Abstract

Optical coding has been proposed and has been well investigated for the monitoring of standard time domain multiplexing passive optical networks (TDM-PONs). We propose a physical layer fault management and protection system for next-generation passive optical networks, so-called long-reach PON (LR-PON), based on passive optical coding. Our approach exploits adapted, performance enhanced, and inexpensive passive optical components in the field, and electronic switches in the central office (CO). This allows detection and localization of the faulty segments in addition to the faulty nodes, hence decreasing the false alarm probability encountered in previous proposed approaches. We show that ring duplication protection in LR-PON can save almost half the cost compared with full duplication protection, with relatively high availability (99.992%). We describe the implementation strategy of our system in various well-known metro network topologies, including (1) single-ring-, (2) double-ring-, and (3) double-fiber-pairs-based ring topologies; all are considered different varieties of ring-and-spur LR-PON. The internal architecture of the remote nodes and the CO are also described in addition to the appropriate placement of our passive monitors. We develop two novel symmetric coding settings. We call them symmetrical optical encoders, which are suitable for fault detection and localization in the ring. We also develop the algorithms required to be executed by the network management system in the CO for fault detection, localization, and protection. Expressions for the upper bound notification and recovery times are also derived. Finally, we estimate that our system can recover from a fault in less than 0.5 ms for a 100 km ring length.

© 2012 OSA

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References

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  1. H. Song, B. Kim, and B. Mukherjee, “Long-reach optical access networks: A survey of research challenges, demonstrations, and bandwidth assignment mechanisms,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 112–123, Oct.2010.
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  4. ETRI, “WDM-E-PON (WE-PON),” Working Documents, 2007.
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  10. W. Grover, Mesh-Based Survivable Networks: Options and Strategies for Optical, MPLS, SONET, and ATM Networking. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall Professional, 2005.
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    [CrossRef]
  14. M. M. Rad, H. Fathallah, and L. A. Rusch, “Fiber fault PON monitoring using optical coding: Effects of customer geographic distribution,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 58, no. 4, pp. 1172–1181, Apr.2010.
    [CrossRef]
  15. M. Rad, H. Fathallah, and L. Rusch, “Performance analysis of fiber fault PON monitoring using optical coding: SNR, SNIR and false-alarm probability,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 58, no. 4, pp. 1182–1192, Apr.2010.
    [CrossRef]
  16. M. Rad, H. Fathallah, S. LaRochelle, and L. Rusch, “Experimental validation of periodic codes for PON monitoring,” in Proc. IEEE Globecom, Honolulu, HI, 2009, pp. 1–7.
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    [CrossRef]

2012

2011

2010

H. Song, B. Kim, and B. Mukherjee, “Long-reach optical access networks: A survey of research challenges, demonstrations, and bandwidth assignment mechanisms,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 112–123, Oct.2010.
[CrossRef]

M. M. Rad, H. Fathallah, and L. A. Rusch, “Fiber fault PON monitoring using optical coding: Effects of customer geographic distribution,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 58, no. 4, pp. 1172–1181, Apr.2010.
[CrossRef]

M. Rad, H. Fathallah, and L. Rusch, “Performance analysis of fiber fault PON monitoring using optical coding: SNR, SNIR and false-alarm probability,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 58, no. 4, pp. 1182–1192, Apr.2010.
[CrossRef]

2009

2007

2003

H. Zang, S. Ou, and B. Mukherjee, “Path-protection routing and wavelength assignment (RWA) in WDM mesh networks under duct-layer constraints,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 248–258, Apr.2003.
[CrossRef]

Appathurai, S.

Bonada, F.

Brenot, R.

Chanclou, P.

Chatzi, S.

Chen, J.

Chughtai, M.

Costa, L.

Davey, R.

de Valicourt, G.

Esmail, M. A.

M. A. Esmail and H. Fathallah, “Novel coding for PON fault identification,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol. 15, no. 6, pp. 677–679, June2011.
[CrossRef]

Fathallah, H.

M. A. Esmail and H. Fathallah, “Novel coding for PON fault identification,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol. 15, no. 6, pp. 677–679, June2011.
[CrossRef]

M. M. Rad, H. Fathallah, and L. A. Rusch, “Fiber fault PON monitoring using optical coding: Effects of customer geographic distribution,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 58, no. 4, pp. 1172–1181, Apr.2010.
[CrossRef]

M. Rad, H. Fathallah, and L. Rusch, “Performance analysis of fiber fault PON monitoring using optical coding: SNR, SNIR and false-alarm probability,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 58, no. 4, pp. 1182–1192, Apr.2010.
[CrossRef]

M. Rad, H. Fathallah, S. LaRochelle, and L. Rusch, “Experimental validation of periodic codes for PON monitoring,” in Proc. IEEE Globecom, Honolulu, HI, 2009, pp. 1–7.

Forzati, M.

Grossman, D.

Grover, W.

W. Grover, Mesh-Based Survivable Networks: Options and Strategies for Optical, MPLS, SONET, and ATM Networking. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall Professional, 2005.

Jung, E.

D. Seol, E. Jung, and B. Kim, “A simple passive protection structure in a ring-type hybrid WDM/TDM-PON,” in Proc. 11th Int. Conf. on Advanced Communication Technology, Phoenix Park, South Korea, Feb. 2009, pp. 447–449.

D. Seol, E. Jung, and S. Lee, “Passive protection in a long-reach WDM/TDM-PON,” in Proc. 9th Int. Conf. on Optical Internet (COIN), Jeju, South Korea, 2010, pp. 1–3.

Kazmierski, C.

Kelly, A.

Kim, B.

H. Song, B. Kim, and B. Mukherjee, “Long-reach optical access networks: A survey of research challenges, demonstrations, and bandwidth assignment mechanisms,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 112–123, Oct.2010.
[CrossRef]

D. Seol, E. Jung, and B. Kim, “A simple passive protection structure in a ring-type hybrid WDM/TDM-PON,” in Proc. 11th Int. Conf. on Advanced Communication Technology, Phoenix Park, South Korea, Feb. 2009, pp. 447–449.

H. Song, D. Seol, and B. Kim, “Hardware-accelerated protection in long-reach PON,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC), San Diego, CA, 2009, pp. 1–3.

Klonidis, D.

LaRochelle, S.

M. Rad, H. Fathallah, S. LaRochelle, and L. Rusch, “Experimental validation of periodic codes for PON monitoring,” in Proc. IEEE Globecom, Honolulu, HI, 2009, pp. 1–7.

Lazaro, J. A.

Le, Q. T.

Lee, S.

D. Seol, E. Jung, and S. Lee, “Passive protection in a long-reach WDM/TDM-PON,” in Proc. 9th Int. Conf. on Optical Internet (COIN), Jeju, South Korea, 2010, pp. 1–3.

Leino, D.

Lopez, E. T.

Maier, M.

M. Maier, Optical Switching Networks, 1st ed. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2008.

Monteiro, P.

J. Santos, J. Pedro, P. Monteiro, and J. Pires, “Long-reach 10 Gbps Ethernet passive optical network based on a protected ring architecture,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), San Diego, CA, 2008, pp. 1–3.

Mukherjee, B.

H. Song, B. Kim, and B. Mukherjee, “Long-reach optical access networks: A survey of research challenges, demonstrations, and bandwidth assignment mechanisms,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 112–123, Oct.2010.
[CrossRef]

H. Zang, S. Ou, and B. Mukherjee, “Path-protection routing and wavelength assignment (RWA) in WDM mesh networks under duct-layer constraints,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 248–258, Apr.2003.
[CrossRef]

Nesset, D.

Ou, S.

H. Zang, S. Ou, and B. Mukherjee, “Path-protection routing and wavelength assignment (RWA) in WDM mesh networks under duct-layer constraints,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 248–258, Apr.2003.
[CrossRef]

Payne, D.

Pedro, J.

J. Santos, J. Pedro, P. Monteiro, and J. Pires, “Long-reach 10 Gbps Ethernet passive optical network based on a protected ring architecture,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), San Diego, CA, 2008, pp. 1–3.

Pires, J.

J. Santos, J. Pedro, P. Monteiro, and J. Pires, “Long-reach 10 Gbps Ethernet passive optical network based on a protected ring architecture,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), San Diego, CA, 2008, pp. 1–3.

Polo, V.

Prat, J.

Rad, M.

M. Rad, H. Fathallah, and L. Rusch, “Performance analysis of fiber fault PON monitoring using optical coding: SNR, SNIR and false-alarm probability,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 58, no. 4, pp. 1182–1192, Apr.2010.
[CrossRef]

M. Rad, H. Fathallah, S. LaRochelle, and L. Rusch, “Experimental validation of periodic codes for PON monitoring,” in Proc. IEEE Globecom, Honolulu, HI, 2009, pp. 1–7.

Rad, M. M.

M. M. Rad, H. Fathallah, and L. A. Rusch, “Fiber fault PON monitoring using optical coding: Effects of customer geographic distribution,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 58, no. 4, pp. 1172–1181, Apr.2010.
[CrossRef]

Rafel, A.

Rasztovits-Wiech, M.

Rusch, L.

M. Rad, H. Fathallah, and L. Rusch, “Performance analysis of fiber fault PON monitoring using optical coding: SNR, SNIR and false-alarm probability,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 58, no. 4, pp. 1182–1192, Apr.2010.
[CrossRef]

M. Rad, H. Fathallah, S. LaRochelle, and L. Rusch, “Experimental validation of periodic codes for PON monitoring,” in Proc. IEEE Globecom, Honolulu, HI, 2009, pp. 1–7.

Rusch, L. A.

M. M. Rad, H. Fathallah, and L. A. Rusch, “Fiber fault PON monitoring using optical coding: Effects of customer geographic distribution,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 58, no. 4, pp. 1172–1181, Apr.2010.
[CrossRef]

Saliou, F.

Santos, J.

J. Santos, J. Pedro, P. Monteiro, and J. Pires, “Long-reach 10 Gbps Ethernet passive optical network based on a protected ring architecture,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), San Diego, CA, 2008, pp. 1–3.

Schrenk, B.

Seol, D.

H. Song, D. Seol, and B. Kim, “Hardware-accelerated protection in long-reach PON,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC), San Diego, CA, 2009, pp. 1–3.

D. Seol, E. Jung, and S. Lee, “Passive protection in a long-reach WDM/TDM-PON,” in Proc. 9th Int. Conf. on Optical Internet (COIN), Jeju, South Korea, 2010, pp. 1–3.

D. Seol, E. Jung, and B. Kim, “A simple passive protection structure in a ring-type hybrid WDM/TDM-PON,” in Proc. 11th Int. Conf. on Advanced Communication Technology, Phoenix Park, South Korea, Feb. 2009, pp. 447–449.

Soila, R.

Song, H.

H. Song, B. Kim, and B. Mukherjee, “Long-reach optical access networks: A survey of research challenges, demonstrations, and bandwidth assignment mechanisms,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 112–123, Oct.2010.
[CrossRef]

H. Song, D. Seol, and B. Kim, “Hardware-accelerated protection in long-reach PON,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC), San Diego, CA, 2009, pp. 1–3.

Spirou, S.

Teixeira, A.

Tomkos, I.

Tosi Beleffi, G. M.

Wosinska, L.

Yang, S.-H.

Zang, H.

H. Zang, S. Ou, and B. Mukherjee, “Path-protection routing and wavelength assignment (RWA) in WDM mesh networks under duct-layer constraints,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 248–258, Apr.2003.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Commun. Lett.

M. A. Esmail and H. Fathallah, “Novel coding for PON fault identification,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol. 15, no. 6, pp. 677–679, June2011.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials

H. Song, B. Kim, and B. Mukherjee, “Long-reach optical access networks: A survey of research challenges, demonstrations, and bandwidth assignment mechanisms,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 112–123, Oct.2010.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Commun.

M. M. Rad, H. Fathallah, and L. A. Rusch, “Fiber fault PON monitoring using optical coding: Effects of customer geographic distribution,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 58, no. 4, pp. 1172–1181, Apr.2010.
[CrossRef]

M. Rad, H. Fathallah, and L. Rusch, “Performance analysis of fiber fault PON monitoring using optical coding: SNR, SNIR and false-alarm probability,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 58, no. 4, pp. 1182–1192, Apr.2010.
[CrossRef]

IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw.

H. Zang, S. Ou, and B. Mukherjee, “Path-protection routing and wavelength assignment (RWA) in WDM mesh networks under duct-layer constraints,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 248–258, Apr.2003.
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

J. Opt. Commun. Netw.

J. Opt. Netw.

Other

M. Rad, H. Fathallah, S. LaRochelle, and L. Rusch, “Experimental validation of periodic codes for PON monitoring,” in Proc. IEEE Globecom, Honolulu, HI, 2009, pp. 1–7.

ETRI, “WDM-E-PON (WE-PON),” Working Documents, 2007.

M. Maier, Optical Switching Networks, 1st ed. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2008.

J. Santos, J. Pedro, P. Monteiro, and J. Pires, “Long-reach 10 Gbps Ethernet passive optical network based on a protected ring architecture,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), San Diego, CA, 2008, pp. 1–3.

H. Song, D. Seol, and B. Kim, “Hardware-accelerated protection in long-reach PON,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC), San Diego, CA, 2009, pp. 1–3.

D. Seol, E. Jung, and B. Kim, “A simple passive protection structure in a ring-type hybrid WDM/TDM-PON,” in Proc. 11th Int. Conf. on Advanced Communication Technology, Phoenix Park, South Korea, Feb. 2009, pp. 447–449.

D. Seol, E. Jung, and S. Lee, “Passive protection in a long-reach WDM/TDM-PON,” in Proc. 9th Int. Conf. on Optical Internet (COIN), Jeju, South Korea, 2010, pp. 1–3.

W. Grover, Mesh-Based Survivable Networks: Options and Strategies for Optical, MPLS, SONET, and ATM Networking. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall Professional, 2005.

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(Color online) Ring-and-spur LR-PON architecture.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(Color online) ABD for different LR-PON protection architectures.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(Color online) Availability and cost of different LR-PON protection architectures.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(Color online) Single bidirectional LR-PON ring protection: (a) ring design (OCs shown in squares), (b) RN architecture, and (c) OLT architecture.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(Color online) Double-ring LR-PON protection: (a) ring design (OCs shown in squares), (b) RN architecture, and (c) OLT architecture.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(Color online) Double-ring pairs LR-PON protection (OCs shown in squares).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(Color online) FBG symmetrical optical encoder (FBG-SOE).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(Color online) Ring symmetrical optical encoder (Ring-SOE).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(Color online) LOC detection, localization and protection algorithm for single bidirectional ring protection.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

(Color online) LOC detection, localization and protection algorithm for double-ring protection architecture.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

(Color online) Recovery time versus fault location.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table I Component Unavailability and Cost

Tables Icon

Table II Cost and Unavailability for Ring Protection Architectures

Equations (10)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

U P 1 = 1 A P 1 = 1 A OLT i = 1 m A OADM i i = 1 m A FS i ,
U P 2 = 1 A P 2 = 1 A OLT i = 1 N m A OADM i i = 1 N m A FS i .
U P 1 = U P 2 = U P = 1 A OLT A OADM N / 2 A FS N / 2 ,
U S = U P 1 U P 2 = U P 2 .
U P 1 = 1 A P 1 = 1 A OLT i = 1 m A OADM i i = 1 m A FS i .
U P 2 = 1 A P 2 = 1 A OLT i = 1 N m A OADM i i = 1 N m A FS i .
U P 3 = 1 A P 3 = 1 A OLT i = 1 m A OADM i i = 1 m A FS i .
U P 1 = U P 2 = U P 3 = U P = 1 A OLT A OADM N / 2 A FS N / 2 ,
U D = U P 1 U P 2 U P 3 = U P 3 = U S 3 / 2 ,
U D P = U P 1 U P 2 U P 3 U P 4 U P 5 U P 6 U P 7 U P 8 U P 9 U P 10 = U P 10 = U S 10 / 2 ,