P. N. Ji and Y. Aono, “Colorless and directionless multi-degree reconfigurable optical add/drop multiplexers,” in Proc. of 19th Wireless and Optical Communication Conf. (WOCC), 2010.

S. Subramaniam, M. Azizoglu, and A. K. Somani, “All-optical networks with sparse wavelength conversion,” IEEE Trans. Netw., vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 544–557, Aug.1996.

[CrossRef]

C. R. Doerr, L. W. Stulz, D. S. Levy, L. Gomez, M. Cappuzzo, J. Bailey, R. Long, A. Wong-Foy, E. Laskowski, E. Chen, S. Patel, and T. Murphy, “Eight wavelength add-drop filter with true reconfigurability,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, pp. 138–140, Jan.2003.

[CrossRef]

J. Homa and K. Bala, “ROADM architectures and their enabling WSS technology,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 46, pp. 150–154, June2008.

[CrossRef]

S. Gringeri, B. Basch, V. Shukla, R. Egorov, and T. J. Xia, “Flexible architectures for optical transport nodes and networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 48, pp. 40–50, July2010.

[CrossRef]

P. Palacharla, X. Wang, I. Kim, D. Bihon, M. D. Feuer, and S. L. Woodward, “Blocking performance in dynamic optical networks based on colorless, non-directional ROADMs,” in OFC/NFOEC, 2011.

A. Birman, “Computing approximate blocking probabilities for a class of all-optical networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 14, pp. 852–857, June1996.

[CrossRef]

G. Shen, S. K. Bose, T. H. Cheng, C. Lu, and T. K. Chai, “The impact of the number of add/drop ports in wavelength routed all-optical networks,” Opt. Network Mag., vol. 4, pp. 112–122, Sept./Oct.2003.

G. Shen, S. K. Bose, T. H. Cheng, C. Lu, and T. K. Chai, “Efficient heuristic algorithms for light-path routing and wavelength assignment in WDM networks under dynamically varying loads,” Comput. Commun., vol. 24, pp. 364–373, Feb.2001.

[CrossRef]

G. Shen, T. H. Cheng, S. K. Bose, C. Lu, and T. K. Chai, “The impact of number of transceivers and their tunabilities on WDM network performance,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol. 4, pp. 366–368, Nov.2000.

[CrossRef]

C. R. Doerr, L. W. Stulz, D. S. Levy, L. Gomez, M. Cappuzzo, J. Bailey, R. Long, A. Wong-Foy, E. Laskowski, E. Chen, S. Patel, and T. Murphy, “Eight wavelength add-drop filter with true reconfigurability,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, pp. 138–140, Jan.2003.

[CrossRef]

G. Shen, S. K. Bose, T. H. Cheng, C. Lu, and T. K. Chai, “The impact of the number of add/drop ports in wavelength routed all-optical networks,” Opt. Network Mag., vol. 4, pp. 112–122, Sept./Oct.2003.

G. Shen, S. K. Bose, T. H. Cheng, C. Lu, and T. K. Chai, “Efficient heuristic algorithms for light-path routing and wavelength assignment in WDM networks under dynamically varying loads,” Comput. Commun., vol. 24, pp. 364–373, Feb.2001.

[CrossRef]

G. Shen, T. H. Cheng, S. K. Bose, C. Lu, and T. K. Chai, “The impact of number of transceivers and their tunabilities on WDM network performance,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol. 4, pp. 366–368, Nov.2000.

[CrossRef]

C. R. Doerr, L. W. Stulz, D. S. Levy, L. Gomez, M. Cappuzzo, J. Bailey, R. Long, A. Wong-Foy, E. Laskowski, E. Chen, S. Patel, and T. Murphy, “Eight wavelength add-drop filter with true reconfigurability,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, pp. 138–140, Jan.2003.

[CrossRef]

G. Shen, S. K. Bose, T. H. Cheng, C. Lu, and T. K. Chai, “The impact of the number of add/drop ports in wavelength routed all-optical networks,” Opt. Network Mag., vol. 4, pp. 112–122, Sept./Oct.2003.

G. Shen, S. K. Bose, T. H. Cheng, C. Lu, and T. K. Chai, “Efficient heuristic algorithms for light-path routing and wavelength assignment in WDM networks under dynamically varying loads,” Comput. Commun., vol. 24, pp. 364–373, Feb.2001.

[CrossRef]

G. Shen, T. H. Cheng, S. K. Bose, C. Lu, and T. K. Chai, “The impact of number of transceivers and their tunabilities on WDM network performance,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol. 4, pp. 366–368, Nov.2000.

[CrossRef]

I. Chlamtac, A. Ganz, and G. Karmi, “Lightpath communication: an approach to high bandwidth optical WAN’s,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 40, pp. 1171–1182, July1992.

[CrossRef]

S. D. Hennin, P. Wall, S. H. Moffat, B. Keyworth, and P. Colbourne, “Addressing manufacturability and reliability of MEMS-based WSS,” in OFC/NFOEC, 2006.

P. Roorda and B. Collings, “Evolution to colorless and directionless ROADM architecture,” in OFC/NFOEC, 2008.

C. R. Doerr, L. W. Stulz, D. S. Levy, L. Gomez, M. Cappuzzo, J. Bailey, R. Long, A. Wong-Foy, E. Laskowski, E. Chen, S. Patel, and T. Murphy, “Eight wavelength add-drop filter with true reconfigurability,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, pp. 138–140, Jan.2003.

[CrossRef]

M. P. Earnshaw and J. B. D. Soole, “Integrated reconfigurable optical wavelength add-drop multiplexer,” Electron. Lett., vol. 38, pp. 1351–1352, Oct.2002.

[CrossRef]

S. Gringeri, B. Basch, V. Shukla, R. Egorov, and T. J. Xia, “Flexible architectures for optical transport nodes and networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 48, pp. 40–50, July2010.

[CrossRef]

P. Palacharla, X. Wang, I. Kim, D. Bihon, M. D. Feuer, and S. L. Woodward, “Blocking performance in dynamic optical networks based on colorless, non-directional ROADMs,” in OFC/NFOEC, 2011.

I. Chlamtac, A. Ganz, and G. Karmi, “Lightpath communication: an approach to high bandwidth optical WAN’s,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 40, pp. 1171–1182, July1992.

[CrossRef]

T. Watanabe, K. Suzuki, T. Goh, H. Hattori, A. Mori, T. Takahashi, T. Sakamoto, K. Morita, S. Sohma, and S. Kamei, “Compact PLC-based transponder aggregator for colorless and directionless ROADM,” in OFC/NFOEC, 2011.

C. R. Doerr, L. W. Stulz, D. S. Levy, L. Gomez, M. Cappuzzo, J. Bailey, R. Long, A. Wong-Foy, E. Laskowski, E. Chen, S. Patel, and T. Murphy, “Eight wavelength add-drop filter with true reconfigurability,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, pp. 138–140, Jan.2003.

[CrossRef]

S. Gringeri, B. Basch, V. Shukla, R. Egorov, and T. J. Xia, “Flexible architectures for optical transport nodes and networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 48, pp. 40–50, July2010.

[CrossRef]

T. Watanabe, K. Suzuki, T. Goh, H. Hattori, A. Mori, T. Takahashi, T. Sakamoto, K. Morita, S. Sohma, and S. Kamei, “Compact PLC-based transponder aggregator for colorless and directionless ROADM,” in OFC/NFOEC, 2011.

S. D. Hennin, P. Wall, S. H. Moffat, B. Keyworth, and P. Colbourne, “Addressing manufacturability and reliability of MEMS-based WSS,” in OFC/NFOEC, 2006.

J. Homa and K. Bala, “ROADM architectures and their enabling WSS technology,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 46, pp. 150–154, June2008.

[CrossRef]

Z. Hui, J. P. Jue, and B. Mukherjee, “A review of routing and wavelength assignment approaches for wavelength-routed optical WDM networks,” Opt. Network Mag., vol. 1, pp. 47–60, Jan.2000.

R. Jensen, “Optical switch architectures for emerging colorless/directionless/contentionless ROADM networks,” in OFC/NFOEC, 2011.

P. N. Ji and Y. Aono, “Colorless and directionless multi-degree reconfigurable optical add/drop multiplexers,” in Proc. of 19th Wireless and Optical Communication Conf. (WOCC), 2010.

Z. Hui, J. P. Jue, and B. Mukherjee, “A review of routing and wavelength assignment approaches for wavelength-routed optical WDM networks,” Opt. Network Mag., vol. 1, pp. 47–60, Jan.2000.

T. Watanabe, K. Suzuki, T. Goh, H. Hattori, A. Mori, T. Takahashi, T. Sakamoto, K. Morita, S. Sohma, and S. Kamei, “Compact PLC-based transponder aggregator for colorless and directionless ROADM,” in OFC/NFOEC, 2011.

I. Chlamtac, A. Ganz, and G. Karmi, “Lightpath communication: an approach to high bandwidth optical WAN’s,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 40, pp. 1171–1182, July1992.

[CrossRef]

S. D. Hennin, P. Wall, S. H. Moffat, B. Keyworth, and P. Colbourne, “Addressing manufacturability and reliability of MEMS-based WSS,” in OFC/NFOEC, 2006.

B. P. Keyworth, “ROADM subsystems and technologies,” in OFC/NFOEC, 2005.

P. Palacharla, X. Wang, I. Kim, D. Bihon, M. D. Feuer, and S. L. Woodward, “Blocking performance in dynamic optical networks based on colorless, non-directional ROADMs,” in OFC/NFOEC, 2011.

C. R. Doerr, L. W. Stulz, D. S. Levy, L. Gomez, M. Cappuzzo, J. Bailey, R. Long, A. Wong-Foy, E. Laskowski, E. Chen, S. Patel, and T. Murphy, “Eight wavelength add-drop filter with true reconfigurability,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, pp. 138–140, Jan.2003.

[CrossRef]

C. R. Doerr, L. W. Stulz, D. S. Levy, L. Gomez, M. Cappuzzo, J. Bailey, R. Long, A. Wong-Foy, E. Laskowski, E. Chen, S. Patel, and T. Murphy, “Eight wavelength add-drop filter with true reconfigurability,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, pp. 138–140, Jan.2003.

[CrossRef]

G. Shen, Y. Li, and L. Peng, “How much can colorless, directionless and contentionless (CDC) of ROADM help dynamic lightpath provisioning?” in OFC/NFOEC, 2012.

C. R. Doerr, L. W. Stulz, D. S. Levy, L. Gomez, M. Cappuzzo, J. Bailey, R. Long, A. Wong-Foy, E. Laskowski, E. Chen, S. Patel, and T. Murphy, “Eight wavelength add-drop filter with true reconfigurability,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, pp. 138–140, Jan.2003.

[CrossRef]

G. Shen, S. K. Bose, T. H. Cheng, C. Lu, and T. K. Chai, “The impact of the number of add/drop ports in wavelength routed all-optical networks,” Opt. Network Mag., vol. 4, pp. 112–122, Sept./Oct.2003.

G. Shen, S. K. Bose, T. H. Cheng, C. Lu, and T. K. Chai, “Efficient heuristic algorithms for light-path routing and wavelength assignment in WDM networks under dynamically varying loads,” Comput. Commun., vol. 24, pp. 364–373, Feb.2001.

[CrossRef]

G. Shen, T. H. Cheng, S. K. Bose, C. Lu, and T. K. Chai, “The impact of number of transceivers and their tunabilities on WDM network performance,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol. 4, pp. 366–368, Nov.2000.

[CrossRef]

S. D. Hennin, P. Wall, S. H. Moffat, B. Keyworth, and P. Colbourne, “Addressing manufacturability and reliability of MEMS-based WSS,” in OFC/NFOEC, 2006.

T. Watanabe, K. Suzuki, T. Goh, H. Hattori, A. Mori, T. Takahashi, T. Sakamoto, K. Morita, S. Sohma, and S. Kamei, “Compact PLC-based transponder aggregator for colorless and directionless ROADM,” in OFC/NFOEC, 2011.

T. Watanabe, K. Suzuki, T. Goh, H. Hattori, A. Mori, T. Takahashi, T. Sakamoto, K. Morita, S. Sohma, and S. Kamei, “Compact PLC-based transponder aggregator for colorless and directionless ROADM,” in OFC/NFOEC, 2011.

Z. Hui, J. P. Jue, and B. Mukherjee, “A review of routing and wavelength assignment approaches for wavelength-routed optical WDM networks,” Opt. Network Mag., vol. 1, pp. 47–60, Jan.2000.

C. R. Doerr, L. W. Stulz, D. S. Levy, L. Gomez, M. Cappuzzo, J. Bailey, R. Long, A. Wong-Foy, E. Laskowski, E. Chen, S. Patel, and T. Murphy, “Eight wavelength add-drop filter with true reconfigurability,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, pp. 138–140, Jan.2003.

[CrossRef]

P. Palacharla, X. Wang, I. Kim, D. Bihon, M. D. Feuer, and S. L. Woodward, “Blocking performance in dynamic optical networks based on colorless, non-directional ROADMs,” in OFC/NFOEC, 2011.

C. R. Doerr, L. W. Stulz, D. S. Levy, L. Gomez, M. Cappuzzo, J. Bailey, R. Long, A. Wong-Foy, E. Laskowski, E. Chen, S. Patel, and T. Murphy, “Eight wavelength add-drop filter with true reconfigurability,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, pp. 138–140, Jan.2003.

[CrossRef]

G. Shen, Y. Li, and L. Peng, “How much can colorless, directionless and contentionless (CDC) of ROADM help dynamic lightpath provisioning?” in OFC/NFOEC, 2012.

P. Roorda and B. Collings, “Evolution to colorless and directionless ROADM architecture,” in OFC/NFOEC, 2008.

T. Watanabe, K. Suzuki, T. Goh, H. Hattori, A. Mori, T. Takahashi, T. Sakamoto, K. Morita, S. Sohma, and S. Kamei, “Compact PLC-based transponder aggregator for colorless and directionless ROADM,” in OFC/NFOEC, 2011.

G. Shen, S. K. Bose, T. H. Cheng, C. Lu, and T. K. Chai, “The impact of the number of add/drop ports in wavelength routed all-optical networks,” Opt. Network Mag., vol. 4, pp. 112–122, Sept./Oct.2003.

G. Shen, S. K. Bose, T. H. Cheng, C. Lu, and T. K. Chai, “Efficient heuristic algorithms for light-path routing and wavelength assignment in WDM networks under dynamically varying loads,” Comput. Commun., vol. 24, pp. 364–373, Feb.2001.

[CrossRef]

G. Shen, T. H. Cheng, S. K. Bose, C. Lu, and T. K. Chai, “The impact of number of transceivers and their tunabilities on WDM network performance,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol. 4, pp. 366–368, Nov.2000.

[CrossRef]

G. Shen, Y. Li, and L. Peng, “How much can colorless, directionless and contentionless (CDC) of ROADM help dynamic lightpath provisioning?” in OFC/NFOEC, 2012.

S. Gringeri, B. Basch, V. Shukla, R. Egorov, and T. J. Xia, “Flexible architectures for optical transport nodes and networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 48, pp. 40–50, July2010.

[CrossRef]

T. Watanabe, K. Suzuki, T. Goh, H. Hattori, A. Mori, T. Takahashi, T. Sakamoto, K. Morita, S. Sohma, and S. Kamei, “Compact PLC-based transponder aggregator for colorless and directionless ROADM,” in OFC/NFOEC, 2011.

S. Subramaniam, M. Azizoglu, and A. K. Somani, “All-optical networks with sparse wavelength conversion,” IEEE Trans. Netw., vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 544–557, Aug.1996.

[CrossRef]

M. P. Earnshaw and J. B. D. Soole, “Integrated reconfigurable optical wavelength add-drop multiplexer,” Electron. Lett., vol. 38, pp. 1351–1352, Oct.2002.

[CrossRef]

J. Spath, “Resource allocation for dynamic routing in WDM networks,” in Proc. of All-Optical Networking 1999: Architecture, Control, and Management Issues, Boston, Massachusetts, Sept. 1999, pp. 235–246.

C. R. Doerr, L. W. Stulz, D. S. Levy, L. Gomez, M. Cappuzzo, J. Bailey, R. Long, A. Wong-Foy, E. Laskowski, E. Chen, S. Patel, and T. Murphy, “Eight wavelength add-drop filter with true reconfigurability,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, pp. 138–140, Jan.2003.

[CrossRef]

O. Turkcu and S. Subramaniam, “Performance of optical networks with limited reconfigurability,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 17, pp. 2002–2013, Dec.2009.

[CrossRef]

S. Subramaniam, M. Azizoglu, and A. K. Somani, “All-optical networks with sparse wavelength conversion,” IEEE Trans. Netw., vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 544–557, Aug.1996.

[CrossRef]

T. Watanabe, K. Suzuki, T. Goh, H. Hattori, A. Mori, T. Takahashi, T. Sakamoto, K. Morita, S. Sohma, and S. Kamei, “Compact PLC-based transponder aggregator for colorless and directionless ROADM,” in OFC/NFOEC, 2011.

T. Watanabe, K. Suzuki, T. Goh, H. Hattori, A. Mori, T. Takahashi, T. Sakamoto, K. Morita, S. Sohma, and S. Kamei, “Compact PLC-based transponder aggregator for colorless and directionless ROADM,” in OFC/NFOEC, 2011.

O. Turkcu and S. Subramaniam, “Performance of optical networks with limited reconfigurability,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 17, pp. 2002–2013, Dec.2009.

[CrossRef]

S. D. Hennin, P. Wall, S. H. Moffat, B. Keyworth, and P. Colbourne, “Addressing manufacturability and reliability of MEMS-based WSS,” in OFC/NFOEC, 2006.

P. Palacharla, X. Wang, I. Kim, D. Bihon, M. D. Feuer, and S. L. Woodward, “Blocking performance in dynamic optical networks based on colorless, non-directional ROADMs,” in OFC/NFOEC, 2011.

T. Watanabe, K. Suzuki, T. Goh, H. Hattori, A. Mori, T. Takahashi, T. Sakamoto, K. Morita, S. Sohma, and S. Kamei, “Compact PLC-based transponder aggregator for colorless and directionless ROADM,” in OFC/NFOEC, 2011.

C. R. Doerr, L. W. Stulz, D. S. Levy, L. Gomez, M. Cappuzzo, J. Bailey, R. Long, A. Wong-Foy, E. Laskowski, E. Chen, S. Patel, and T. Murphy, “Eight wavelength add-drop filter with true reconfigurability,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, pp. 138–140, Jan.2003.

[CrossRef]

P. Palacharla, X. Wang, I. Kim, D. Bihon, M. D. Feuer, and S. L. Woodward, “Blocking performance in dynamic optical networks based on colorless, non-directional ROADMs,” in OFC/NFOEC, 2011.

S. Gringeri, B. Basch, V. Shukla, R. Egorov, and T. J. Xia, “Flexible architectures for optical transport nodes and networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 48, pp. 40–50, July2010.

[CrossRef]

G. Shen, S. K. Bose, T. H. Cheng, C. Lu, and T. K. Chai, “Efficient heuristic algorithms for light-path routing and wavelength assignment in WDM networks under dynamically varying loads,” Comput. Commun., vol. 24, pp. 364–373, Feb.2001.

[CrossRef]

M. P. Earnshaw and J. B. D. Soole, “Integrated reconfigurable optical wavelength add-drop multiplexer,” Electron. Lett., vol. 38, pp. 1351–1352, Oct.2002.

[CrossRef]

G. Shen, T. H. Cheng, S. K. Bose, C. Lu, and T. K. Chai, “The impact of number of transceivers and their tunabilities on WDM network performance,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol. 4, pp. 366–368, Nov.2000.

[CrossRef]

J. Homa and K. Bala, “ROADM architectures and their enabling WSS technology,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 46, pp. 150–154, June2008.

[CrossRef]

S. Gringeri, B. Basch, V. Shukla, R. Egorov, and T. J. Xia, “Flexible architectures for optical transport nodes and networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 48, pp. 40–50, July2010.

[CrossRef]

A. Birman, “Computing approximate blocking probabilities for a class of all-optical networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 14, pp. 852–857, June1996.

[CrossRef]

C. R. Doerr, L. W. Stulz, D. S. Levy, L. Gomez, M. Cappuzzo, J. Bailey, R. Long, A. Wong-Foy, E. Laskowski, E. Chen, S. Patel, and T. Murphy, “Eight wavelength add-drop filter with true reconfigurability,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, pp. 138–140, Jan.2003.

[CrossRef]

I. Chlamtac, A. Ganz, and G. Karmi, “Lightpath communication: an approach to high bandwidth optical WAN’s,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 40, pp. 1171–1182, July1992.

[CrossRef]

S. Subramaniam, M. Azizoglu, and A. K. Somani, “All-optical networks with sparse wavelength conversion,” IEEE Trans. Netw., vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 544–557, Aug.1996.

[CrossRef]

O. Turkcu and S. Subramaniam, “Performance of optical networks with limited reconfigurability,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 17, pp. 2002–2013, Dec.2009.

[CrossRef]

Z. Hui, J. P. Jue, and B. Mukherjee, “A review of routing and wavelength assignment approaches for wavelength-routed optical WDM networks,” Opt. Network Mag., vol. 1, pp. 47–60, Jan.2000.

G. Shen, S. K. Bose, T. H. Cheng, C. Lu, and T. K. Chai, “The impact of the number of add/drop ports in wavelength routed all-optical networks,” Opt. Network Mag., vol. 4, pp. 112–122, Sept./Oct.2003.

T. Watanabe, K. Suzuki, T. Goh, H. Hattori, A. Mori, T. Takahashi, T. Sakamoto, K. Morita, S. Sohma, and S. Kamei, “Compact PLC-based transponder aggregator for colorless and directionless ROADM,” in OFC/NFOEC, 2011.

B. P. Keyworth, “ROADM subsystems and technologies,” in OFC/NFOEC, 2005.

S. D. Hennin, P. Wall, S. H. Moffat, B. Keyworth, and P. Colbourne, “Addressing manufacturability and reliability of MEMS-based WSS,” in OFC/NFOEC, 2006.

P. N. Ji and Y. Aono, “Colorless and directionless multi-degree reconfigurable optical add/drop multiplexers,” in Proc. of 19th Wireless and Optical Communication Conf. (WOCC), 2010.

P. Palacharla, X. Wang, I. Kim, D. Bihon, M. D. Feuer, and S. L. Woodward, “Blocking performance in dynamic optical networks based on colorless, non-directional ROADMs,” in OFC/NFOEC, 2011.

J. Spath, “Resource allocation for dynamic routing in WDM networks,” in Proc. of All-Optical Networking 1999: Architecture, Control, and Management Issues, Boston, Massachusetts, Sept. 1999, pp. 235–246.

P. Roorda and B. Collings, “Evolution to colorless and directionless ROADM architecture,” in OFC/NFOEC, 2008.

G. Shen, Y. Li, and L. Peng, “How much can colorless, directionless and contentionless (CDC) of ROADM help dynamic lightpath provisioning?” in OFC/NFOEC, 2012.

R. Jensen, “Optical switch architectures for emerging colorless/directionless/contentionless ROADM networks,” in OFC/NFOEC, 2011.