Abstract

The mass deployment of fiber access networks is probably the most important network upgrade strategy for operators over the coming decade. Next-generation networks, and in particular the long-reach passive optical network (LR-PON) solution, aim to increase the long-term economic viability and sustainability of fiber-to-the-premises (FTTP) deployment. The LR-PON solution achieves this by minimizing the number of nodes and the amount of electronic equipment required within the network. Since an LR-PON replaces the metro backhaul network, which is usually a protected part of the network, protecting the long-reach part of an LR-PON against failure becomes a critical issue that needs to be taken into account. In this paper, we introduce a novel protection mechanism which, by spreading the load generated by a node failure over the network, can significantly reduce the overall protection capacity required. We then present a practical FTTP deployment scenario based on our protected LR-PON architecture for a European country. The problem is modeled using integer linear programming, and the optimization results, obtained using a real dataset provided by a national operator, show that a small number of metro/core nodes can provide protected connection to FTTP users. By applying a detailed cost model to the outcome of the optimization, we are able to show that our LR-PON deployment strategy, which minimizes the overall protection capacity, rather than just minimizing fiber distances in the LR-PON, can significantly reduce costs.

© 2012 OSA

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. Cisco Systems Inc., Cisco Visual Networking Index: Forecast and Methodology (2009–2014).
  2. D. B. Payne, “World bandwidth growth over the next decade is it viable?” CIP Technologies White Paper, 2008.
  3. A. M. Hill, R. Wyatt, J. F. Massicott, K. Blyth, D. S. Forrester, R. A. Lobbett, P. J. Smith, and D. B. Payne, “39.5 million-way WDM broadcast network employing two stages of erbium-doped fibre amplifiers,” Electron. Lett., vol. 26, no. 22, pp. 1882–1884, 1990.
    [CrossRef]
  4. D. B. Payne and R. P. Davey, “The future of fibre access systems?” BT Technol. J., vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 104–114, 2002.
    [CrossRef]
  5. C. Bouchat, C. Martin, E. Ringoot, M. Tassent, I. Van de Voorde, B. Stubbe, P. Vaes, X. Z. Qiu, and J. Vandewege, “Evaluation of SuperPON demonstrator,” in Proc. IEEE LEOS, 2000, ThC 2.3.
  6. P. D. Townsend, G. Talli, E. K. MacHale, and C. Antony, “Long reach PONs,” in Proc. IEICE COIN, 2008.
  7. D. Nesset, D. B. Payne, R. P. Davey, and T. Gilfedder, “Demonstration of enhanced reach and split of a GPON system using semiconductor optical amplifiers,” in Proc. IEEE ECOC, 2006, pp. 1–2.
  8. D. B. Payne, “FTTP deployment options and economic challenges,” in Proc. IEEE ECOC, 2009, 1.6.1.
  9. H. Song, B.-W. Kim, and B. Mukherjee, “Long-reach optical access networks: a survey of research challenges, demonstrations, and bandwidth assignment mechanisms,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 112–123, 2010.
    [CrossRef]
  10. K. I. Suzuki, Y. Fukada, D. Nesset, and R. Davey, “Amplified gigabit PON systems,” J. Opt. Netw., vol. 6, no. 5, pp. 422–433, 2007.
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. O. Van Deventer, J. D. Angelopoulos, H. Binsma, A. J. Boot, P. Crahay, E. Jaunart, P. J. M. Peters, A. J. Phillips, X. Z. Qiu, J. M. Senior, M. Valvo, J. Vandewege, P. J. Vetter, and I. Van de Voorde, “Architecture for 100 km 2048 split bidirectional SuperPONs from ACTS-PLANET,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 2919, pp. 245–251, 1996.
  12. R. P. Davey, P. Healey, I. Hope, P. Watkinson, D. B. Payne, O. Marmur, J. Ruhmann, and Y. Zuiderveld, “DWDM reach extension of a GPON to 135 km,” in Proc. IEEE/OSA OFC, 2005.
  13. T. Nakanishi, K. I. Suzuki, Y. Fukada, N. Yoshimoto, M. Nakamura, K. Kato, K. Nishimura, Y. Ohtomo, and M. Tsubokawa, “High sensitivity APD burst-mode receiver for 10 Gbit/s TDM-PON system,” IEICE Electron. Express, vol. 4, no. 10, pp. 588–592, 2007.
    [CrossRef]
  14. G. Talli, C. W. Chow, P. Townsend, R. P. Davey, T. De Ridder, X. Z. Qiu, P. Ossieur, H. G. Krimmel, D. Smith, I. Lealman, A. Poustie, S. Randel, and H. Rohde, “Integrated metro and access network: PIEMAN,” in Proc. European Conf. Networks and Optical Communications, 2007.
  15. H. Song, A. Banerjee, B.-W. Kim, and B. Mukherjee, “Multi-thread polling: a dynamic bandwidth distribution scheme in long-reach PON,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 134–142, 2009Please provide page number in Refs. [15, 18]..
    [CrossRef]
  16. M. Ruffini, D. B. Payne, and L. Doyle, “Protection strategies for long-reach PON,” in Proc. ECOC 10, Tu.5.B.2.
  17. ITU-T, “Gigabit-capable passive optical networks (GPON): General characteristics,” Recommendation G.984.1, 2008.
  18. A. J. Phillips, J. M. Senior, R Mercinelli, M. Valvo, P. J. Vetter, C. M Martin, M. O. Van Deventer, P. Vaes, and X. Z. Qiu, “Redundancy strategies for a high splitting optically amplified passive optical network,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 137–149, 2001.
    [CrossRef]
  19. B. W. Kim, “Introduction to WDM-PON and WE-PON,” Working Document, ETRI, 2007.
  20. J. A. Lazaro, J. Prat, P. Chanclou, G. M. Tosi Beleffi, A. Teixeira, I. Tomkos, R. Soila, and V. Koratzinos, “Scalable extended reach PON,” in Proc. IEEE/OSA OFC, 2008, OThL2.
  21. D. K. Hunter, Z. Lu, and T. H. Gilfedder, “Protection of long-reach PON traffic through router database synchronization,” J. Opt. Netw., vol. 6, no. 5, pp. 535–549, 2007.
    [CrossRef]
  22. P. Sebos, J. Yates, G. Li, D. Wang, A. Greenberg, M. Lazer, C. Kalmanek, and D. Rubenstein, “Ultra-fast IP link and interface provisioning with applications to IP restoration,” in Proc. IFIP Int. Conf. Network and Parallel Computing, 2007.
  23. M. de Berg, O. Cheong, M. van Kreveld, and M. Overmars, Computational Geometry: Algorithms and Applications. Springer-Verlag, 2000.
  24. http://www-01.ibm.com/software/integration/optimization/cplex-optimizer/.
  25. D. Mehta, B. O’Sullivan, L. Quesada, M. Ruffini, D. Payne, and L. Doyle, “Designing resilient long-reach passive optical networks,” in Proc. Conf. Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence, 2011.
  26. J. Kang, M. Wilkinson, K. Smith, and D. Nesset, “Restoration of ethernet services over a dual-homed GPON system,” in Proc. OSA OFC, 2008, NWD2.

2010 (1)

H. Song, B.-W. Kim, and B. Mukherjee, “Long-reach optical access networks: a survey of research challenges, demonstrations, and bandwidth assignment mechanisms,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 112–123, 2010.
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

H. Song, A. Banerjee, B.-W. Kim, and B. Mukherjee, “Multi-thread polling: a dynamic bandwidth distribution scheme in long-reach PON,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 134–142, 2009Please provide page number in Refs. [15, 18]..
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

K. I. Suzuki, Y. Fukada, D. Nesset, and R. Davey, “Amplified gigabit PON systems,” J. Opt. Netw., vol. 6, no. 5, pp. 422–433, 2007.
[CrossRef]

D. K. Hunter, Z. Lu, and T. H. Gilfedder, “Protection of long-reach PON traffic through router database synchronization,” J. Opt. Netw., vol. 6, no. 5, pp. 535–549, 2007.
[CrossRef]

T. Nakanishi, K. I. Suzuki, Y. Fukada, N. Yoshimoto, M. Nakamura, K. Kato, K. Nishimura, Y. Ohtomo, and M. Tsubokawa, “High sensitivity APD burst-mode receiver for 10 Gbit/s TDM-PON system,” IEICE Electron. Express, vol. 4, no. 10, pp. 588–592, 2007.
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

D. B. Payne and R. P. Davey, “The future of fibre access systems?” BT Technol. J., vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 104–114, 2002.
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

1996 (1)

M. O. Van Deventer, J. D. Angelopoulos, H. Binsma, A. J. Boot, P. Crahay, E. Jaunart, P. J. M. Peters, A. J. Phillips, X. Z. Qiu, J. M. Senior, M. Valvo, J. Vandewege, P. J. Vetter, and I. Van de Voorde, “Architecture for 100 km 2048 split bidirectional SuperPONs from ACTS-PLANET,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 2919, pp. 245–251, 1996.

1990 (1)

A. M. Hill, R. Wyatt, J. F. Massicott, K. Blyth, D. S. Forrester, R. A. Lobbett, P. J. Smith, and D. B. Payne, “39.5 million-way WDM broadcast network employing two stages of erbium-doped fibre amplifiers,” Electron. Lett., vol. 26, no. 22, pp. 1882–1884, 1990.
[CrossRef]

Angelopoulos, J. D.

M. O. Van Deventer, J. D. Angelopoulos, H. Binsma, A. J. Boot, P. Crahay, E. Jaunart, P. J. M. Peters, A. J. Phillips, X. Z. Qiu, J. M. Senior, M. Valvo, J. Vandewege, P. J. Vetter, and I. Van de Voorde, “Architecture for 100 km 2048 split bidirectional SuperPONs from ACTS-PLANET,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 2919, pp. 245–251, 1996.

Antony, C.

P. D. Townsend, G. Talli, E. K. MacHale, and C. Antony, “Long reach PONs,” in Proc. IEICE COIN, 2008.

Banerjee, A.

H. Song, A. Banerjee, B.-W. Kim, and B. Mukherjee, “Multi-thread polling: a dynamic bandwidth distribution scheme in long-reach PON,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 134–142, 2009Please provide page number in Refs. [15, 18]..
[CrossRef]

Binsma, H.

M. O. Van Deventer, J. D. Angelopoulos, H. Binsma, A. J. Boot, P. Crahay, E. Jaunart, P. J. M. Peters, A. J. Phillips, X. Z. Qiu, J. M. Senior, M. Valvo, J. Vandewege, P. J. Vetter, and I. Van de Voorde, “Architecture for 100 km 2048 split bidirectional SuperPONs from ACTS-PLANET,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 2919, pp. 245–251, 1996.

Blyth, K.

A. M. Hill, R. Wyatt, J. F. Massicott, K. Blyth, D. S. Forrester, R. A. Lobbett, P. J. Smith, and D. B. Payne, “39.5 million-way WDM broadcast network employing two stages of erbium-doped fibre amplifiers,” Electron. Lett., vol. 26, no. 22, pp. 1882–1884, 1990.
[CrossRef]

Boot, A. J.

M. O. Van Deventer, J. D. Angelopoulos, H. Binsma, A. J. Boot, P. Crahay, E. Jaunart, P. J. M. Peters, A. J. Phillips, X. Z. Qiu, J. M. Senior, M. Valvo, J. Vandewege, P. J. Vetter, and I. Van de Voorde, “Architecture for 100 km 2048 split bidirectional SuperPONs from ACTS-PLANET,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 2919, pp. 245–251, 1996.

Bouchat, C.

C. Bouchat, C. Martin, E. Ringoot, M. Tassent, I. Van de Voorde, B. Stubbe, P. Vaes, X. Z. Qiu, and J. Vandewege, “Evaluation of SuperPON demonstrator,” in Proc. IEEE LEOS, 2000, ThC 2.3.

Chanclou, P.

J. A. Lazaro, J. Prat, P. Chanclou, G. M. Tosi Beleffi, A. Teixeira, I. Tomkos, R. Soila, and V. Koratzinos, “Scalable extended reach PON,” in Proc. IEEE/OSA OFC, 2008, OThL2.

Cheong, O.

M. de Berg, O. Cheong, M. van Kreveld, and M. Overmars, Computational Geometry: Algorithms and Applications. Springer-Verlag, 2000.

Chow, C. W.

G. Talli, C. W. Chow, P. Townsend, R. P. Davey, T. De Ridder, X. Z. Qiu, P. Ossieur, H. G. Krimmel, D. Smith, I. Lealman, A. Poustie, S. Randel, and H. Rohde, “Integrated metro and access network: PIEMAN,” in Proc. European Conf. Networks and Optical Communications, 2007.

Crahay, P.

M. O. Van Deventer, J. D. Angelopoulos, H. Binsma, A. J. Boot, P. Crahay, E. Jaunart, P. J. M. Peters, A. J. Phillips, X. Z. Qiu, J. M. Senior, M. Valvo, J. Vandewege, P. J. Vetter, and I. Van de Voorde, “Architecture for 100 km 2048 split bidirectional SuperPONs from ACTS-PLANET,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 2919, pp. 245–251, 1996.

Davey, R.

Davey, R. P.

D. B. Payne and R. P. Davey, “The future of fibre access systems?” BT Technol. J., vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 104–114, 2002.
[CrossRef]

G. Talli, C. W. Chow, P. Townsend, R. P. Davey, T. De Ridder, X. Z. Qiu, P. Ossieur, H. G. Krimmel, D. Smith, I. Lealman, A. Poustie, S. Randel, and H. Rohde, “Integrated metro and access network: PIEMAN,” in Proc. European Conf. Networks and Optical Communications, 2007.

D. Nesset, D. B. Payne, R. P. Davey, and T. Gilfedder, “Demonstration of enhanced reach and split of a GPON system using semiconductor optical amplifiers,” in Proc. IEEE ECOC, 2006, pp. 1–2.

R. P. Davey, P. Healey, I. Hope, P. Watkinson, D. B. Payne, O. Marmur, J. Ruhmann, and Y. Zuiderveld, “DWDM reach extension of a GPON to 135 km,” in Proc. IEEE/OSA OFC, 2005.

de Berg, M.

M. de Berg, O. Cheong, M. van Kreveld, and M. Overmars, Computational Geometry: Algorithms and Applications. Springer-Verlag, 2000.

De Ridder, T.

G. Talli, C. W. Chow, P. Townsend, R. P. Davey, T. De Ridder, X. Z. Qiu, P. Ossieur, H. G. Krimmel, D. Smith, I. Lealman, A. Poustie, S. Randel, and H. Rohde, “Integrated metro and access network: PIEMAN,” in Proc. European Conf. Networks and Optical Communications, 2007.

Doyle, L.

D. Mehta, B. O’Sullivan, L. Quesada, M. Ruffini, D. Payne, and L. Doyle, “Designing resilient long-reach passive optical networks,” in Proc. Conf. Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence, 2011.

M. Ruffini, D. B. Payne, and L. Doyle, “Protection strategies for long-reach PON,” in Proc. ECOC 10, Tu.5.B.2.

Forrester, D. S.

A. M. Hill, R. Wyatt, J. F. Massicott, K. Blyth, D. S. Forrester, R. A. Lobbett, P. J. Smith, and D. B. Payne, “39.5 million-way WDM broadcast network employing two stages of erbium-doped fibre amplifiers,” Electron. Lett., vol. 26, no. 22, pp. 1882–1884, 1990.
[CrossRef]

Fukada, Y.

T. Nakanishi, K. I. Suzuki, Y. Fukada, N. Yoshimoto, M. Nakamura, K. Kato, K. Nishimura, Y. Ohtomo, and M. Tsubokawa, “High sensitivity APD burst-mode receiver for 10 Gbit/s TDM-PON system,” IEICE Electron. Express, vol. 4, no. 10, pp. 588–592, 2007.
[CrossRef]

K. I. Suzuki, Y. Fukada, D. Nesset, and R. Davey, “Amplified gigabit PON systems,” J. Opt. Netw., vol. 6, no. 5, pp. 422–433, 2007.
[CrossRef]

Gilfedder, T.

D. Nesset, D. B. Payne, R. P. Davey, and T. Gilfedder, “Demonstration of enhanced reach and split of a GPON system using semiconductor optical amplifiers,” in Proc. IEEE ECOC, 2006, pp. 1–2.

Gilfedder, T. H.

Greenberg, A.

P. Sebos, J. Yates, G. Li, D. Wang, A. Greenberg, M. Lazer, C. Kalmanek, and D. Rubenstein, “Ultra-fast IP link and interface provisioning with applications to IP restoration,” in Proc. IFIP Int. Conf. Network and Parallel Computing, 2007.

Healey, P.

R. P. Davey, P. Healey, I. Hope, P. Watkinson, D. B. Payne, O. Marmur, J. Ruhmann, and Y. Zuiderveld, “DWDM reach extension of a GPON to 135 km,” in Proc. IEEE/OSA OFC, 2005.

Hill, A. M.

A. M. Hill, R. Wyatt, J. F. Massicott, K. Blyth, D. S. Forrester, R. A. Lobbett, P. J. Smith, and D. B. Payne, “39.5 million-way WDM broadcast network employing two stages of erbium-doped fibre amplifiers,” Electron. Lett., vol. 26, no. 22, pp. 1882–1884, 1990.
[CrossRef]

Hope, I.

R. P. Davey, P. Healey, I. Hope, P. Watkinson, D. B. Payne, O. Marmur, J. Ruhmann, and Y. Zuiderveld, “DWDM reach extension of a GPON to 135 km,” in Proc. IEEE/OSA OFC, 2005.

Hunter, D. K.

Jaunart, E.

M. O. Van Deventer, J. D. Angelopoulos, H. Binsma, A. J. Boot, P. Crahay, E. Jaunart, P. J. M. Peters, A. J. Phillips, X. Z. Qiu, J. M. Senior, M. Valvo, J. Vandewege, P. J. Vetter, and I. Van de Voorde, “Architecture for 100 km 2048 split bidirectional SuperPONs from ACTS-PLANET,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 2919, pp. 245–251, 1996.

Kalmanek, C.

P. Sebos, J. Yates, G. Li, D. Wang, A. Greenberg, M. Lazer, C. Kalmanek, and D. Rubenstein, “Ultra-fast IP link and interface provisioning with applications to IP restoration,” in Proc. IFIP Int. Conf. Network and Parallel Computing, 2007.

Kang, J.

J. Kang, M. Wilkinson, K. Smith, and D. Nesset, “Restoration of ethernet services over a dual-homed GPON system,” in Proc. OSA OFC, 2008, NWD2.

Kato, K.

T. Nakanishi, K. I. Suzuki, Y. Fukada, N. Yoshimoto, M. Nakamura, K. Kato, K. Nishimura, Y. Ohtomo, and M. Tsubokawa, “High sensitivity APD burst-mode receiver for 10 Gbit/s TDM-PON system,” IEICE Electron. Express, vol. 4, no. 10, pp. 588–592, 2007.
[CrossRef]

Kim, B. W.

B. W. Kim, “Introduction to WDM-PON and WE-PON,” Working Document, ETRI, 2007.

Kim, B.-W.

H. Song, B.-W. Kim, and B. Mukherjee, “Long-reach optical access networks: a survey of research challenges, demonstrations, and bandwidth assignment mechanisms,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 112–123, 2010.
[CrossRef]

H. Song, A. Banerjee, B.-W. Kim, and B. Mukherjee, “Multi-thread polling: a dynamic bandwidth distribution scheme in long-reach PON,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 134–142, 2009Please provide page number in Refs. [15, 18]..
[CrossRef]

Koratzinos, V.

J. A. Lazaro, J. Prat, P. Chanclou, G. M. Tosi Beleffi, A. Teixeira, I. Tomkos, R. Soila, and V. Koratzinos, “Scalable extended reach PON,” in Proc. IEEE/OSA OFC, 2008, OThL2.

Krimmel, H. G.

G. Talli, C. W. Chow, P. Townsend, R. P. Davey, T. De Ridder, X. Z. Qiu, P. Ossieur, H. G. Krimmel, D. Smith, I. Lealman, A. Poustie, S. Randel, and H. Rohde, “Integrated metro and access network: PIEMAN,” in Proc. European Conf. Networks and Optical Communications, 2007.

Lazaro, J. A.

J. A. Lazaro, J. Prat, P. Chanclou, G. M. Tosi Beleffi, A. Teixeira, I. Tomkos, R. Soila, and V. Koratzinos, “Scalable extended reach PON,” in Proc. IEEE/OSA OFC, 2008, OThL2.

Lazer, M.

P. Sebos, J. Yates, G. Li, D. Wang, A. Greenberg, M. Lazer, C. Kalmanek, and D. Rubenstein, “Ultra-fast IP link and interface provisioning with applications to IP restoration,” in Proc. IFIP Int. Conf. Network and Parallel Computing, 2007.

Lealman, I.

G. Talli, C. W. Chow, P. Townsend, R. P. Davey, T. De Ridder, X. Z. Qiu, P. Ossieur, H. G. Krimmel, D. Smith, I. Lealman, A. Poustie, S. Randel, and H. Rohde, “Integrated metro and access network: PIEMAN,” in Proc. European Conf. Networks and Optical Communications, 2007.

Li, G.

P. Sebos, J. Yates, G. Li, D. Wang, A. Greenberg, M. Lazer, C. Kalmanek, and D. Rubenstein, “Ultra-fast IP link and interface provisioning with applications to IP restoration,” in Proc. IFIP Int. Conf. Network and Parallel Computing, 2007.

Lobbett, R. A.

A. M. Hill, R. Wyatt, J. F. Massicott, K. Blyth, D. S. Forrester, R. A. Lobbett, P. J. Smith, and D. B. Payne, “39.5 million-way WDM broadcast network employing two stages of erbium-doped fibre amplifiers,” Electron. Lett., vol. 26, no. 22, pp. 1882–1884, 1990.
[CrossRef]

Lu, Z.

MacHale, E. K.

P. D. Townsend, G. Talli, E. K. MacHale, and C. Antony, “Long reach PONs,” in Proc. IEICE COIN, 2008.

Marmur, O.

R. P. Davey, P. Healey, I. Hope, P. Watkinson, D. B. Payne, O. Marmur, J. Ruhmann, and Y. Zuiderveld, “DWDM reach extension of a GPON to 135 km,” in Proc. IEEE/OSA OFC, 2005.

Martin, C.

C. Bouchat, C. Martin, E. Ringoot, M. Tassent, I. Van de Voorde, B. Stubbe, P. Vaes, X. Z. Qiu, and J. Vandewege, “Evaluation of SuperPON demonstrator,” in Proc. IEEE LEOS, 2000, ThC 2.3.

Martin, C. M

Massicott, J. F.

A. M. Hill, R. Wyatt, J. F. Massicott, K. Blyth, D. S. Forrester, R. A. Lobbett, P. J. Smith, and D. B. Payne, “39.5 million-way WDM broadcast network employing two stages of erbium-doped fibre amplifiers,” Electron. Lett., vol. 26, no. 22, pp. 1882–1884, 1990.
[CrossRef]

Mehta, D.

D. Mehta, B. O’Sullivan, L. Quesada, M. Ruffini, D. Payne, and L. Doyle, “Designing resilient long-reach passive optical networks,” in Proc. Conf. Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence, 2011.

Mercinelli, R

Mukherjee, B.

H. Song, B.-W. Kim, and B. Mukherjee, “Long-reach optical access networks: a survey of research challenges, demonstrations, and bandwidth assignment mechanisms,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 112–123, 2010.
[CrossRef]

H. Song, A. Banerjee, B.-W. Kim, and B. Mukherjee, “Multi-thread polling: a dynamic bandwidth distribution scheme in long-reach PON,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 134–142, 2009Please provide page number in Refs. [15, 18]..
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, M.

T. Nakanishi, K. I. Suzuki, Y. Fukada, N. Yoshimoto, M. Nakamura, K. Kato, K. Nishimura, Y. Ohtomo, and M. Tsubokawa, “High sensitivity APD burst-mode receiver for 10 Gbit/s TDM-PON system,” IEICE Electron. Express, vol. 4, no. 10, pp. 588–592, 2007.
[CrossRef]

Nakanishi, T.

T. Nakanishi, K. I. Suzuki, Y. Fukada, N. Yoshimoto, M. Nakamura, K. Kato, K. Nishimura, Y. Ohtomo, and M. Tsubokawa, “High sensitivity APD burst-mode receiver for 10 Gbit/s TDM-PON system,” IEICE Electron. Express, vol. 4, no. 10, pp. 588–592, 2007.
[CrossRef]

Nesset, D.

K. I. Suzuki, Y. Fukada, D. Nesset, and R. Davey, “Amplified gigabit PON systems,” J. Opt. Netw., vol. 6, no. 5, pp. 422–433, 2007.
[CrossRef]

J. Kang, M. Wilkinson, K. Smith, and D. Nesset, “Restoration of ethernet services over a dual-homed GPON system,” in Proc. OSA OFC, 2008, NWD2.

D. Nesset, D. B. Payne, R. P. Davey, and T. Gilfedder, “Demonstration of enhanced reach and split of a GPON system using semiconductor optical amplifiers,” in Proc. IEEE ECOC, 2006, pp. 1–2.

Nishimura, K.

T. Nakanishi, K. I. Suzuki, Y. Fukada, N. Yoshimoto, M. Nakamura, K. Kato, K. Nishimura, Y. Ohtomo, and M. Tsubokawa, “High sensitivity APD burst-mode receiver for 10 Gbit/s TDM-PON system,” IEICE Electron. Express, vol. 4, no. 10, pp. 588–592, 2007.
[CrossRef]

O’Sullivan, B.

D. Mehta, B. O’Sullivan, L. Quesada, M. Ruffini, D. Payne, and L. Doyle, “Designing resilient long-reach passive optical networks,” in Proc. Conf. Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence, 2011.

Ohtomo, Y.

T. Nakanishi, K. I. Suzuki, Y. Fukada, N. Yoshimoto, M. Nakamura, K. Kato, K. Nishimura, Y. Ohtomo, and M. Tsubokawa, “High sensitivity APD burst-mode receiver for 10 Gbit/s TDM-PON system,” IEICE Electron. Express, vol. 4, no. 10, pp. 588–592, 2007.
[CrossRef]

Ossieur, P.

G. Talli, C. W. Chow, P. Townsend, R. P. Davey, T. De Ridder, X. Z. Qiu, P. Ossieur, H. G. Krimmel, D. Smith, I. Lealman, A. Poustie, S. Randel, and H. Rohde, “Integrated metro and access network: PIEMAN,” in Proc. European Conf. Networks and Optical Communications, 2007.

Overmars, M.

M. de Berg, O. Cheong, M. van Kreveld, and M. Overmars, Computational Geometry: Algorithms and Applications. Springer-Verlag, 2000.

Payne, D.

D. Mehta, B. O’Sullivan, L. Quesada, M. Ruffini, D. Payne, and L. Doyle, “Designing resilient long-reach passive optical networks,” in Proc. Conf. Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence, 2011.

Payne, D. B.

D. B. Payne and R. P. Davey, “The future of fibre access systems?” BT Technol. J., vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 104–114, 2002.
[CrossRef]

A. M. Hill, R. Wyatt, J. F. Massicott, K. Blyth, D. S. Forrester, R. A. Lobbett, P. J. Smith, and D. B. Payne, “39.5 million-way WDM broadcast network employing two stages of erbium-doped fibre amplifiers,” Electron. Lett., vol. 26, no. 22, pp. 1882–1884, 1990.
[CrossRef]

D. B. Payne, “World bandwidth growth over the next decade is it viable?” CIP Technologies White Paper, 2008.

D. Nesset, D. B. Payne, R. P. Davey, and T. Gilfedder, “Demonstration of enhanced reach and split of a GPON system using semiconductor optical amplifiers,” in Proc. IEEE ECOC, 2006, pp. 1–2.

R. P. Davey, P. Healey, I. Hope, P. Watkinson, D. B. Payne, O. Marmur, J. Ruhmann, and Y. Zuiderveld, “DWDM reach extension of a GPON to 135 km,” in Proc. IEEE/OSA OFC, 2005.

D. B. Payne, “FTTP deployment options and economic challenges,” in Proc. IEEE ECOC, 2009, 1.6.1.

M. Ruffini, D. B. Payne, and L. Doyle, “Protection strategies for long-reach PON,” in Proc. ECOC 10, Tu.5.B.2.

Peters, P. J. M.

M. O. Van Deventer, J. D. Angelopoulos, H. Binsma, A. J. Boot, P. Crahay, E. Jaunart, P. J. M. Peters, A. J. Phillips, X. Z. Qiu, J. M. Senior, M. Valvo, J. Vandewege, P. J. Vetter, and I. Van de Voorde, “Architecture for 100 km 2048 split bidirectional SuperPONs from ACTS-PLANET,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 2919, pp. 245–251, 1996.

Phillips, A. J.

A. J. Phillips, J. M. Senior, R Mercinelli, M. Valvo, P. J. Vetter, C. M Martin, M. O. Van Deventer, P. Vaes, and X. Z. Qiu, “Redundancy strategies for a high splitting optically amplified passive optical network,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 137–149, 2001.
[CrossRef]

M. O. Van Deventer, J. D. Angelopoulos, H. Binsma, A. J. Boot, P. Crahay, E. Jaunart, P. J. M. Peters, A. J. Phillips, X. Z. Qiu, J. M. Senior, M. Valvo, J. Vandewege, P. J. Vetter, and I. Van de Voorde, “Architecture for 100 km 2048 split bidirectional SuperPONs from ACTS-PLANET,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 2919, pp. 245–251, 1996.

Poustie, A.

G. Talli, C. W. Chow, P. Townsend, R. P. Davey, T. De Ridder, X. Z. Qiu, P. Ossieur, H. G. Krimmel, D. Smith, I. Lealman, A. Poustie, S. Randel, and H. Rohde, “Integrated metro and access network: PIEMAN,” in Proc. European Conf. Networks and Optical Communications, 2007.

Prat, J.

J. A. Lazaro, J. Prat, P. Chanclou, G. M. Tosi Beleffi, A. Teixeira, I. Tomkos, R. Soila, and V. Koratzinos, “Scalable extended reach PON,” in Proc. IEEE/OSA OFC, 2008, OThL2.

Qiu, X. Z.

A. J. Phillips, J. M. Senior, R Mercinelli, M. Valvo, P. J. Vetter, C. M Martin, M. O. Van Deventer, P. Vaes, and X. Z. Qiu, “Redundancy strategies for a high splitting optically amplified passive optical network,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 137–149, 2001.
[CrossRef]

M. O. Van Deventer, J. D. Angelopoulos, H. Binsma, A. J. Boot, P. Crahay, E. Jaunart, P. J. M. Peters, A. J. Phillips, X. Z. Qiu, J. M. Senior, M. Valvo, J. Vandewege, P. J. Vetter, and I. Van de Voorde, “Architecture for 100 km 2048 split bidirectional SuperPONs from ACTS-PLANET,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 2919, pp. 245–251, 1996.

C. Bouchat, C. Martin, E. Ringoot, M. Tassent, I. Van de Voorde, B. Stubbe, P. Vaes, X. Z. Qiu, and J. Vandewege, “Evaluation of SuperPON demonstrator,” in Proc. IEEE LEOS, 2000, ThC 2.3.

G. Talli, C. W. Chow, P. Townsend, R. P. Davey, T. De Ridder, X. Z. Qiu, P. Ossieur, H. G. Krimmel, D. Smith, I. Lealman, A. Poustie, S. Randel, and H. Rohde, “Integrated metro and access network: PIEMAN,” in Proc. European Conf. Networks and Optical Communications, 2007.

Quesada, L.

D. Mehta, B. O’Sullivan, L. Quesada, M. Ruffini, D. Payne, and L. Doyle, “Designing resilient long-reach passive optical networks,” in Proc. Conf. Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence, 2011.

Randel, S.

G. Talli, C. W. Chow, P. Townsend, R. P. Davey, T. De Ridder, X. Z. Qiu, P. Ossieur, H. G. Krimmel, D. Smith, I. Lealman, A. Poustie, S. Randel, and H. Rohde, “Integrated metro and access network: PIEMAN,” in Proc. European Conf. Networks and Optical Communications, 2007.

Ringoot, E.

C. Bouchat, C. Martin, E. Ringoot, M. Tassent, I. Van de Voorde, B. Stubbe, P. Vaes, X. Z. Qiu, and J. Vandewege, “Evaluation of SuperPON demonstrator,” in Proc. IEEE LEOS, 2000, ThC 2.3.

Rohde, H.

G. Talli, C. W. Chow, P. Townsend, R. P. Davey, T. De Ridder, X. Z. Qiu, P. Ossieur, H. G. Krimmel, D. Smith, I. Lealman, A. Poustie, S. Randel, and H. Rohde, “Integrated metro and access network: PIEMAN,” in Proc. European Conf. Networks and Optical Communications, 2007.

Rubenstein, D.

P. Sebos, J. Yates, G. Li, D. Wang, A. Greenberg, M. Lazer, C. Kalmanek, and D. Rubenstein, “Ultra-fast IP link and interface provisioning with applications to IP restoration,” in Proc. IFIP Int. Conf. Network and Parallel Computing, 2007.

Ruffini, M.

M. Ruffini, D. B. Payne, and L. Doyle, “Protection strategies for long-reach PON,” in Proc. ECOC 10, Tu.5.B.2.

D. Mehta, B. O’Sullivan, L. Quesada, M. Ruffini, D. Payne, and L. Doyle, “Designing resilient long-reach passive optical networks,” in Proc. Conf. Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence, 2011.

Ruhmann, J.

R. P. Davey, P. Healey, I. Hope, P. Watkinson, D. B. Payne, O. Marmur, J. Ruhmann, and Y. Zuiderveld, “DWDM reach extension of a GPON to 135 km,” in Proc. IEEE/OSA OFC, 2005.

Sebos, P.

P. Sebos, J. Yates, G. Li, D. Wang, A. Greenberg, M. Lazer, C. Kalmanek, and D. Rubenstein, “Ultra-fast IP link and interface provisioning with applications to IP restoration,” in Proc. IFIP Int. Conf. Network and Parallel Computing, 2007.

Senior, J. M.

A. J. Phillips, J. M. Senior, R Mercinelli, M. Valvo, P. J. Vetter, C. M Martin, M. O. Van Deventer, P. Vaes, and X. Z. Qiu, “Redundancy strategies for a high splitting optically amplified passive optical network,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 137–149, 2001.
[CrossRef]

M. O. Van Deventer, J. D. Angelopoulos, H. Binsma, A. J. Boot, P. Crahay, E. Jaunart, P. J. M. Peters, A. J. Phillips, X. Z. Qiu, J. M. Senior, M. Valvo, J. Vandewege, P. J. Vetter, and I. Van de Voorde, “Architecture for 100 km 2048 split bidirectional SuperPONs from ACTS-PLANET,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 2919, pp. 245–251, 1996.

Smith, D.

G. Talli, C. W. Chow, P. Townsend, R. P. Davey, T. De Ridder, X. Z. Qiu, P. Ossieur, H. G. Krimmel, D. Smith, I. Lealman, A. Poustie, S. Randel, and H. Rohde, “Integrated metro and access network: PIEMAN,” in Proc. European Conf. Networks and Optical Communications, 2007.

Smith, K.

J. Kang, M. Wilkinson, K. Smith, and D. Nesset, “Restoration of ethernet services over a dual-homed GPON system,” in Proc. OSA OFC, 2008, NWD2.

Smith, P. J.

A. M. Hill, R. Wyatt, J. F. Massicott, K. Blyth, D. S. Forrester, R. A. Lobbett, P. J. Smith, and D. B. Payne, “39.5 million-way WDM broadcast network employing two stages of erbium-doped fibre amplifiers,” Electron. Lett., vol. 26, no. 22, pp. 1882–1884, 1990.
[CrossRef]

Soila, R.

J. A. Lazaro, J. Prat, P. Chanclou, G. M. Tosi Beleffi, A. Teixeira, I. Tomkos, R. Soila, and V. Koratzinos, “Scalable extended reach PON,” in Proc. IEEE/OSA OFC, 2008, OThL2.

Song, H.

H. Song, B.-W. Kim, and B. Mukherjee, “Long-reach optical access networks: a survey of research challenges, demonstrations, and bandwidth assignment mechanisms,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 112–123, 2010.
[CrossRef]

H. Song, A. Banerjee, B.-W. Kim, and B. Mukherjee, “Multi-thread polling: a dynamic bandwidth distribution scheme in long-reach PON,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 134–142, 2009Please provide page number in Refs. [15, 18]..
[CrossRef]

Stubbe, B.

C. Bouchat, C. Martin, E. Ringoot, M. Tassent, I. Van de Voorde, B. Stubbe, P. Vaes, X. Z. Qiu, and J. Vandewege, “Evaluation of SuperPON demonstrator,” in Proc. IEEE LEOS, 2000, ThC 2.3.

Suzuki, K. I.

T. Nakanishi, K. I. Suzuki, Y. Fukada, N. Yoshimoto, M. Nakamura, K. Kato, K. Nishimura, Y. Ohtomo, and M. Tsubokawa, “High sensitivity APD burst-mode receiver for 10 Gbit/s TDM-PON system,” IEICE Electron. Express, vol. 4, no. 10, pp. 588–592, 2007.
[CrossRef]

K. I. Suzuki, Y. Fukada, D. Nesset, and R. Davey, “Amplified gigabit PON systems,” J. Opt. Netw., vol. 6, no. 5, pp. 422–433, 2007.
[CrossRef]

Talli, G.

G. Talli, C. W. Chow, P. Townsend, R. P. Davey, T. De Ridder, X. Z. Qiu, P. Ossieur, H. G. Krimmel, D. Smith, I. Lealman, A. Poustie, S. Randel, and H. Rohde, “Integrated metro and access network: PIEMAN,” in Proc. European Conf. Networks and Optical Communications, 2007.

P. D. Townsend, G. Talli, E. K. MacHale, and C. Antony, “Long reach PONs,” in Proc. IEICE COIN, 2008.

Tassent, M.

C. Bouchat, C. Martin, E. Ringoot, M. Tassent, I. Van de Voorde, B. Stubbe, P. Vaes, X. Z. Qiu, and J. Vandewege, “Evaluation of SuperPON demonstrator,” in Proc. IEEE LEOS, 2000, ThC 2.3.

Teixeira, A.

J. A. Lazaro, J. Prat, P. Chanclou, G. M. Tosi Beleffi, A. Teixeira, I. Tomkos, R. Soila, and V. Koratzinos, “Scalable extended reach PON,” in Proc. IEEE/OSA OFC, 2008, OThL2.

Tomkos, I.

J. A. Lazaro, J. Prat, P. Chanclou, G. M. Tosi Beleffi, A. Teixeira, I. Tomkos, R. Soila, and V. Koratzinos, “Scalable extended reach PON,” in Proc. IEEE/OSA OFC, 2008, OThL2.

Tosi Beleffi, G. M.

J. A. Lazaro, J. Prat, P. Chanclou, G. M. Tosi Beleffi, A. Teixeira, I. Tomkos, R. Soila, and V. Koratzinos, “Scalable extended reach PON,” in Proc. IEEE/OSA OFC, 2008, OThL2.

Townsend, P.

G. Talli, C. W. Chow, P. Townsend, R. P. Davey, T. De Ridder, X. Z. Qiu, P. Ossieur, H. G. Krimmel, D. Smith, I. Lealman, A. Poustie, S. Randel, and H. Rohde, “Integrated metro and access network: PIEMAN,” in Proc. European Conf. Networks and Optical Communications, 2007.

Townsend, P. D.

P. D. Townsend, G. Talli, E. K. MacHale, and C. Antony, “Long reach PONs,” in Proc. IEICE COIN, 2008.

Tsubokawa, M.

T. Nakanishi, K. I. Suzuki, Y. Fukada, N. Yoshimoto, M. Nakamura, K. Kato, K. Nishimura, Y. Ohtomo, and M. Tsubokawa, “High sensitivity APD burst-mode receiver for 10 Gbit/s TDM-PON system,” IEICE Electron. Express, vol. 4, no. 10, pp. 588–592, 2007.
[CrossRef]

Vaes, P.

A. J. Phillips, J. M. Senior, R Mercinelli, M. Valvo, P. J. Vetter, C. M Martin, M. O. Van Deventer, P. Vaes, and X. Z. Qiu, “Redundancy strategies for a high splitting optically amplified passive optical network,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 137–149, 2001.
[CrossRef]

C. Bouchat, C. Martin, E. Ringoot, M. Tassent, I. Van de Voorde, B. Stubbe, P. Vaes, X. Z. Qiu, and J. Vandewege, “Evaluation of SuperPON demonstrator,” in Proc. IEEE LEOS, 2000, ThC 2.3.

Valvo, M.

A. J. Phillips, J. M. Senior, R Mercinelli, M. Valvo, P. J. Vetter, C. M Martin, M. O. Van Deventer, P. Vaes, and X. Z. Qiu, “Redundancy strategies for a high splitting optically amplified passive optical network,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 137–149, 2001.
[CrossRef]

M. O. Van Deventer, J. D. Angelopoulos, H. Binsma, A. J. Boot, P. Crahay, E. Jaunart, P. J. M. Peters, A. J. Phillips, X. Z. Qiu, J. M. Senior, M. Valvo, J. Vandewege, P. J. Vetter, and I. Van de Voorde, “Architecture for 100 km 2048 split bidirectional SuperPONs from ACTS-PLANET,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 2919, pp. 245–251, 1996.

Van de Voorde, I.

M. O. Van Deventer, J. D. Angelopoulos, H. Binsma, A. J. Boot, P. Crahay, E. Jaunart, P. J. M. Peters, A. J. Phillips, X. Z. Qiu, J. M. Senior, M. Valvo, J. Vandewege, P. J. Vetter, and I. Van de Voorde, “Architecture for 100 km 2048 split bidirectional SuperPONs from ACTS-PLANET,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 2919, pp. 245–251, 1996.

C. Bouchat, C. Martin, E. Ringoot, M. Tassent, I. Van de Voorde, B. Stubbe, P. Vaes, X. Z. Qiu, and J. Vandewege, “Evaluation of SuperPON demonstrator,” in Proc. IEEE LEOS, 2000, ThC 2.3.

Van Deventer, M. O.

A. J. Phillips, J. M. Senior, R Mercinelli, M. Valvo, P. J. Vetter, C. M Martin, M. O. Van Deventer, P. Vaes, and X. Z. Qiu, “Redundancy strategies for a high splitting optically amplified passive optical network,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 137–149, 2001.
[CrossRef]

M. O. Van Deventer, J. D. Angelopoulos, H. Binsma, A. J. Boot, P. Crahay, E. Jaunart, P. J. M. Peters, A. J. Phillips, X. Z. Qiu, J. M. Senior, M. Valvo, J. Vandewege, P. J. Vetter, and I. Van de Voorde, “Architecture for 100 km 2048 split bidirectional SuperPONs from ACTS-PLANET,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 2919, pp. 245–251, 1996.

van Kreveld, M.

M. de Berg, O. Cheong, M. van Kreveld, and M. Overmars, Computational Geometry: Algorithms and Applications. Springer-Verlag, 2000.

Vandewege, J.

M. O. Van Deventer, J. D. Angelopoulos, H. Binsma, A. J. Boot, P. Crahay, E. Jaunart, P. J. M. Peters, A. J. Phillips, X. Z. Qiu, J. M. Senior, M. Valvo, J. Vandewege, P. J. Vetter, and I. Van de Voorde, “Architecture for 100 km 2048 split bidirectional SuperPONs from ACTS-PLANET,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 2919, pp. 245–251, 1996.

C. Bouchat, C. Martin, E. Ringoot, M. Tassent, I. Van de Voorde, B. Stubbe, P. Vaes, X. Z. Qiu, and J. Vandewege, “Evaluation of SuperPON demonstrator,” in Proc. IEEE LEOS, 2000, ThC 2.3.

Vetter, P. J.

A. J. Phillips, J. M. Senior, R Mercinelli, M. Valvo, P. J. Vetter, C. M Martin, M. O. Van Deventer, P. Vaes, and X. Z. Qiu, “Redundancy strategies for a high splitting optically amplified passive optical network,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 137–149, 2001.
[CrossRef]

M. O. Van Deventer, J. D. Angelopoulos, H. Binsma, A. J. Boot, P. Crahay, E. Jaunart, P. J. M. Peters, A. J. Phillips, X. Z. Qiu, J. M. Senior, M. Valvo, J. Vandewege, P. J. Vetter, and I. Van de Voorde, “Architecture for 100 km 2048 split bidirectional SuperPONs from ACTS-PLANET,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 2919, pp. 245–251, 1996.

Wang, D.

P. Sebos, J. Yates, G. Li, D. Wang, A. Greenberg, M. Lazer, C. Kalmanek, and D. Rubenstein, “Ultra-fast IP link and interface provisioning with applications to IP restoration,” in Proc. IFIP Int. Conf. Network and Parallel Computing, 2007.

Watkinson, P.

R. P. Davey, P. Healey, I. Hope, P. Watkinson, D. B. Payne, O. Marmur, J. Ruhmann, and Y. Zuiderveld, “DWDM reach extension of a GPON to 135 km,” in Proc. IEEE/OSA OFC, 2005.

Wilkinson, M.

J. Kang, M. Wilkinson, K. Smith, and D. Nesset, “Restoration of ethernet services over a dual-homed GPON system,” in Proc. OSA OFC, 2008, NWD2.

Wyatt, R.

A. M. Hill, R. Wyatt, J. F. Massicott, K. Blyth, D. S. Forrester, R. A. Lobbett, P. J. Smith, and D. B. Payne, “39.5 million-way WDM broadcast network employing two stages of erbium-doped fibre amplifiers,” Electron. Lett., vol. 26, no. 22, pp. 1882–1884, 1990.
[CrossRef]

Yates, J.

P. Sebos, J. Yates, G. Li, D. Wang, A. Greenberg, M. Lazer, C. Kalmanek, and D. Rubenstein, “Ultra-fast IP link and interface provisioning with applications to IP restoration,” in Proc. IFIP Int. Conf. Network and Parallel Computing, 2007.

Yoshimoto, N.

T. Nakanishi, K. I. Suzuki, Y. Fukada, N. Yoshimoto, M. Nakamura, K. Kato, K. Nishimura, Y. Ohtomo, and M. Tsubokawa, “High sensitivity APD burst-mode receiver for 10 Gbit/s TDM-PON system,” IEICE Electron. Express, vol. 4, no. 10, pp. 588–592, 2007.
[CrossRef]

Zuiderveld, Y.

R. P. Davey, P. Healey, I. Hope, P. Watkinson, D. B. Payne, O. Marmur, J. Ruhmann, and Y. Zuiderveld, “DWDM reach extension of a GPON to 135 km,” in Proc. IEEE/OSA OFC, 2005.

BT Technol. J. (1)

D. B. Payne and R. P. Davey, “The future of fibre access systems?” BT Technol. J., vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 104–114, 2002.
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

A. M. Hill, R. Wyatt, J. F. Massicott, K. Blyth, D. S. Forrester, R. A. Lobbett, P. J. Smith, and D. B. Payne, “39.5 million-way WDM broadcast network employing two stages of erbium-doped fibre amplifiers,” Electron. Lett., vol. 26, no. 22, pp. 1882–1884, 1990.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials (1)

H. Song, B.-W. Kim, and B. Mukherjee, “Long-reach optical access networks: a survey of research challenges, demonstrations, and bandwidth assignment mechanisms,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 112–123, 2010.
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. (1)

H. Song, A. Banerjee, B.-W. Kim, and B. Mukherjee, “Multi-thread polling: a dynamic bandwidth distribution scheme in long-reach PON,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 134–142, 2009Please provide page number in Refs. [15, 18]..
[CrossRef]

IEICE Electron. Express (1)

T. Nakanishi, K. I. Suzuki, Y. Fukada, N. Yoshimoto, M. Nakamura, K. Kato, K. Nishimura, Y. Ohtomo, and M. Tsubokawa, “High sensitivity APD burst-mode receiver for 10 Gbit/s TDM-PON system,” IEICE Electron. Express, vol. 4, no. 10, pp. 588–592, 2007.
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Opt. Netw. (2)

Proc. SPIE (1)

M. O. Van Deventer, J. D. Angelopoulos, H. Binsma, A. J. Boot, P. Crahay, E. Jaunart, P. J. M. Peters, A. J. Phillips, X. Z. Qiu, J. M. Senior, M. Valvo, J. Vandewege, P. J. Vetter, and I. Van de Voorde, “Architecture for 100 km 2048 split bidirectional SuperPONs from ACTS-PLANET,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 2919, pp. 245–251, 1996.

Other (17)

R. P. Davey, P. Healey, I. Hope, P. Watkinson, D. B. Payne, O. Marmur, J. Ruhmann, and Y. Zuiderveld, “DWDM reach extension of a GPON to 135 km,” in Proc. IEEE/OSA OFC, 2005.

Cisco Systems Inc., Cisco Visual Networking Index: Forecast and Methodology (2009–2014).

D. B. Payne, “World bandwidth growth over the next decade is it viable?” CIP Technologies White Paper, 2008.

C. Bouchat, C. Martin, E. Ringoot, M. Tassent, I. Van de Voorde, B. Stubbe, P. Vaes, X. Z. Qiu, and J. Vandewege, “Evaluation of SuperPON demonstrator,” in Proc. IEEE LEOS, 2000, ThC 2.3.

P. D. Townsend, G. Talli, E. K. MacHale, and C. Antony, “Long reach PONs,” in Proc. IEICE COIN, 2008.

D. Nesset, D. B. Payne, R. P. Davey, and T. Gilfedder, “Demonstration of enhanced reach and split of a GPON system using semiconductor optical amplifiers,” in Proc. IEEE ECOC, 2006, pp. 1–2.

D. B. Payne, “FTTP deployment options and economic challenges,” in Proc. IEEE ECOC, 2009, 1.6.1.

M. Ruffini, D. B. Payne, and L. Doyle, “Protection strategies for long-reach PON,” in Proc. ECOC 10, Tu.5.B.2.

ITU-T, “Gigabit-capable passive optical networks (GPON): General characteristics,” Recommendation G.984.1, 2008.

P. Sebos, J. Yates, G. Li, D. Wang, A. Greenberg, M. Lazer, C. Kalmanek, and D. Rubenstein, “Ultra-fast IP link and interface provisioning with applications to IP restoration,” in Proc. IFIP Int. Conf. Network and Parallel Computing, 2007.

M. de Berg, O. Cheong, M. van Kreveld, and M. Overmars, Computational Geometry: Algorithms and Applications. Springer-Verlag, 2000.

http://www-01.ibm.com/software/integration/optimization/cplex-optimizer/.

D. Mehta, B. O’Sullivan, L. Quesada, M. Ruffini, D. Payne, and L. Doyle, “Designing resilient long-reach passive optical networks,” in Proc. Conf. Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence, 2011.

J. Kang, M. Wilkinson, K. Smith, and D. Nesset, “Restoration of ethernet services over a dual-homed GPON system,” in Proc. OSA OFC, 2008, NWD2.

B. W. Kim, “Introduction to WDM-PON and WE-PON,” Working Document, ETRI, 2007.

J. A. Lazaro, J. Prat, P. Chanclou, G. M. Tosi Beleffi, A. Teixeira, I. Tomkos, R. Soila, and V. Koratzinos, “Scalable extended reach PON,” in Proc. IEEE/OSA OFC, 2008, OThL2.

G. Talli, C. W. Chow, P. Townsend, R. P. Davey, T. De Ridder, X. Z. Qiu, P. Ossieur, H. G. Krimmel, D. Smith, I. Lealman, A. Poustie, S. Randel, and H. Rohde, “Integrated metro and access network: PIEMAN,” in Proc. European Conf. Networks and Optical Communications, 2007.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(Color online) Example of a three-stage LR-PON deployment, showing both metro/access and core/backbone networks.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(Color online) Example of an LR-PON coverage plan for Ireland.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(Color online) Coverage protection by overlapping three non-concentric areas.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(Color online) Operation of our load-spreading strategy.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(Color online) Percentage of IP protection capacity, in relation to the primary IP load, for simulated networks of different sizes.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(Color online) Additional customers affected by a total node failure because of the load-sharing mechanism versus overall IP over-provisioning required.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(Color online) Implementation of the LR-PON protection mechanism, showing the communication between nodes and the network management system.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(Color online) Optimized deployment of LR-PON infrastructure in Ireland, providing dual-parented coverage for 100% of customers.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(Color online) Percentage of IP over-provisioning for protection capacity, in relation to the primary IP load, for a realistic deployment, for different coverage values.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

(Color online) Additional customers affected by a total node failure calculated for a realistic deployment, with 80%, 90%, and 100% coverage scenarios.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

(Color online) Cost breakdown between LR-PON access network and IP protection capacity, for minimum-distance and minimum-load strategies, for a 100% coverage scenario.