J. Jackel, G. T. Kim, J. G. Klincewicz, T. J. Kwon, G. Li, P. Magill, J. M. Simmons, R. A. Skoog, J. Strand, A. Von Lehmen, B. J. Wilson, S. L. Woodward, and D. Xu, “Architectures and protocols for capacity efficient, highly dynamic and highly resilient core networks,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol. 4, pp. 1–14, Jan.2012.
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. Strand and A. Chiu, “Realizing the advantages of optical reconfigurability and restoration with integrated optical cross-connects,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 21, pp. 2871–2882, 2003.
    [CrossRef]
  4. G. Wellbrock, “Preparing for the future,” in Proc. ECOC, Torino, Italy, 2010, Th.9.G.1.
  5. X. J. Zhang, M. Birk, A. Chiu, R. Doverspike, M. D. Feuer, P. Magill, E. Mavrogiorgis, J. Pastor, S. L. Woodward, and J. Yates, “Bridge-and-roll demonstration in GRIPhoN (Globally Reconfigurable Intelligent Photonic Network),” in Technical Digest of OFC/NFOEC 2010, 22–25 Mar. 2010, NThA1.
  6. K. A. Tse and M. Birk, private communication.
  7. P. Roorda and B. Collings, “Evolution to colorless and directionless ROADM architectures,” in Technical Digest of OFC/NFOEC 2008, San Diego, CA, 2008, NWE2.
  8. S. L. Woodward, M. D. Feuer, J. Calvitti, K. Falta, and J. M. Verdiell, “A high-degree photonic cross-connect for transparent networking, flexible provisioning & capacity growth,” in Proc. of the European Conf. on Optical Communications, 2006, Th1.2.2.
  9. S. L. Woodward, M. D. Feuer, J. L. Jackel, and A. Agarwal, “Massively-scaleable highly-dynamic optical node design,” in Technical Digest of OFC/NFOEC 2010, 22–25 Mar. 2010, JThA18.
  10. X. Yang and B. Ramamurthy, “Dynamic routing in translucent WDM optical networks,” in Proc. of IEEE ICC 2002, New York, Apr. 2002, vol. 5, pp. 2796–2802.
  11. S. L. Woodward, M. D. Feuer, P. Palacharla, X. Wang, I. Kim, and D. Bihon, “Intra-node contention in a dynamic, colorless, non-directional ROADM,” in Technical Digest of OFC/NFOEC 2010, 22–25 Mar. 2010, PDPC8.
  12. M. D. Feuer, S. L. Woodward, P. Palacharla, X. Wang, I. Kim, and D. Bihon, “Intra-node contention in dynamic photonic networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 29, pp. 529–535, 2011.
    [CrossRef]
  13. P. Palacharla, X. Wang, I. Kim, D. Bihon, M. D. Feuer, and S. L. Woodward, “Blocking performance in dynamic optical networks based on colorless, non-directional ROADMs,” in Technical Digest of OFC/NFOEC 2011, 6–10 Mar. 2011, JWA8.
  14. Annual Estimates of the Population of Metropolitan and Micropolitan Statistical Areas: April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2009 (CBSA-EST2009-01), U.S. Census Bureau, Population Division, Mar.2010 [Online]. Available: http://www.census.gov/popest/data/metro/totals/2009/tables/CBSA-EST2009-01.xls.
  15. The DARPA CORONET topology for the Contiguous United States (CONUS) [Online]. Available: http://monarchna.com/CORONET_CONUS_Topology.xls.

2012 (1)

2011 (1)

2003 (1)

Agarwal, A.

S. L. Woodward, M. D. Feuer, J. L. Jackel, and A. Agarwal, “Massively-scaleable highly-dynamic optical node design,” in Technical Digest of OFC/NFOEC 2010, 22–25 Mar. 2010, JThA18.

Bihon, D.

M. D. Feuer, S. L. Woodward, P. Palacharla, X. Wang, I. Kim, and D. Bihon, “Intra-node contention in dynamic photonic networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 29, pp. 529–535, 2011.
[CrossRef]

S. L. Woodward, M. D. Feuer, P. Palacharla, X. Wang, I. Kim, and D. Bihon, “Intra-node contention in a dynamic, colorless, non-directional ROADM,” in Technical Digest of OFC/NFOEC 2010, 22–25 Mar. 2010, PDPC8.

P. Palacharla, X. Wang, I. Kim, D. Bihon, M. D. Feuer, and S. L. Woodward, “Blocking performance in dynamic optical networks based on colorless, non-directional ROADMs,” in Technical Digest of OFC/NFOEC 2011, 6–10 Mar. 2011, JWA8.

Birk, M.

X. J. Zhang, M. Birk, A. Chiu, R. Doverspike, M. D. Feuer, P. Magill, E. Mavrogiorgis, J. Pastor, S. L. Woodward, and J. Yates, “Bridge-and-roll demonstration in GRIPhoN (Globally Reconfigurable Intelligent Photonic Network),” in Technical Digest of OFC/NFOEC 2010, 22–25 Mar. 2010, NThA1.

K. A. Tse and M. Birk, private communication.

Calvitti, J.

S. L. Woodward, M. D. Feuer, J. Calvitti, K. Falta, and J. M. Verdiell, “A high-degree photonic cross-connect for transparent networking, flexible provisioning & capacity growth,” in Proc. of the European Conf. on Optical Communications, 2006, Th1.2.2.

Chiu, A.

J. Strand and A. Chiu, “Realizing the advantages of optical reconfigurability and restoration with integrated optical cross-connects,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 21, pp. 2871–2882, 2003.
[CrossRef]

X. J. Zhang, M. Birk, A. Chiu, R. Doverspike, M. D. Feuer, P. Magill, E. Mavrogiorgis, J. Pastor, S. L. Woodward, and J. Yates, “Bridge-and-roll demonstration in GRIPhoN (Globally Reconfigurable Intelligent Photonic Network),” in Technical Digest of OFC/NFOEC 2010, 22–25 Mar. 2010, NThA1.

Chiu, A. L.

Choudhury, G.

Clapp, G.

Collings, B.

P. Roorda and B. Collings, “Evolution to colorless and directionless ROADM architectures,” in Technical Digest of OFC/NFOEC 2008, San Diego, CA, 2008, NWE2.

Doverspike, R.

A. L. Chiu, G. Choudhury, G. Clapp, R. Doverspike, M. Feuer, J. W. Gannett, J. Jackel, G. T. Kim, J. G. Klincewicz, T. J. Kwon, G. Li, P. Magill, J. M. Simmons, R. A. Skoog, J. Strand, A. Von Lehmen, B. J. Wilson, S. L. Woodward, and D. Xu, “Architectures and protocols for capacity efficient, highly dynamic and highly resilient core networks,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol. 4, pp. 1–14, Jan.2012.
[CrossRef]

X. J. Zhang, M. Birk, A. Chiu, R. Doverspike, M. D. Feuer, P. Magill, E. Mavrogiorgis, J. Pastor, S. L. Woodward, and J. Yates, “Bridge-and-roll demonstration in GRIPhoN (Globally Reconfigurable Intelligent Photonic Network),” in Technical Digest of OFC/NFOEC 2010, 22–25 Mar. 2010, NThA1.

Falta, K.

S. L. Woodward, M. D. Feuer, J. Calvitti, K. Falta, and J. M. Verdiell, “A high-degree photonic cross-connect for transparent networking, flexible provisioning & capacity growth,” in Proc. of the European Conf. on Optical Communications, 2006, Th1.2.2.

Feuer, M.

Feuer, M. D.

M. D. Feuer, S. L. Woodward, P. Palacharla, X. Wang, I. Kim, and D. Bihon, “Intra-node contention in dynamic photonic networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 29, pp. 529–535, 2011.
[CrossRef]

P. Palacharla, X. Wang, I. Kim, D. Bihon, M. D. Feuer, and S. L. Woodward, “Blocking performance in dynamic optical networks based on colorless, non-directional ROADMs,” in Technical Digest of OFC/NFOEC 2011, 6–10 Mar. 2011, JWA8.

S. L. Woodward, M. D. Feuer, J. L. Jackel, and A. Agarwal, “Massively-scaleable highly-dynamic optical node design,” in Technical Digest of OFC/NFOEC 2010, 22–25 Mar. 2010, JThA18.

S. L. Woodward, M. D. Feuer, P. Palacharla, X. Wang, I. Kim, and D. Bihon, “Intra-node contention in a dynamic, colorless, non-directional ROADM,” in Technical Digest of OFC/NFOEC 2010, 22–25 Mar. 2010, PDPC8.

S. L. Woodward, M. D. Feuer, J. Calvitti, K. Falta, and J. M. Verdiell, “A high-degree photonic cross-connect for transparent networking, flexible provisioning & capacity growth,” in Proc. of the European Conf. on Optical Communications, 2006, Th1.2.2.

X. J. Zhang, M. Birk, A. Chiu, R. Doverspike, M. D. Feuer, P. Magill, E. Mavrogiorgis, J. Pastor, S. L. Woodward, and J. Yates, “Bridge-and-roll demonstration in GRIPhoN (Globally Reconfigurable Intelligent Photonic Network),” in Technical Digest of OFC/NFOEC 2010, 22–25 Mar. 2010, NThA1.

M. D. Feuer, D. C. Kilper, and S. L. Woodward, “ROADMs and their system applications” in Optical Fiber Telecommunications, Volume B: Systems and Networks. Elsevier Inc., London, UK, 2008, and references therein.

Gannett, J. W.

Jackel, J.

Jackel, J. L.

S. L. Woodward, M. D. Feuer, J. L. Jackel, and A. Agarwal, “Massively-scaleable highly-dynamic optical node design,” in Technical Digest of OFC/NFOEC 2010, 22–25 Mar. 2010, JThA18.

Kilper, D. C.

M. D. Feuer, D. C. Kilper, and S. L. Woodward, “ROADMs and their system applications” in Optical Fiber Telecommunications, Volume B: Systems and Networks. Elsevier Inc., London, UK, 2008, and references therein.

Kim, G. T.

Kim, I.

M. D. Feuer, S. L. Woodward, P. Palacharla, X. Wang, I. Kim, and D. Bihon, “Intra-node contention in dynamic photonic networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 29, pp. 529–535, 2011.
[CrossRef]

P. Palacharla, X. Wang, I. Kim, D. Bihon, M. D. Feuer, and S. L. Woodward, “Blocking performance in dynamic optical networks based on colorless, non-directional ROADMs,” in Technical Digest of OFC/NFOEC 2011, 6–10 Mar. 2011, JWA8.

S. L. Woodward, M. D. Feuer, P. Palacharla, X. Wang, I. Kim, and D. Bihon, “Intra-node contention in a dynamic, colorless, non-directional ROADM,” in Technical Digest of OFC/NFOEC 2010, 22–25 Mar. 2010, PDPC8.

Klincewicz, J. G.

Kwon, T. J.

Li, G.

Magill, P.

A. L. Chiu, G. Choudhury, G. Clapp, R. Doverspike, M. Feuer, J. W. Gannett, J. Jackel, G. T. Kim, J. G. Klincewicz, T. J. Kwon, G. Li, P. Magill, J. M. Simmons, R. A. Skoog, J. Strand, A. Von Lehmen, B. J. Wilson, S. L. Woodward, and D. Xu, “Architectures and protocols for capacity efficient, highly dynamic and highly resilient core networks,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol. 4, pp. 1–14, Jan.2012.
[CrossRef]

X. J. Zhang, M. Birk, A. Chiu, R. Doverspike, M. D. Feuer, P. Magill, E. Mavrogiorgis, J. Pastor, S. L. Woodward, and J. Yates, “Bridge-and-roll demonstration in GRIPhoN (Globally Reconfigurable Intelligent Photonic Network),” in Technical Digest of OFC/NFOEC 2010, 22–25 Mar. 2010, NThA1.

Mavrogiorgis, E.

X. J. Zhang, M. Birk, A. Chiu, R. Doverspike, M. D. Feuer, P. Magill, E. Mavrogiorgis, J. Pastor, S. L. Woodward, and J. Yates, “Bridge-and-roll demonstration in GRIPhoN (Globally Reconfigurable Intelligent Photonic Network),” in Technical Digest of OFC/NFOEC 2010, 22–25 Mar. 2010, NThA1.

Palacharla, P.

M. D. Feuer, S. L. Woodward, P. Palacharla, X. Wang, I. Kim, and D. Bihon, “Intra-node contention in dynamic photonic networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 29, pp. 529–535, 2011.
[CrossRef]

P. Palacharla, X. Wang, I. Kim, D. Bihon, M. D. Feuer, and S. L. Woodward, “Blocking performance in dynamic optical networks based on colorless, non-directional ROADMs,” in Technical Digest of OFC/NFOEC 2011, 6–10 Mar. 2011, JWA8.

S. L. Woodward, M. D. Feuer, P. Palacharla, X. Wang, I. Kim, and D. Bihon, “Intra-node contention in a dynamic, colorless, non-directional ROADM,” in Technical Digest of OFC/NFOEC 2010, 22–25 Mar. 2010, PDPC8.

Pastor, J.

X. J. Zhang, M. Birk, A. Chiu, R. Doverspike, M. D. Feuer, P. Magill, E. Mavrogiorgis, J. Pastor, S. L. Woodward, and J. Yates, “Bridge-and-roll demonstration in GRIPhoN (Globally Reconfigurable Intelligent Photonic Network),” in Technical Digest of OFC/NFOEC 2010, 22–25 Mar. 2010, NThA1.

Ramamurthy, B.

X. Yang and B. Ramamurthy, “Dynamic routing in translucent WDM optical networks,” in Proc. of IEEE ICC 2002, New York, Apr. 2002, vol. 5, pp. 2796–2802.

Roorda, P.

P. Roorda and B. Collings, “Evolution to colorless and directionless ROADM architectures,” in Technical Digest of OFC/NFOEC 2008, San Diego, CA, 2008, NWE2.

Simmons, J. M.

Skoog, R. A.

Strand, J.

Tse, K. A.

K. A. Tse and M. Birk, private communication.

Verdiell, J. M.

S. L. Woodward, M. D. Feuer, J. Calvitti, K. Falta, and J. M. Verdiell, “A high-degree photonic cross-connect for transparent networking, flexible provisioning & capacity growth,” in Proc. of the European Conf. on Optical Communications, 2006, Th1.2.2.

Von Lehmen, A.

Wang, X.

M. D. Feuer, S. L. Woodward, P. Palacharla, X. Wang, I. Kim, and D. Bihon, “Intra-node contention in dynamic photonic networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 29, pp. 529–535, 2011.
[CrossRef]

P. Palacharla, X. Wang, I. Kim, D. Bihon, M. D. Feuer, and S. L. Woodward, “Blocking performance in dynamic optical networks based on colorless, non-directional ROADMs,” in Technical Digest of OFC/NFOEC 2011, 6–10 Mar. 2011, JWA8.

S. L. Woodward, M. D. Feuer, P. Palacharla, X. Wang, I. Kim, and D. Bihon, “Intra-node contention in a dynamic, colorless, non-directional ROADM,” in Technical Digest of OFC/NFOEC 2010, 22–25 Mar. 2010, PDPC8.

Wellbrock, G.

G. Wellbrock, “Preparing for the future,” in Proc. ECOC, Torino, Italy, 2010, Th.9.G.1.

Wilson, B. J.

Woodward, S. L.

P. Palacharla, X. Wang, I. Kim, D. Bihon, M. D. Feuer, and S. L. Woodward, “Blocking performance in dynamic optical networks based on colorless, non-directional ROADMs,” in Technical Digest of OFC/NFOEC 2011, 6–10 Mar. 2011, JWA8.

Woodward, S. L.

A. L. Chiu, G. Choudhury, G. Clapp, R. Doverspike, M. Feuer, J. W. Gannett, J. Jackel, G. T. Kim, J. G. Klincewicz, T. J. Kwon, G. Li, P. Magill, J. M. Simmons, R. A. Skoog, J. Strand, A. Von Lehmen, B. J. Wilson, S. L. Woodward, and D. Xu, “Architectures and protocols for capacity efficient, highly dynamic and highly resilient core networks,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol. 4, pp. 1–14, Jan.2012.
[CrossRef]

M. D. Feuer, S. L. Woodward, P. Palacharla, X. Wang, I. Kim, and D. Bihon, “Intra-node contention in dynamic photonic networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 29, pp. 529–535, 2011.
[CrossRef]

S. L. Woodward, M. D. Feuer, P. Palacharla, X. Wang, I. Kim, and D. Bihon, “Intra-node contention in a dynamic, colorless, non-directional ROADM,” in Technical Digest of OFC/NFOEC 2010, 22–25 Mar. 2010, PDPC8.

S. L. Woodward, M. D. Feuer, J. L. Jackel, and A. Agarwal, “Massively-scaleable highly-dynamic optical node design,” in Technical Digest of OFC/NFOEC 2010, 22–25 Mar. 2010, JThA18.

S. L. Woodward, M. D. Feuer, J. Calvitti, K. Falta, and J. M. Verdiell, “A high-degree photonic cross-connect for transparent networking, flexible provisioning & capacity growth,” in Proc. of the European Conf. on Optical Communications, 2006, Th1.2.2.

M. D. Feuer, D. C. Kilper, and S. L. Woodward, “ROADMs and their system applications” in Optical Fiber Telecommunications, Volume B: Systems and Networks. Elsevier Inc., London, UK, 2008, and references therein.

X. J. Zhang, M. Birk, A. Chiu, R. Doverspike, M. D. Feuer, P. Magill, E. Mavrogiorgis, J. Pastor, S. L. Woodward, and J. Yates, “Bridge-and-roll demonstration in GRIPhoN (Globally Reconfigurable Intelligent Photonic Network),” in Technical Digest of OFC/NFOEC 2010, 22–25 Mar. 2010, NThA1.

Xu, D.

Yang, X.

X. Yang and B. Ramamurthy, “Dynamic routing in translucent WDM optical networks,” in Proc. of IEEE ICC 2002, New York, Apr. 2002, vol. 5, pp. 2796–2802.

Yates, J.

X. J. Zhang, M. Birk, A. Chiu, R. Doverspike, M. D. Feuer, P. Magill, E. Mavrogiorgis, J. Pastor, S. L. Woodward, and J. Yates, “Bridge-and-roll demonstration in GRIPhoN (Globally Reconfigurable Intelligent Photonic Network),” in Technical Digest of OFC/NFOEC 2010, 22–25 Mar. 2010, NThA1.

Zhang, X. J.

X. J. Zhang, M. Birk, A. Chiu, R. Doverspike, M. D. Feuer, P. Magill, E. Mavrogiorgis, J. Pastor, S. L. Woodward, and J. Yates, “Bridge-and-roll demonstration in GRIPhoN (Globally Reconfigurable Intelligent Photonic Network),” in Technical Digest of OFC/NFOEC 2010, 22–25 Mar. 2010, NThA1.

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

J. Opt. Commun. Netw. (1)

Other (12)

M. D. Feuer, D. C. Kilper, and S. L. Woodward, “ROADMs and their system applications” in Optical Fiber Telecommunications, Volume B: Systems and Networks. Elsevier Inc., London, UK, 2008, and references therein.

P. Palacharla, X. Wang, I. Kim, D. Bihon, M. D. Feuer, and S. L. Woodward, “Blocking performance in dynamic optical networks based on colorless, non-directional ROADMs,” in Technical Digest of OFC/NFOEC 2011, 6–10 Mar. 2011, JWA8.

Annual Estimates of the Population of Metropolitan and Micropolitan Statistical Areas: April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2009 (CBSA-EST2009-01), U.S. Census Bureau, Population Division, Mar.2010 [Online]. Available: http://www.census.gov/popest/data/metro/totals/2009/tables/CBSA-EST2009-01.xls.

The DARPA CORONET topology for the Contiguous United States (CONUS) [Online]. Available: http://monarchna.com/CORONET_CONUS_Topology.xls.

G. Wellbrock, “Preparing for the future,” in Proc. ECOC, Torino, Italy, 2010, Th.9.G.1.

X. J. Zhang, M. Birk, A. Chiu, R. Doverspike, M. D. Feuer, P. Magill, E. Mavrogiorgis, J. Pastor, S. L. Woodward, and J. Yates, “Bridge-and-roll demonstration in GRIPhoN (Globally Reconfigurable Intelligent Photonic Network),” in Technical Digest of OFC/NFOEC 2010, 22–25 Mar. 2010, NThA1.

K. A. Tse and M. Birk, private communication.

P. Roorda and B. Collings, “Evolution to colorless and directionless ROADM architectures,” in Technical Digest of OFC/NFOEC 2008, San Diego, CA, 2008, NWE2.

S. L. Woodward, M. D. Feuer, J. Calvitti, K. Falta, and J. M. Verdiell, “A high-degree photonic cross-connect for transparent networking, flexible provisioning & capacity growth,” in Proc. of the European Conf. on Optical Communications, 2006, Th1.2.2.

S. L. Woodward, M. D. Feuer, J. L. Jackel, and A. Agarwal, “Massively-scaleable highly-dynamic optical node design,” in Technical Digest of OFC/NFOEC 2010, 22–25 Mar. 2010, JThA18.

X. Yang and B. Ramamurthy, “Dynamic routing in translucent WDM optical networks,” in Proc. of IEEE ICC 2002, New York, Apr. 2002, vol. 5, pp. 2796–2802.

S. L. Woodward, M. D. Feuer, P. Palacharla, X. Wang, I. Kim, and D. Bihon, “Intra-node contention in a dynamic, colorless, non-directional ROADM,” in Technical Digest of OFC/NFOEC 2010, 22–25 Mar. 2010, PDPC8.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The network topology is a modified version of the DARPA CORONET topology for the Contiguous United States [15]. This topology has 75 nodes and 99 links; the link distance of the three links shown as solid lines was truncated to 1000 km so that simulations could be performed with an optical reach of 1000 km. The original distance of all three of these links was below 1225 km.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(Color online) The ROADM architecture uses a broadcast and select core and is both colorless and non-directional [8,9]. Because of wavelength contention on the connection between the colorless mux/demux and the ROADM core, to support same-wavelength regeneration, each regenerator must connect to two different mux/demux banks, effectively grouping regenerators into B(B1)/2 regenerator sets.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(Color online) The regenerator usage for the case with a uniform traffic model, an optical reach of 1000 km, and (Rini,Radd)=(1,2). The curves only cover the zero-blocking regime and stop at 900 connection requests. (a) Regenerator usage for various service velocity algorithms. The number of regenerators in use is the same for all cases. For comparison, results with an idealized CNC ROADM are also included. (b) The ratio of the number of idle regenerators over the total number of regenerators.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(Color online) The regenerator usage for the case with a population-based traffic model, an optical reach of 1000 km, and (Rini,Radd)=(1,2). As in Fig. 3, the curves only cover the zero-blocking regime. (a) Regenerator usage for various service velocity algorithms. (b) The ratio of the number of idle regenerators over the total number of regenerators.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(Color online) The effect on regenerator usage when the minimum number of regenerators deployed per truck roll is doubled (solid curves: (Rini,Radd)=(2,4); dashed lines: (Rini,Radd)=(1,2)). The dashed lines are identical to the data presented in Fig. 4. Both cases used a population-based traffic model and an optical reach of 1000 km. (a) Regenerator usage for various service velocity algorithms. (b) The ratio of the number of idle regenerators over the total number of regenerators. (c) The number of truck rolls.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(Color online) Regenerator usage for the case with a population-based traffic model, an optical reach of 2000 km, and (Rini,Radd)=(1,2). For comparison, data shown in Fig. 4 with an optical reach of 1000 km is included as dashed lines. (a) Regenerator usage for various service velocity algorithms. (b) The ratio of the number of idle regenerators over the total number of regenerators. (c) The number of truck rolls.