Abstract

In the context of dynamic lightpath service provisioning, this paper evaluates the impact of the colorless, directionless, and contentionless (CDC) features of reconfigurable optical add/drop multiplexers on wavelength division multiplexing optical transport networks (OTNs). Under the assumption of fixed shortest path routing, we first develop analytical models for evaluating the impacts of the CDC features. Next, allowing for adaptive lightpath route selection, we propose three lightpath routing and add/drop port selection strategies. Simulation studies indicate that the proposed analytical models can effectively predict the performance of the OTNs under different add/drop port capabilities. The simulation results also show that, among the three features, the colorless feature seems to play the most important role in improving the lightpath blocking performance. In addition, under the colorless add/drop capability, there exists a saturation phenomenon: when the number of add/drop ports per nodal degree reaches a certain threshold level, performance improvement will be marginal even if the number of add/drop ports is further increased. Finally, comparing the three adaptive lightpath routing and add/drop allocation strategies, the results show that the consideration of the add/drop port state information in lightpath routing and wavelength assignment can significantly improve the lightpath blocking performance.

© 2012 OSA

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  1. M. P. Earnshaw and J. B. D. Soole, “Integrated reconfigurable optical wavelength add-drop multiplexer,” Electron. Lett., vol. 38, pp. 1351–1352, Oct.2002.
    [CrossRef]
  2. C. R. Doerr, L. W. Stulz, D. S. Levy, L. Gomez, M. Cappuzzo, J. Bailey, R. Long, A. Wong-Foy, E. Laskowski, E. Chen, S. Patel, and T. Murphy, “Eight wavelength add-drop filter with true reconfigurability,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, pp. 138–140, Jan.2003.
    [CrossRef]
  3. B. P. Keyworth, “ROADM subsystems and technologies,” in OFC/NFOEC, 2005.
  4. P. Roorda and B. Collings, “Evolution to colorless and directionless ROADM architecture,” in OFC/NFOEC, 2008.
  5. T. Watanabe, K. Suzuki, T. Goh, H. Hattori, A. Mori, T. Takahashi, T. Sakamoto, K. Morita, S. Sohma, and S. Kamei, “Compact PLC-based transponder aggregator for colorless and directionless ROADM,” in OFC/NFOEC, 2011.
  6. S. D. Hennin, P. Wall, S. H. Moffat, B. Keyworth, and P. Colbourne, “Addressing manufacturability and reliability of MEMS-based WSS,” in OFC/NFOEC, 2006.
  7. J. Homa and K. Bala, “ROADM architectures and their enabling WSS technology,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 46, pp. 150–154, June2008.
    [CrossRef]
  8. P. N. Ji and Y. Aono, “Colorless and directionless multi-degree reconfigurable optical add/drop multiplexers,” in Proc. of 19th Wireless and Optical Communication Conf. (WOCC), 2010.
  9. S. Gringeri, B. Basch, V. Shukla, R. Egorov, and T. J. Xia, “Flexible architectures for optical transport nodes and networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 48, pp. 40–50, July2010.
    [CrossRef]
  10. P. Palacharla, X. Wang, I. Kim, D. Bihon, M. D. Feuer, and S. L. Woodward, “Blocking performance in dynamic optical networks based on colorless, non-directional ROADMs,” in OFC/NFOEC, 2011.
  11. R. Jensen, “Optical switch architectures for emerging colorless/directionless/contentionless ROADM networks,” in OFC/NFOEC, 2011.
  12. Z. Hui, J. P. Jue, and B. Mukherjee, “A review of routing and wavelength assignment approaches for wavelength-routed optical WDM networks,” Opt. Network Mag., vol. 1, pp. 47–60, Jan.2000.
  13. G. Shen, S. K. Bose, T. H. Cheng, C. Lu, and T. K. Chai, “Efficient heuristic algorithms for light-path routing and wavelength assignment in WDM networks under dynamically varying loads,” Comput. Commun., vol. 24, pp. 364–373, Feb.2001.
    [CrossRef]
  14. G. Shen, T. H. Cheng, S. K. Bose, C. Lu, and T. K. Chai, “The impact of number of transceivers and their tunabilities on WDM network performance,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol. 4, pp. 366–368, Nov.2000.
    [CrossRef]
  15. O. Turkcu and S. Subramaniam, “Performance of optical networks with limited reconfigurability,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 17, pp. 2002–2013, Dec.2009.
    [CrossRef]
  16. I. Chlamtac, A. Ganz, and G. Karmi, “Lightpath communication: an approach to high bandwidth optical WAN’s,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 40, pp. 1171–1182, July1992.
    [CrossRef]
  17. G. Shen, S. K. Bose, T. H. Cheng, C. Lu, and T. K. Chai, “The impact of the number of add/drop ports in wavelength routed all-optical networks,” Opt. Network Mag., vol. 4, pp. 112–122, Sept./Oct.2003.
  18. A. Birman, “Computing approximate blocking probabilities for a class of all-optical networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 14, pp. 852–857, June1996.
    [CrossRef]
  19. J. Spath, “Resource allocation for dynamic routing in WDM networks,” in Proc. of All-Optical Networking 1999: Architecture, Control, and Management Issues, Boston, Massachusetts, Sept. 1999, pp. 235–246.
  20. S. Subramaniam, M. Azizoglu, and A. K. Somani, “All-optical networks with sparse wavelength conversion,” IEEE Trans. Netw., vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 544–557, Aug.1996.
    [CrossRef]
  21. G. Shen, Y. Li, and L. Peng, “How much can colorless, directionless and contentionless (CDC) of ROADM help dynamic lightpath provisioning?” in OFC/NFOEC, 2012.

2010

S. Gringeri, B. Basch, V. Shukla, R. Egorov, and T. J. Xia, “Flexible architectures for optical transport nodes and networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 48, pp. 40–50, July2010.
[CrossRef]

2009

O. Turkcu and S. Subramaniam, “Performance of optical networks with limited reconfigurability,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 17, pp. 2002–2013, Dec.2009.
[CrossRef]

2008

J. Homa and K. Bala, “ROADM architectures and their enabling WSS technology,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 46, pp. 150–154, June2008.
[CrossRef]

2003

G. Shen, S. K. Bose, T. H. Cheng, C. Lu, and T. K. Chai, “The impact of the number of add/drop ports in wavelength routed all-optical networks,” Opt. Network Mag., vol. 4, pp. 112–122, Sept./Oct.2003.

C. R. Doerr, L. W. Stulz, D. S. Levy, L. Gomez, M. Cappuzzo, J. Bailey, R. Long, A. Wong-Foy, E. Laskowski, E. Chen, S. Patel, and T. Murphy, “Eight wavelength add-drop filter with true reconfigurability,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, pp. 138–140, Jan.2003.
[CrossRef]

2002

M. P. Earnshaw and J. B. D. Soole, “Integrated reconfigurable optical wavelength add-drop multiplexer,” Electron. Lett., vol. 38, pp. 1351–1352, Oct.2002.
[CrossRef]

2001

G. Shen, S. K. Bose, T. H. Cheng, C. Lu, and T. K. Chai, “Efficient heuristic algorithms for light-path routing and wavelength assignment in WDM networks under dynamically varying loads,” Comput. Commun., vol. 24, pp. 364–373, Feb.2001.
[CrossRef]

2000

G. Shen, T. H. Cheng, S. K. Bose, C. Lu, and T. K. Chai, “The impact of number of transceivers and their tunabilities on WDM network performance,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol. 4, pp. 366–368, Nov.2000.
[CrossRef]

Z. Hui, J. P. Jue, and B. Mukherjee, “A review of routing and wavelength assignment approaches for wavelength-routed optical WDM networks,” Opt. Network Mag., vol. 1, pp. 47–60, Jan.2000.

1996

A. Birman, “Computing approximate blocking probabilities for a class of all-optical networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 14, pp. 852–857, June1996.
[CrossRef]

S. Subramaniam, M. Azizoglu, and A. K. Somani, “All-optical networks with sparse wavelength conversion,” IEEE Trans. Netw., vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 544–557, Aug.1996.
[CrossRef]

1992

I. Chlamtac, A. Ganz, and G. Karmi, “Lightpath communication: an approach to high bandwidth optical WAN’s,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 40, pp. 1171–1182, July1992.
[CrossRef]

Aono, Y.

P. N. Ji and Y. Aono, “Colorless and directionless multi-degree reconfigurable optical add/drop multiplexers,” in Proc. of 19th Wireless and Optical Communication Conf. (WOCC), 2010.

Azizoglu, M.

S. Subramaniam, M. Azizoglu, and A. K. Somani, “All-optical networks with sparse wavelength conversion,” IEEE Trans. Netw., vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 544–557, Aug.1996.
[CrossRef]

Bailey, J.

C. R. Doerr, L. W. Stulz, D. S. Levy, L. Gomez, M. Cappuzzo, J. Bailey, R. Long, A. Wong-Foy, E. Laskowski, E. Chen, S. Patel, and T. Murphy, “Eight wavelength add-drop filter with true reconfigurability,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, pp. 138–140, Jan.2003.
[CrossRef]

Bala, K.

J. Homa and K. Bala, “ROADM architectures and their enabling WSS technology,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 46, pp. 150–154, June2008.
[CrossRef]

Basch, B.

S. Gringeri, B. Basch, V. Shukla, R. Egorov, and T. J. Xia, “Flexible architectures for optical transport nodes and networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 48, pp. 40–50, July2010.
[CrossRef]

Bihon, D.

P. Palacharla, X. Wang, I. Kim, D. Bihon, M. D. Feuer, and S. L. Woodward, “Blocking performance in dynamic optical networks based on colorless, non-directional ROADMs,” in OFC/NFOEC, 2011.

Birman, A.

A. Birman, “Computing approximate blocking probabilities for a class of all-optical networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 14, pp. 852–857, June1996.
[CrossRef]

Bose, S. K.

G. Shen, S. K. Bose, T. H. Cheng, C. Lu, and T. K. Chai, “The impact of the number of add/drop ports in wavelength routed all-optical networks,” Opt. Network Mag., vol. 4, pp. 112–122, Sept./Oct.2003.

G. Shen, S. K. Bose, T. H. Cheng, C. Lu, and T. K. Chai, “Efficient heuristic algorithms for light-path routing and wavelength assignment in WDM networks under dynamically varying loads,” Comput. Commun., vol. 24, pp. 364–373, Feb.2001.
[CrossRef]

G. Shen, T. H. Cheng, S. K. Bose, C. Lu, and T. K. Chai, “The impact of number of transceivers and their tunabilities on WDM network performance,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol. 4, pp. 366–368, Nov.2000.
[CrossRef]

Cappuzzo, M.

C. R. Doerr, L. W. Stulz, D. S. Levy, L. Gomez, M. Cappuzzo, J. Bailey, R. Long, A. Wong-Foy, E. Laskowski, E. Chen, S. Patel, and T. Murphy, “Eight wavelength add-drop filter with true reconfigurability,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, pp. 138–140, Jan.2003.
[CrossRef]

Chai, T. K.

G. Shen, S. K. Bose, T. H. Cheng, C. Lu, and T. K. Chai, “The impact of the number of add/drop ports in wavelength routed all-optical networks,” Opt. Network Mag., vol. 4, pp. 112–122, Sept./Oct.2003.

G. Shen, S. K. Bose, T. H. Cheng, C. Lu, and T. K. Chai, “Efficient heuristic algorithms for light-path routing and wavelength assignment in WDM networks under dynamically varying loads,” Comput. Commun., vol. 24, pp. 364–373, Feb.2001.
[CrossRef]

G. Shen, T. H. Cheng, S. K. Bose, C. Lu, and T. K. Chai, “The impact of number of transceivers and their tunabilities on WDM network performance,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol. 4, pp. 366–368, Nov.2000.
[CrossRef]

Chen, E.

C. R. Doerr, L. W. Stulz, D. S. Levy, L. Gomez, M. Cappuzzo, J. Bailey, R. Long, A. Wong-Foy, E. Laskowski, E. Chen, S. Patel, and T. Murphy, “Eight wavelength add-drop filter with true reconfigurability,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, pp. 138–140, Jan.2003.
[CrossRef]

Cheng, T. H.

G. Shen, S. K. Bose, T. H. Cheng, C. Lu, and T. K. Chai, “The impact of the number of add/drop ports in wavelength routed all-optical networks,” Opt. Network Mag., vol. 4, pp. 112–122, Sept./Oct.2003.

G. Shen, S. K. Bose, T. H. Cheng, C. Lu, and T. K. Chai, “Efficient heuristic algorithms for light-path routing and wavelength assignment in WDM networks under dynamically varying loads,” Comput. Commun., vol. 24, pp. 364–373, Feb.2001.
[CrossRef]

G. Shen, T. H. Cheng, S. K. Bose, C. Lu, and T. K. Chai, “The impact of number of transceivers and their tunabilities on WDM network performance,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol. 4, pp. 366–368, Nov.2000.
[CrossRef]

Chlamtac, I.

I. Chlamtac, A. Ganz, and G. Karmi, “Lightpath communication: an approach to high bandwidth optical WAN’s,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 40, pp. 1171–1182, July1992.
[CrossRef]

Colbourne, P.

S. D. Hennin, P. Wall, S. H. Moffat, B. Keyworth, and P. Colbourne, “Addressing manufacturability and reliability of MEMS-based WSS,” in OFC/NFOEC, 2006.

Collings, B.

P. Roorda and B. Collings, “Evolution to colorless and directionless ROADM architecture,” in OFC/NFOEC, 2008.

Doerr, C. R.

C. R. Doerr, L. W. Stulz, D. S. Levy, L. Gomez, M. Cappuzzo, J. Bailey, R. Long, A. Wong-Foy, E. Laskowski, E. Chen, S. Patel, and T. Murphy, “Eight wavelength add-drop filter with true reconfigurability,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, pp. 138–140, Jan.2003.
[CrossRef]

Earnshaw, M. P.

M. P. Earnshaw and J. B. D. Soole, “Integrated reconfigurable optical wavelength add-drop multiplexer,” Electron. Lett., vol. 38, pp. 1351–1352, Oct.2002.
[CrossRef]

Egorov, R.

S. Gringeri, B. Basch, V. Shukla, R. Egorov, and T. J. Xia, “Flexible architectures for optical transport nodes and networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 48, pp. 40–50, July2010.
[CrossRef]

Feuer, M. D.

P. Palacharla, X. Wang, I. Kim, D. Bihon, M. D. Feuer, and S. L. Woodward, “Blocking performance in dynamic optical networks based on colorless, non-directional ROADMs,” in OFC/NFOEC, 2011.

Ganz, A.

I. Chlamtac, A. Ganz, and G. Karmi, “Lightpath communication: an approach to high bandwidth optical WAN’s,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 40, pp. 1171–1182, July1992.
[CrossRef]

Goh, T.

T. Watanabe, K. Suzuki, T. Goh, H. Hattori, A. Mori, T. Takahashi, T. Sakamoto, K. Morita, S. Sohma, and S. Kamei, “Compact PLC-based transponder aggregator for colorless and directionless ROADM,” in OFC/NFOEC, 2011.

Gomez, L.

C. R. Doerr, L. W. Stulz, D. S. Levy, L. Gomez, M. Cappuzzo, J. Bailey, R. Long, A. Wong-Foy, E. Laskowski, E. Chen, S. Patel, and T. Murphy, “Eight wavelength add-drop filter with true reconfigurability,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, pp. 138–140, Jan.2003.
[CrossRef]

Gringeri, S.

S. Gringeri, B. Basch, V. Shukla, R. Egorov, and T. J. Xia, “Flexible architectures for optical transport nodes and networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 48, pp. 40–50, July2010.
[CrossRef]

Hattori, H.

T. Watanabe, K. Suzuki, T. Goh, H. Hattori, A. Mori, T. Takahashi, T. Sakamoto, K. Morita, S. Sohma, and S. Kamei, “Compact PLC-based transponder aggregator for colorless and directionless ROADM,” in OFC/NFOEC, 2011.

Hennin, S. D.

S. D. Hennin, P. Wall, S. H. Moffat, B. Keyworth, and P. Colbourne, “Addressing manufacturability and reliability of MEMS-based WSS,” in OFC/NFOEC, 2006.

Homa, J.

J. Homa and K. Bala, “ROADM architectures and their enabling WSS technology,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 46, pp. 150–154, June2008.
[CrossRef]

Hui, Z.

Z. Hui, J. P. Jue, and B. Mukherjee, “A review of routing and wavelength assignment approaches for wavelength-routed optical WDM networks,” Opt. Network Mag., vol. 1, pp. 47–60, Jan.2000.

Jensen, R.

R. Jensen, “Optical switch architectures for emerging colorless/directionless/contentionless ROADM networks,” in OFC/NFOEC, 2011.

Ji, P. N.

P. N. Ji and Y. Aono, “Colorless and directionless multi-degree reconfigurable optical add/drop multiplexers,” in Proc. of 19th Wireless and Optical Communication Conf. (WOCC), 2010.

Jue, J. P.

Z. Hui, J. P. Jue, and B. Mukherjee, “A review of routing and wavelength assignment approaches for wavelength-routed optical WDM networks,” Opt. Network Mag., vol. 1, pp. 47–60, Jan.2000.

Kamei, S.

T. Watanabe, K. Suzuki, T. Goh, H. Hattori, A. Mori, T. Takahashi, T. Sakamoto, K. Morita, S. Sohma, and S. Kamei, “Compact PLC-based transponder aggregator for colorless and directionless ROADM,” in OFC/NFOEC, 2011.

Karmi, G.

I. Chlamtac, A. Ganz, and G. Karmi, “Lightpath communication: an approach to high bandwidth optical WAN’s,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 40, pp. 1171–1182, July1992.
[CrossRef]

Keyworth, B.

S. D. Hennin, P. Wall, S. H. Moffat, B. Keyworth, and P. Colbourne, “Addressing manufacturability and reliability of MEMS-based WSS,” in OFC/NFOEC, 2006.

Keyworth, B. P.

B. P. Keyworth, “ROADM subsystems and technologies,” in OFC/NFOEC, 2005.

Kim, I.

P. Palacharla, X. Wang, I. Kim, D. Bihon, M. D. Feuer, and S. L. Woodward, “Blocking performance in dynamic optical networks based on colorless, non-directional ROADMs,” in OFC/NFOEC, 2011.

Laskowski, E.

C. R. Doerr, L. W. Stulz, D. S. Levy, L. Gomez, M. Cappuzzo, J. Bailey, R. Long, A. Wong-Foy, E. Laskowski, E. Chen, S. Patel, and T. Murphy, “Eight wavelength add-drop filter with true reconfigurability,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, pp. 138–140, Jan.2003.
[CrossRef]

Levy, D. S.

C. R. Doerr, L. W. Stulz, D. S. Levy, L. Gomez, M. Cappuzzo, J. Bailey, R. Long, A. Wong-Foy, E. Laskowski, E. Chen, S. Patel, and T. Murphy, “Eight wavelength add-drop filter with true reconfigurability,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, pp. 138–140, Jan.2003.
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.

G. Shen, Y. Li, and L. Peng, “How much can colorless, directionless and contentionless (CDC) of ROADM help dynamic lightpath provisioning?” in OFC/NFOEC, 2012.

Long, R.

C. R. Doerr, L. W. Stulz, D. S. Levy, L. Gomez, M. Cappuzzo, J. Bailey, R. Long, A. Wong-Foy, E. Laskowski, E. Chen, S. Patel, and T. Murphy, “Eight wavelength add-drop filter with true reconfigurability,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, pp. 138–140, Jan.2003.
[CrossRef]

Lu, C.

G. Shen, S. K. Bose, T. H. Cheng, C. Lu, and T. K. Chai, “The impact of the number of add/drop ports in wavelength routed all-optical networks,” Opt. Network Mag., vol. 4, pp. 112–122, Sept./Oct.2003.

G. Shen, S. K. Bose, T. H. Cheng, C. Lu, and T. K. Chai, “Efficient heuristic algorithms for light-path routing and wavelength assignment in WDM networks under dynamically varying loads,” Comput. Commun., vol. 24, pp. 364–373, Feb.2001.
[CrossRef]

G. Shen, T. H. Cheng, S. K. Bose, C. Lu, and T. K. Chai, “The impact of number of transceivers and their tunabilities on WDM network performance,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol. 4, pp. 366–368, Nov.2000.
[CrossRef]

Moffat, S. H.

S. D. Hennin, P. Wall, S. H. Moffat, B. Keyworth, and P. Colbourne, “Addressing manufacturability and reliability of MEMS-based WSS,” in OFC/NFOEC, 2006.

Mori, A.

T. Watanabe, K. Suzuki, T. Goh, H. Hattori, A. Mori, T. Takahashi, T. Sakamoto, K. Morita, S. Sohma, and S. Kamei, “Compact PLC-based transponder aggregator for colorless and directionless ROADM,” in OFC/NFOEC, 2011.

Morita, K.

T. Watanabe, K. Suzuki, T. Goh, H. Hattori, A. Mori, T. Takahashi, T. Sakamoto, K. Morita, S. Sohma, and S. Kamei, “Compact PLC-based transponder aggregator for colorless and directionless ROADM,” in OFC/NFOEC, 2011.

Mukherjee, B.

Z. Hui, J. P. Jue, and B. Mukherjee, “A review of routing and wavelength assignment approaches for wavelength-routed optical WDM networks,” Opt. Network Mag., vol. 1, pp. 47–60, Jan.2000.

Murphy, T.

C. R. Doerr, L. W. Stulz, D. S. Levy, L. Gomez, M. Cappuzzo, J. Bailey, R. Long, A. Wong-Foy, E. Laskowski, E. Chen, S. Patel, and T. Murphy, “Eight wavelength add-drop filter with true reconfigurability,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, pp. 138–140, Jan.2003.
[CrossRef]

Palacharla, P.

P. Palacharla, X. Wang, I. Kim, D. Bihon, M. D. Feuer, and S. L. Woodward, “Blocking performance in dynamic optical networks based on colorless, non-directional ROADMs,” in OFC/NFOEC, 2011.

Patel, S.

C. R. Doerr, L. W. Stulz, D. S. Levy, L. Gomez, M. Cappuzzo, J. Bailey, R. Long, A. Wong-Foy, E. Laskowski, E. Chen, S. Patel, and T. Murphy, “Eight wavelength add-drop filter with true reconfigurability,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, pp. 138–140, Jan.2003.
[CrossRef]

Peng, L.

G. Shen, Y. Li, and L. Peng, “How much can colorless, directionless and contentionless (CDC) of ROADM help dynamic lightpath provisioning?” in OFC/NFOEC, 2012.

Roorda, P.

P. Roorda and B. Collings, “Evolution to colorless and directionless ROADM architecture,” in OFC/NFOEC, 2008.

Sakamoto, T.

T. Watanabe, K. Suzuki, T. Goh, H. Hattori, A. Mori, T. Takahashi, T. Sakamoto, K. Morita, S. Sohma, and S. Kamei, “Compact PLC-based transponder aggregator for colorless and directionless ROADM,” in OFC/NFOEC, 2011.

Shen, G.

G. Shen, S. K. Bose, T. H. Cheng, C. Lu, and T. K. Chai, “The impact of the number of add/drop ports in wavelength routed all-optical networks,” Opt. Network Mag., vol. 4, pp. 112–122, Sept./Oct.2003.

G. Shen, S. K. Bose, T. H. Cheng, C. Lu, and T. K. Chai, “Efficient heuristic algorithms for light-path routing and wavelength assignment in WDM networks under dynamically varying loads,” Comput. Commun., vol. 24, pp. 364–373, Feb.2001.
[CrossRef]

G. Shen, T. H. Cheng, S. K. Bose, C. Lu, and T. K. Chai, “The impact of number of transceivers and their tunabilities on WDM network performance,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol. 4, pp. 366–368, Nov.2000.
[CrossRef]

G. Shen, Y. Li, and L. Peng, “How much can colorless, directionless and contentionless (CDC) of ROADM help dynamic lightpath provisioning?” in OFC/NFOEC, 2012.

Shukla, V.

S. Gringeri, B. Basch, V. Shukla, R. Egorov, and T. J. Xia, “Flexible architectures for optical transport nodes and networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 48, pp. 40–50, July2010.
[CrossRef]

Sohma, S.

T. Watanabe, K. Suzuki, T. Goh, H. Hattori, A. Mori, T. Takahashi, T. Sakamoto, K. Morita, S. Sohma, and S. Kamei, “Compact PLC-based transponder aggregator for colorless and directionless ROADM,” in OFC/NFOEC, 2011.

Somani, A. K.

S. Subramaniam, M. Azizoglu, and A. K. Somani, “All-optical networks with sparse wavelength conversion,” IEEE Trans. Netw., vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 544–557, Aug.1996.
[CrossRef]

Soole, J. B. D.

M. P. Earnshaw and J. B. D. Soole, “Integrated reconfigurable optical wavelength add-drop multiplexer,” Electron. Lett., vol. 38, pp. 1351–1352, Oct.2002.
[CrossRef]

Spath, J.

J. Spath, “Resource allocation for dynamic routing in WDM networks,” in Proc. of All-Optical Networking 1999: Architecture, Control, and Management Issues, Boston, Massachusetts, Sept. 1999, pp. 235–246.

Stulz, L. W.

C. R. Doerr, L. W. Stulz, D. S. Levy, L. Gomez, M. Cappuzzo, J. Bailey, R. Long, A. Wong-Foy, E. Laskowski, E. Chen, S. Patel, and T. Murphy, “Eight wavelength add-drop filter with true reconfigurability,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, pp. 138–140, Jan.2003.
[CrossRef]

Subramaniam, S.

O. Turkcu and S. Subramaniam, “Performance of optical networks with limited reconfigurability,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 17, pp. 2002–2013, Dec.2009.
[CrossRef]

S. Subramaniam, M. Azizoglu, and A. K. Somani, “All-optical networks with sparse wavelength conversion,” IEEE Trans. Netw., vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 544–557, Aug.1996.
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, K.

T. Watanabe, K. Suzuki, T. Goh, H. Hattori, A. Mori, T. Takahashi, T. Sakamoto, K. Morita, S. Sohma, and S. Kamei, “Compact PLC-based transponder aggregator for colorless and directionless ROADM,” in OFC/NFOEC, 2011.

Takahashi, T.

T. Watanabe, K. Suzuki, T. Goh, H. Hattori, A. Mori, T. Takahashi, T. Sakamoto, K. Morita, S. Sohma, and S. Kamei, “Compact PLC-based transponder aggregator for colorless and directionless ROADM,” in OFC/NFOEC, 2011.

Turkcu, O.

O. Turkcu and S. Subramaniam, “Performance of optical networks with limited reconfigurability,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 17, pp. 2002–2013, Dec.2009.
[CrossRef]

Wall, P.

S. D. Hennin, P. Wall, S. H. Moffat, B. Keyworth, and P. Colbourne, “Addressing manufacturability and reliability of MEMS-based WSS,” in OFC/NFOEC, 2006.

Wang, X.

P. Palacharla, X. Wang, I. Kim, D. Bihon, M. D. Feuer, and S. L. Woodward, “Blocking performance in dynamic optical networks based on colorless, non-directional ROADMs,” in OFC/NFOEC, 2011.

Watanabe, T.

T. Watanabe, K. Suzuki, T. Goh, H. Hattori, A. Mori, T. Takahashi, T. Sakamoto, K. Morita, S. Sohma, and S. Kamei, “Compact PLC-based transponder aggregator for colorless and directionless ROADM,” in OFC/NFOEC, 2011.

Wong-Foy, A.

C. R. Doerr, L. W. Stulz, D. S. Levy, L. Gomez, M. Cappuzzo, J. Bailey, R. Long, A. Wong-Foy, E. Laskowski, E. Chen, S. Patel, and T. Murphy, “Eight wavelength add-drop filter with true reconfigurability,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, pp. 138–140, Jan.2003.
[CrossRef]

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P. Palacharla, X. Wang, I. Kim, D. Bihon, M. D. Feuer, and S. L. Woodward, “Blocking performance in dynamic optical networks based on colorless, non-directional ROADMs,” in OFC/NFOEC, 2011.

Xia, T. J.

S. Gringeri, B. Basch, V. Shukla, R. Egorov, and T. J. Xia, “Flexible architectures for optical transport nodes and networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 48, pp. 40–50, July2010.
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G. Shen, S. K. Bose, T. H. Cheng, C. Lu, and T. K. Chai, “Efficient heuristic algorithms for light-path routing and wavelength assignment in WDM networks under dynamically varying loads,” Comput. Commun., vol. 24, pp. 364–373, Feb.2001.
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J. Homa and K. Bala, “ROADM architectures and their enabling WSS technology,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 46, pp. 150–154, June2008.
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Other

G. Shen, Y. Li, and L. Peng, “How much can colorless, directionless and contentionless (CDC) of ROADM help dynamic lightpath provisioning?” in OFC/NFOEC, 2012.

J. Spath, “Resource allocation for dynamic routing in WDM networks,” in Proc. of All-Optical Networking 1999: Architecture, Control, and Management Issues, Boston, Massachusetts, Sept. 1999, pp. 235–246.

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P. Roorda and B. Collings, “Evolution to colorless and directionless ROADM architecture,” in OFC/NFOEC, 2008.

T. Watanabe, K. Suzuki, T. Goh, H. Hattori, A. Mori, T. Takahashi, T. Sakamoto, K. Morita, S. Sohma, and S. Kamei, “Compact PLC-based transponder aggregator for colorless and directionless ROADM,” in OFC/NFOEC, 2011.

S. D. Hennin, P. Wall, S. H. Moffat, B. Keyworth, and P. Colbourne, “Addressing manufacturability and reliability of MEMS-based WSS,” in OFC/NFOEC, 2006.

P. Palacharla, X. Wang, I. Kim, D. Bihon, M. D. Feuer, and S. L. Woodward, “Blocking performance in dynamic optical networks based on colorless, non-directional ROADMs,” in OFC/NFOEC, 2011.

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Figures (14)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

A color and directional ROADM.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

A colorless and directional ROADM.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

A colorless, directionless, and contentionless ROADM.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

An example of a wavelength-continuity requirement on both add/drop ports and traversed links.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(Color online) An example of an “AND” operation between add/drop ports and outbound nodal degrees (outbound degree A should be removed).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

The two test networks.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

The lightpath blocking performance of the NSFNET network (Dir: directional; Col: color; Dirless: directionless; Colless: colorless; 1.6 Erlang per node pair; Ana: Analysis; Sim: Simulation).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

The lightpath blocking performance of the NSFNET network (Dir: directional; Col: color; Dirless: directionless; Colless: colorless; 1.8 Erlang per node pair; Ana: Analysis; Sim: Simulation).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Lightpath blocking performance change with the increase of number of add/drop ports per degree (NSFNET, strategy one; Dir: directional; Col: color; Dirless: directionless; Colless: colorless).

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Lightpath blocking performance change with the increase of number of add/drop ports per degree (NSFNET, strategy two; Dir: directional; Col: color; Dirless: directionless; Colless: colorless).

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Lightpath blocking performance change with the increase of number of add/drop ports per degree (NSFNET, strategy three; Dir: directional; Col: color; Dirless: directionless; Colless: colorless).

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Lightpath blocking performance change with the increase of number of add/drop ports per degree (ARPA-2, strategy one; Dir: directional; Col: color; Dirless: directionless; Colless: colorless).

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Lightpath blocking performance change with the increase of number of add/drop ports per degree (ARPA-2, strategy two; Dir: directional; Col: color; Dirless: directionless; Colless: colorless).

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Lightpath blocking performance change with the increase of number of add/drop ports per degree (ARPA-2, strategy three; Dir: directional; Col: color; Dirless: directionless; Colless: colorless).

Equations (16)

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λ n ( i ) = j λ ( i , j ) 1 P b ( i , j ) 1 B n ( i ) .
B n ( i ) = E ( λ n ( i ) , T i ) = λ n ( i ) T i T i ! j = 0 T i λ n ( i ) j j ! ,
q i ( ω ) = W ( W 1 ) ( W ω + 1 ) α i ( 1 ) α i ( 2 ) α i ( ω ) q i ( 0 ) , ω = 1 , , W ,
q i ( 0 ) = [ 1 + ω = 1 W W ( W 1 ) ( W ω + 1 ) α i ( 1 ) α i ( 2 ) α i ( ω ) ] 1 .
α i ( ω ) = { 0 , if  ω = 0 s , d ; i p a t h ( s , d ) λ ( s , d ) P { X p ( s , d ) > 0 | X l ( i ) = ω } if  ω = 1 , , W .
f l ( i ) = q i ( 1 ) 1 W + q i ( 2 ) 2 W + + q i ( W ) = k = 1 W q i ( k ) k W .
P r [ X p ( s , d ) > 0 | X l ( i ) = ω ] = ( 1 E ( λ n ( s ) , T s ) ) ( 1 E ( λ n ( d ) , T d ) ) ( 1 j = 1 ω ( 1 k p a t h ( s , d ) ; k i f l ( k ) ) ) = ( 1 E ( λ n ( s ) , T s ) ) ( 1 E ( λ n ( d ) , T d ) ) ( 1 ( 1 k p a t h ( s , d ) ; k i f l ( k ) ) ω ) .
P b ( s , d ) = 1 ( 1 E ( λ n ( s ) , T s ) ) ( 1 E ( λ n ( d ) , T d ) ) ( 1 ( 1 i p a t h ( s , d ) f l ( i ) ) W ) .
P B = s , d P b ( s , d ) λ ( s , d ) s , d λ ( s , d ) .
p i ( ω ) = T i ( T i 1 ) ( T i ω + 1 ) β i ( 1 ) β i ( 2 ) β i ( ω ) p i ( 0 ) ω = 1 , , T i ,
p i ( 0 ) = [ 1 + ω = 1 T i T i ( T i 1 ) ( T i ω + 1 ) β i ( 1 ) β i ( 2 ) β i ( ω ) ] 1 .
β i ( ω ) = { 0 , if  ω = 0 s , d ; i = s or i = d λ ( s , d ) P { X p ( s , d ) > 0 | X a ( i ) = ω } if  ω = 1 , , T i .
f a ( i ) = k = 1 T i C W 1 T i 1 C W T i p i ( k ) C T i 1 k 1 C T i k = k = 1 T i p i ( k ) k W .
P r [ X p ( s , d ) > 0 | X l ( i ) = ω ] = 1 j = 1 ω ( 1 f a ( s ) f a ( d ) k p a t h ( s , d ) ; k i f l ( k ) ) = 1 ( 1 f a ( s ) f a ( d ) k p a t h ( s , d ) ; k i f l ( k ) ) ω .
P r [ X p ( s , d ) > 0 | X a ( i ) = ω ] = 1 j = 1 ω ( 1 f a ( r ) k p a t h ( s , d ) f l ( k ) ) = 1 ( 1 f a ( r ) k p a t h ( s , d ) f l ( k ) ) ω ,
P b ( s , d ) = ( 1 f a ( s ) f a ( d ) i p a t h ( s , d ) f l ( i ) ) W .