Abstract

We analyze three add/drop ratio restriction schemes for reducing the hardware scale of colorless, directionless, and contentionless (C/D/C) optical cross-connects. We present three node architectures that implement the add/drop ratio restrictions of these schemes. Numerical experiments elucidate that restricting the add/drop ratios allows the hardware scale to be substantially reduced while the number of additional line fiber ports is minimal.

© 2012 OSA

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  1. A. L. Chiu, G. Choudhury, G. Clapp, R. Doverspike, M. Feuer, J. W. Gannett, J. Jackel, G. T. Kim, J. G. Klincewicz, T. J. Kwon, G. Li, P. Magill, J. M. Simmons, R. A. Skoog, J. Strand, A. V. Lehmen, B. J. Wilson, S. L. Woodward, and D. Xu, “Architectures and protocols for capacity efficient, highly dynamic and highly resilient core networks,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 1–14, Jan.2012.
    [CrossRef]
  2. P. Ghelfi, F. Cugini, L. Potì, A. Bogoni, P. Castoldi, R. Di Muro, and B. Nayar, “Optical cross connects architecture with per-node add&drop functionality,” in NFOEC 2007, Anaheim, Mar. 25, 2007, NTuC3.
  3. S. L. Woodward, M. D. Feuer, P. Palacharla, X. Wang, I. Kim, and D. Bihon, “Intra-node contention in a dynamic, colorless, non-directional ROADM,” in OFC/NFOEC 2010, San Diego, Mar. 2010, PDPC8.
  4. P. Palacharla, X. Wang, I. Kim, D. Bihon, M. D. Feuer, and S. Woodward, “Blocking performance in dynamic optical networks based on colorless, non-directional ROADMs,” in OFC/NFOEC 2011, Mar. 2011, JWA8.
  5. I. Kim, P. Palacharla, X. Wang, D. Bihon, M. D. Feuer, and S. L. Woodward, “Performance of colorless, non-directional ROADMs with modular client-side fiber cross-connects,” in OFC/NFOEC 2012, Los Angeles, Mar. 4, 2012, NM3F.7.
  6. T. Zami, “Contention simulation within dynamic, colorless and unidirectional/multidirectional optical cross-connects,” in ECOC 2011, Geneva, Sept. 2011, We.8.K.4.
  7. R. Jensen, A. Lord, and N. Parsons, “Colourless, directionless, contentionless ROADM architecture using low-loss optical matrix switches,” in ECOC 2010, Torino, Sept. 2010, Mo.2.D.2.
  8. R. A. Jensen, “Optical switch architecture for emerging colorless/directionless/contentionless ROADM networks,” in OFC/NFOEC 2011, Mar. 2011, OThR3.
  9. H.-C. Le, H. Hasegawa, and K. Sato, “Hierarchical optical path network design algorithm considering waveband add/drop ratio constraint,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol. 2, no. 10, pp. 872–882, 2010.
    [CrossRef]
  10. Y. Yamada, H. Hasegawa, and K. Sato, “Coarse granular routing in optical path networks and impact of supplemental intermediate grooming,” in ECOC 2010, Torino, Sept. 2010, Th.10.F.1.
  11. F. Naruse, Y. Yamada, H. Hasegawa, and K. Sato, “Optical network design algorithms that consider optical path add/drop ratio restrictions for OXC hardware scale reduction,” in OFC/NFOEC 2011, Mar. 2011, NThC3.
  12. F. Naruse, Y. Yamada, H. Hasegawa, and K. Sato, “Evaluations of different optical path add/drop ratio restriction schemes on OXC hardware scale and network resource requirement,” in OFC/NFOEC 2012, Los Angeles, Mar. 2012, OTh1A.5.
  13. K. Harada, K. Shimizu, T. Kudou, and T. Ozeki, “Hierarchical optical path cross-connect systems for large scale WDM networks,” in OFC/NFOEC 1999, Feb. 1999, pp. 356–358.
  14. L. Noirie, C. Blaizot, and E. Dotaro, “Multi-granularity optical cross connect,” in ECOC 2000, Oct. 2000, pp. 269–270.
  15. X. Cao, V. Anand, Y. Xiong, and C. Qiao, “A study of waveband switching with multilayer multigranular optical cross-connects,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 21, no. 7, pp. 1081–1094, Sept.2003.
    [CrossRef]
  16. P.-H. Ho, H. T. Mouftah, and J. Wu, “A scalable design of multigranularity optical cross-connects for the next-generation optical Internet,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 21, pp. 1133–1142, Sept.2003.
    [CrossRef]
  17. K. Sato and H. Hasegawa, “Prospects and challenges of Multi-layer optical networks,” IEICE Trans. Commun., vol. E90-B, no. 8, pp. 1890–1902, Aug.2007.
    [CrossRef]
  18. I. Yagyu, H. Hasegawa, and K. Sato, “An efficient hierarchical optical path network design algorithm based on a traffic demand expression in a Cartesian product space,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 26, no. 6, pp. 22–31, Aug.2008.
    [CrossRef]
  19. K. Sato and H. Hasegawa, “Optical networking technologies that will create future bandwidth abundant networks,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol. 1, no. 2, pp. A81–A93, July2009.
    [CrossRef]
  20. Y. Yamada, H. Hasegawa, and K. Sato, “Optical node architecture that utilize dedicated add/drop switches to realize colorless, directionless and contentionless capability,” IEICE Trans. Commun., vol. E95-B, no. 4, pp. 1307–1316, Apr.2012.
    [CrossRef]
  21. R. Hirako, K. Ishii, H. Hasegawa, K. Sato, H. Takahashi, and M. Okuno, “Flexible and compact hierarchical optical cross-connect node with waveband add/drop restriction,” in OFC/NFOEC 2011, Los Angeles, Mar. 6–10, 2011, OTuE5.
  22. K. Ishii, H. Hasegawa, K. Sato, M. Okuno, and H. Takahashi, “Ultra-compact waveband cross-connect module using waveband selective switches: development and performance verification,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 22, no. 23, pp. 1741–1743, Dec.2010.
    [CrossRef]
  23. Y. Vlasov, W. M. J. Green, and F. Xia, “High-throughput silicon nanophotonic wavelength-insensitive switch for on-chip optical networks,” Nat. Photonics, vol. 2, pp. 242–246, Apr.2008.
    [CrossRef]
  24. T. Niwa, R. Hirako, H. Hasegawa, K. Sato, M. Okuno, and T. Watanabe, “Compact wavelength tunable filter fabricated on a PLC chip that realizes colorless/directionless/contentionless drop function in optical cross-connect,” in OFC/NFOEC 2012, Los Angeles, Mar. 2012, OTh3D.6.

2012 (2)

2010 (2)

K. Ishii, H. Hasegawa, K. Sato, M. Okuno, and H. Takahashi, “Ultra-compact waveband cross-connect module using waveband selective switches: development and performance verification,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 22, no. 23, pp. 1741–1743, Dec.2010.
[CrossRef]

H.-C. Le, H. Hasegawa, and K. Sato, “Hierarchical optical path network design algorithm considering waveband add/drop ratio constraint,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol. 2, no. 10, pp. 872–882, 2010.
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

2008 (2)

Y. Vlasov, W. M. J. Green, and F. Xia, “High-throughput silicon nanophotonic wavelength-insensitive switch for on-chip optical networks,” Nat. Photonics, vol. 2, pp. 242–246, Apr.2008.
[CrossRef]

I. Yagyu, H. Hasegawa, and K. Sato, “An efficient hierarchical optical path network design algorithm based on a traffic demand expression in a Cartesian product space,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 26, no. 6, pp. 22–31, Aug.2008.
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

K. Sato and H. Hasegawa, “Prospects and challenges of Multi-layer optical networks,” IEICE Trans. Commun., vol. E90-B, no. 8, pp. 1890–1902, Aug.2007.
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

X. Cao, V. Anand, Y. Xiong, and C. Qiao, “A study of waveband switching with multilayer multigranular optical cross-connects,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 21, no. 7, pp. 1081–1094, Sept.2003.
[CrossRef]

P.-H. Ho, H. T. Mouftah, and J. Wu, “A scalable design of multigranularity optical cross-connects for the next-generation optical Internet,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 21, pp. 1133–1142, Sept.2003.
[CrossRef]

Anand, V.

X. Cao, V. Anand, Y. Xiong, and C. Qiao, “A study of waveband switching with multilayer multigranular optical cross-connects,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 21, no. 7, pp. 1081–1094, Sept.2003.
[CrossRef]

Bihon, D.

S. L. Woodward, M. D. Feuer, P. Palacharla, X. Wang, I. Kim, and D. Bihon, “Intra-node contention in a dynamic, colorless, non-directional ROADM,” in OFC/NFOEC 2010, San Diego, Mar. 2010, PDPC8.

P. Palacharla, X. Wang, I. Kim, D. Bihon, M. D. Feuer, and S. Woodward, “Blocking performance in dynamic optical networks based on colorless, non-directional ROADMs,” in OFC/NFOEC 2011, Mar. 2011, JWA8.

I. Kim, P. Palacharla, X. Wang, D. Bihon, M. D. Feuer, and S. L. Woodward, “Performance of colorless, non-directional ROADMs with modular client-side fiber cross-connects,” in OFC/NFOEC 2012, Los Angeles, Mar. 4, 2012, NM3F.7.

Blaizot, C.

L. Noirie, C. Blaizot, and E. Dotaro, “Multi-granularity optical cross connect,” in ECOC 2000, Oct. 2000, pp. 269–270.

Bogoni, A.

P. Ghelfi, F. Cugini, L. Potì, A. Bogoni, P. Castoldi, R. Di Muro, and B. Nayar, “Optical cross connects architecture with per-node add&drop functionality,” in NFOEC 2007, Anaheim, Mar. 25, 2007, NTuC3.

Cao, X.

X. Cao, V. Anand, Y. Xiong, and C. Qiao, “A study of waveband switching with multilayer multigranular optical cross-connects,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 21, no. 7, pp. 1081–1094, Sept.2003.
[CrossRef]

Castoldi, P.

P. Ghelfi, F. Cugini, L. Potì, A. Bogoni, P. Castoldi, R. Di Muro, and B. Nayar, “Optical cross connects architecture with per-node add&drop functionality,” in NFOEC 2007, Anaheim, Mar. 25, 2007, NTuC3.

Chiu, A. L.

Choudhury, G.

Clapp, G.

Cugini, F.

P. Ghelfi, F. Cugini, L. Potì, A. Bogoni, P. Castoldi, R. Di Muro, and B. Nayar, “Optical cross connects architecture with per-node add&drop functionality,” in NFOEC 2007, Anaheim, Mar. 25, 2007, NTuC3.

Di Muro, R.

P. Ghelfi, F. Cugini, L. Potì, A. Bogoni, P. Castoldi, R. Di Muro, and B. Nayar, “Optical cross connects architecture with per-node add&drop functionality,” in NFOEC 2007, Anaheim, Mar. 25, 2007, NTuC3.

Dotaro, E.

L. Noirie, C. Blaizot, and E. Dotaro, “Multi-granularity optical cross connect,” in ECOC 2000, Oct. 2000, pp. 269–270.

Doverspike, R.

Feuer, M.

Feuer, M. D.

S. L. Woodward, M. D. Feuer, P. Palacharla, X. Wang, I. Kim, and D. Bihon, “Intra-node contention in a dynamic, colorless, non-directional ROADM,” in OFC/NFOEC 2010, San Diego, Mar. 2010, PDPC8.

I. Kim, P. Palacharla, X. Wang, D. Bihon, M. D. Feuer, and S. L. Woodward, “Performance of colorless, non-directional ROADMs with modular client-side fiber cross-connects,” in OFC/NFOEC 2012, Los Angeles, Mar. 4, 2012, NM3F.7.

P. Palacharla, X. Wang, I. Kim, D. Bihon, M. D. Feuer, and S. Woodward, “Blocking performance in dynamic optical networks based on colorless, non-directional ROADMs,” in OFC/NFOEC 2011, Mar. 2011, JWA8.

Gannett, J. W.

Ghelfi, P.

P. Ghelfi, F. Cugini, L. Potì, A. Bogoni, P. Castoldi, R. Di Muro, and B. Nayar, “Optical cross connects architecture with per-node add&drop functionality,” in NFOEC 2007, Anaheim, Mar. 25, 2007, NTuC3.

Green, W. M. J.

Y. Vlasov, W. M. J. Green, and F. Xia, “High-throughput silicon nanophotonic wavelength-insensitive switch for on-chip optical networks,” Nat. Photonics, vol. 2, pp. 242–246, Apr.2008.
[CrossRef]

Harada, K.

K. Harada, K. Shimizu, T. Kudou, and T. Ozeki, “Hierarchical optical path cross-connect systems for large scale WDM networks,” in OFC/NFOEC 1999, Feb. 1999, pp. 356–358.

Hasegawa, H.

Y. Yamada, H. Hasegawa, and K. Sato, “Optical node architecture that utilize dedicated add/drop switches to realize colorless, directionless and contentionless capability,” IEICE Trans. Commun., vol. E95-B, no. 4, pp. 1307–1316, Apr.2012.
[CrossRef]

K. Ishii, H. Hasegawa, K. Sato, M. Okuno, and H. Takahashi, “Ultra-compact waveband cross-connect module using waveband selective switches: development and performance verification,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 22, no. 23, pp. 1741–1743, Dec.2010.
[CrossRef]

H.-C. Le, H. Hasegawa, and K. Sato, “Hierarchical optical path network design algorithm considering waveband add/drop ratio constraint,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol. 2, no. 10, pp. 872–882, 2010.
[CrossRef]

K. Sato and H. Hasegawa, “Optical networking technologies that will create future bandwidth abundant networks,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol. 1, no. 2, pp. A81–A93, July2009.
[CrossRef]

I. Yagyu, H. Hasegawa, and K. Sato, “An efficient hierarchical optical path network design algorithm based on a traffic demand expression in a Cartesian product space,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 26, no. 6, pp. 22–31, Aug.2008.
[CrossRef]

K. Sato and H. Hasegawa, “Prospects and challenges of Multi-layer optical networks,” IEICE Trans. Commun., vol. E90-B, no. 8, pp. 1890–1902, Aug.2007.
[CrossRef]

Y. Yamada, H. Hasegawa, and K. Sato, “Coarse granular routing in optical path networks and impact of supplemental intermediate grooming,” in ECOC 2010, Torino, Sept. 2010, Th.10.F.1.

F. Naruse, Y. Yamada, H. Hasegawa, and K. Sato, “Optical network design algorithms that consider optical path add/drop ratio restrictions for OXC hardware scale reduction,” in OFC/NFOEC 2011, Mar. 2011, NThC3.

F. Naruse, Y. Yamada, H. Hasegawa, and K. Sato, “Evaluations of different optical path add/drop ratio restriction schemes on OXC hardware scale and network resource requirement,” in OFC/NFOEC 2012, Los Angeles, Mar. 2012, OTh1A.5.

R. Hirako, K. Ishii, H. Hasegawa, K. Sato, H. Takahashi, and M. Okuno, “Flexible and compact hierarchical optical cross-connect node with waveband add/drop restriction,” in OFC/NFOEC 2011, Los Angeles, Mar. 6–10, 2011, OTuE5.

T. Niwa, R. Hirako, H. Hasegawa, K. Sato, M. Okuno, and T. Watanabe, “Compact wavelength tunable filter fabricated on a PLC chip that realizes colorless/directionless/contentionless drop function in optical cross-connect,” in OFC/NFOEC 2012, Los Angeles, Mar. 2012, OTh3D.6.

Hirako, R.

T. Niwa, R. Hirako, H. Hasegawa, K. Sato, M. Okuno, and T. Watanabe, “Compact wavelength tunable filter fabricated on a PLC chip that realizes colorless/directionless/contentionless drop function in optical cross-connect,” in OFC/NFOEC 2012, Los Angeles, Mar. 2012, OTh3D.6.

R. Hirako, K. Ishii, H. Hasegawa, K. Sato, H. Takahashi, and M. Okuno, “Flexible and compact hierarchical optical cross-connect node with waveband add/drop restriction,” in OFC/NFOEC 2011, Los Angeles, Mar. 6–10, 2011, OTuE5.

Ho, P.-H.

P.-H. Ho, H. T. Mouftah, and J. Wu, “A scalable design of multigranularity optical cross-connects for the next-generation optical Internet,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 21, pp. 1133–1142, Sept.2003.
[CrossRef]

Ishii, K.

K. Ishii, H. Hasegawa, K. Sato, M. Okuno, and H. Takahashi, “Ultra-compact waveband cross-connect module using waveband selective switches: development and performance verification,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 22, no. 23, pp. 1741–1743, Dec.2010.
[CrossRef]

R. Hirako, K. Ishii, H. Hasegawa, K. Sato, H. Takahashi, and M. Okuno, “Flexible and compact hierarchical optical cross-connect node with waveband add/drop restriction,” in OFC/NFOEC 2011, Los Angeles, Mar. 6–10, 2011, OTuE5.

Jackel, J.

Jensen, R.

R. Jensen, A. Lord, and N. Parsons, “Colourless, directionless, contentionless ROADM architecture using low-loss optical matrix switches,” in ECOC 2010, Torino, Sept. 2010, Mo.2.D.2.

Jensen, R. A.

R. A. Jensen, “Optical switch architecture for emerging colorless/directionless/contentionless ROADM networks,” in OFC/NFOEC 2011, Mar. 2011, OThR3.

Kim, G. T.

Kim, I.

S. L. Woodward, M. D. Feuer, P. Palacharla, X. Wang, I. Kim, and D. Bihon, “Intra-node contention in a dynamic, colorless, non-directional ROADM,” in OFC/NFOEC 2010, San Diego, Mar. 2010, PDPC8.

I. Kim, P. Palacharla, X. Wang, D. Bihon, M. D. Feuer, and S. L. Woodward, “Performance of colorless, non-directional ROADMs with modular client-side fiber cross-connects,” in OFC/NFOEC 2012, Los Angeles, Mar. 4, 2012, NM3F.7.

P. Palacharla, X. Wang, I. Kim, D. Bihon, M. D. Feuer, and S. Woodward, “Blocking performance in dynamic optical networks based on colorless, non-directional ROADMs,” in OFC/NFOEC 2011, Mar. 2011, JWA8.

Klincewicz, J. G.

Kudou, T.

K. Harada, K. Shimizu, T. Kudou, and T. Ozeki, “Hierarchical optical path cross-connect systems for large scale WDM networks,” in OFC/NFOEC 1999, Feb. 1999, pp. 356–358.

Kwon, T. J.

Le, H.-C.

Lehmen, A. V.

Li, G.

Lord, A.

R. Jensen, A. Lord, and N. Parsons, “Colourless, directionless, contentionless ROADM architecture using low-loss optical matrix switches,” in ECOC 2010, Torino, Sept. 2010, Mo.2.D.2.

Magill, P.

Mouftah, H. T.

P.-H. Ho, H. T. Mouftah, and J. Wu, “A scalable design of multigranularity optical cross-connects for the next-generation optical Internet,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 21, pp. 1133–1142, Sept.2003.
[CrossRef]

Naruse, F.

F. Naruse, Y. Yamada, H. Hasegawa, and K. Sato, “Evaluations of different optical path add/drop ratio restriction schemes on OXC hardware scale and network resource requirement,” in OFC/NFOEC 2012, Los Angeles, Mar. 2012, OTh1A.5.

F. Naruse, Y. Yamada, H. Hasegawa, and K. Sato, “Optical network design algorithms that consider optical path add/drop ratio restrictions for OXC hardware scale reduction,” in OFC/NFOEC 2011, Mar. 2011, NThC3.

Nayar, B.

P. Ghelfi, F. Cugini, L. Potì, A. Bogoni, P. Castoldi, R. Di Muro, and B. Nayar, “Optical cross connects architecture with per-node add&drop functionality,” in NFOEC 2007, Anaheim, Mar. 25, 2007, NTuC3.

Niwa, T.

T. Niwa, R. Hirako, H. Hasegawa, K. Sato, M. Okuno, and T. Watanabe, “Compact wavelength tunable filter fabricated on a PLC chip that realizes colorless/directionless/contentionless drop function in optical cross-connect,” in OFC/NFOEC 2012, Los Angeles, Mar. 2012, OTh3D.6.

Noirie, L.

L. Noirie, C. Blaizot, and E. Dotaro, “Multi-granularity optical cross connect,” in ECOC 2000, Oct. 2000, pp. 269–270.

Okuno, M.

K. Ishii, H. Hasegawa, K. Sato, M. Okuno, and H. Takahashi, “Ultra-compact waveband cross-connect module using waveband selective switches: development and performance verification,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 22, no. 23, pp. 1741–1743, Dec.2010.
[CrossRef]

T. Niwa, R. Hirako, H. Hasegawa, K. Sato, M. Okuno, and T. Watanabe, “Compact wavelength tunable filter fabricated on a PLC chip that realizes colorless/directionless/contentionless drop function in optical cross-connect,” in OFC/NFOEC 2012, Los Angeles, Mar. 2012, OTh3D.6.

R. Hirako, K. Ishii, H. Hasegawa, K. Sato, H. Takahashi, and M. Okuno, “Flexible and compact hierarchical optical cross-connect node with waveband add/drop restriction,” in OFC/NFOEC 2011, Los Angeles, Mar. 6–10, 2011, OTuE5.

Ozeki, T.

K. Harada, K. Shimizu, T. Kudou, and T. Ozeki, “Hierarchical optical path cross-connect systems for large scale WDM networks,” in OFC/NFOEC 1999, Feb. 1999, pp. 356–358.

Palacharla, P.

I. Kim, P. Palacharla, X. Wang, D. Bihon, M. D. Feuer, and S. L. Woodward, “Performance of colorless, non-directional ROADMs with modular client-side fiber cross-connects,” in OFC/NFOEC 2012, Los Angeles, Mar. 4, 2012, NM3F.7.

P. Palacharla, X. Wang, I. Kim, D. Bihon, M. D. Feuer, and S. Woodward, “Blocking performance in dynamic optical networks based on colorless, non-directional ROADMs,” in OFC/NFOEC 2011, Mar. 2011, JWA8.

S. L. Woodward, M. D. Feuer, P. Palacharla, X. Wang, I. Kim, and D. Bihon, “Intra-node contention in a dynamic, colorless, non-directional ROADM,” in OFC/NFOEC 2010, San Diego, Mar. 2010, PDPC8.

Parsons, N.

R. Jensen, A. Lord, and N. Parsons, “Colourless, directionless, contentionless ROADM architecture using low-loss optical matrix switches,” in ECOC 2010, Torino, Sept. 2010, Mo.2.D.2.

Potì, L.

P. Ghelfi, F. Cugini, L. Potì, A. Bogoni, P. Castoldi, R. Di Muro, and B. Nayar, “Optical cross connects architecture with per-node add&drop functionality,” in NFOEC 2007, Anaheim, Mar. 25, 2007, NTuC3.

Qiao, C.

X. Cao, V. Anand, Y. Xiong, and C. Qiao, “A study of waveband switching with multilayer multigranular optical cross-connects,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 21, no. 7, pp. 1081–1094, Sept.2003.
[CrossRef]

Sato, K.

Y. Yamada, H. Hasegawa, and K. Sato, “Optical node architecture that utilize dedicated add/drop switches to realize colorless, directionless and contentionless capability,” IEICE Trans. Commun., vol. E95-B, no. 4, pp. 1307–1316, Apr.2012.
[CrossRef]

K. Ishii, H. Hasegawa, K. Sato, M. Okuno, and H. Takahashi, “Ultra-compact waveband cross-connect module using waveband selective switches: development and performance verification,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 22, no. 23, pp. 1741–1743, Dec.2010.
[CrossRef]

H.-C. Le, H. Hasegawa, and K. Sato, “Hierarchical optical path network design algorithm considering waveband add/drop ratio constraint,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol. 2, no. 10, pp. 872–882, 2010.
[CrossRef]

K. Sato and H. Hasegawa, “Optical networking technologies that will create future bandwidth abundant networks,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol. 1, no. 2, pp. A81–A93, July2009.
[CrossRef]

I. Yagyu, H. Hasegawa, and K. Sato, “An efficient hierarchical optical path network design algorithm based on a traffic demand expression in a Cartesian product space,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 26, no. 6, pp. 22–31, Aug.2008.
[CrossRef]

K. Sato and H. Hasegawa, “Prospects and challenges of Multi-layer optical networks,” IEICE Trans. Commun., vol. E90-B, no. 8, pp. 1890–1902, Aug.2007.
[CrossRef]

R. Hirako, K. Ishii, H. Hasegawa, K. Sato, H. Takahashi, and M. Okuno, “Flexible and compact hierarchical optical cross-connect node with waveband add/drop restriction,” in OFC/NFOEC 2011, Los Angeles, Mar. 6–10, 2011, OTuE5.

T. Niwa, R. Hirako, H. Hasegawa, K. Sato, M. Okuno, and T. Watanabe, “Compact wavelength tunable filter fabricated on a PLC chip that realizes colorless/directionless/contentionless drop function in optical cross-connect,” in OFC/NFOEC 2012, Los Angeles, Mar. 2012, OTh3D.6.

Y. Yamada, H. Hasegawa, and K. Sato, “Coarse granular routing in optical path networks and impact of supplemental intermediate grooming,” in ECOC 2010, Torino, Sept. 2010, Th.10.F.1.

F. Naruse, Y. Yamada, H. Hasegawa, and K. Sato, “Optical network design algorithms that consider optical path add/drop ratio restrictions for OXC hardware scale reduction,” in OFC/NFOEC 2011, Mar. 2011, NThC3.

F. Naruse, Y. Yamada, H. Hasegawa, and K. Sato, “Evaluations of different optical path add/drop ratio restriction schemes on OXC hardware scale and network resource requirement,” in OFC/NFOEC 2012, Los Angeles, Mar. 2012, OTh1A.5.

Shimizu, K.

K. Harada, K. Shimizu, T. Kudou, and T. Ozeki, “Hierarchical optical path cross-connect systems for large scale WDM networks,” in OFC/NFOEC 1999, Feb. 1999, pp. 356–358.

Simmons, J. M.

Skoog, R. A.

Strand, J.

Takahashi, H.

K. Ishii, H. Hasegawa, K. Sato, M. Okuno, and H. Takahashi, “Ultra-compact waveband cross-connect module using waveband selective switches: development and performance verification,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 22, no. 23, pp. 1741–1743, Dec.2010.
[CrossRef]

R. Hirako, K. Ishii, H. Hasegawa, K. Sato, H. Takahashi, and M. Okuno, “Flexible and compact hierarchical optical cross-connect node with waveband add/drop restriction,” in OFC/NFOEC 2011, Los Angeles, Mar. 6–10, 2011, OTuE5.

Vlasov, Y.

Y. Vlasov, W. M. J. Green, and F. Xia, “High-throughput silicon nanophotonic wavelength-insensitive switch for on-chip optical networks,” Nat. Photonics, vol. 2, pp. 242–246, Apr.2008.
[CrossRef]

Wang, X.

S. L. Woodward, M. D. Feuer, P. Palacharla, X. Wang, I. Kim, and D. Bihon, “Intra-node contention in a dynamic, colorless, non-directional ROADM,” in OFC/NFOEC 2010, San Diego, Mar. 2010, PDPC8.

P. Palacharla, X. Wang, I. Kim, D. Bihon, M. D. Feuer, and S. Woodward, “Blocking performance in dynamic optical networks based on colorless, non-directional ROADMs,” in OFC/NFOEC 2011, Mar. 2011, JWA8.

I. Kim, P. Palacharla, X. Wang, D. Bihon, M. D. Feuer, and S. L. Woodward, “Performance of colorless, non-directional ROADMs with modular client-side fiber cross-connects,” in OFC/NFOEC 2012, Los Angeles, Mar. 4, 2012, NM3F.7.

Watanabe, T.

T. Niwa, R. Hirako, H. Hasegawa, K. Sato, M. Okuno, and T. Watanabe, “Compact wavelength tunable filter fabricated on a PLC chip that realizes colorless/directionless/contentionless drop function in optical cross-connect,” in OFC/NFOEC 2012, Los Angeles, Mar. 2012, OTh3D.6.

Wilson, B. J.

Woodward, S.

P. Palacharla, X. Wang, I. Kim, D. Bihon, M. D. Feuer, and S. Woodward, “Blocking performance in dynamic optical networks based on colorless, non-directional ROADMs,” in OFC/NFOEC 2011, Mar. 2011, JWA8.

Woodward, S. L.

A. L. Chiu, G. Choudhury, G. Clapp, R. Doverspike, M. Feuer, J. W. Gannett, J. Jackel, G. T. Kim, J. G. Klincewicz, T. J. Kwon, G. Li, P. Magill, J. M. Simmons, R. A. Skoog, J. Strand, A. V. Lehmen, B. J. Wilson, S. L. Woodward, and D. Xu, “Architectures and protocols for capacity efficient, highly dynamic and highly resilient core networks,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 1–14, Jan.2012.
[CrossRef]

S. L. Woodward, M. D. Feuer, P. Palacharla, X. Wang, I. Kim, and D. Bihon, “Intra-node contention in a dynamic, colorless, non-directional ROADM,” in OFC/NFOEC 2010, San Diego, Mar. 2010, PDPC8.

I. Kim, P. Palacharla, X. Wang, D. Bihon, M. D. Feuer, and S. L. Woodward, “Performance of colorless, non-directional ROADMs with modular client-side fiber cross-connects,” in OFC/NFOEC 2012, Los Angeles, Mar. 4, 2012, NM3F.7.

Wu, J.

P.-H. Ho, H. T. Mouftah, and J. Wu, “A scalable design of multigranularity optical cross-connects for the next-generation optical Internet,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 21, pp. 1133–1142, Sept.2003.
[CrossRef]

Xia, F.

Y. Vlasov, W. M. J. Green, and F. Xia, “High-throughput silicon nanophotonic wavelength-insensitive switch for on-chip optical networks,” Nat. Photonics, vol. 2, pp. 242–246, Apr.2008.
[CrossRef]

Xiong, Y.

X. Cao, V. Anand, Y. Xiong, and C. Qiao, “A study of waveband switching with multilayer multigranular optical cross-connects,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 21, no. 7, pp. 1081–1094, Sept.2003.
[CrossRef]

Xu, D.

Yagyu, I.

I. Yagyu, H. Hasegawa, and K. Sato, “An efficient hierarchical optical path network design algorithm based on a traffic demand expression in a Cartesian product space,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 26, no. 6, pp. 22–31, Aug.2008.
[CrossRef]

Yamada, Y.

Y. Yamada, H. Hasegawa, and K. Sato, “Optical node architecture that utilize dedicated add/drop switches to realize colorless, directionless and contentionless capability,” IEICE Trans. Commun., vol. E95-B, no. 4, pp. 1307–1316, Apr.2012.
[CrossRef]

F. Naruse, Y. Yamada, H. Hasegawa, and K. Sato, “Evaluations of different optical path add/drop ratio restriction schemes on OXC hardware scale and network resource requirement,” in OFC/NFOEC 2012, Los Angeles, Mar. 2012, OTh1A.5.

F. Naruse, Y. Yamada, H. Hasegawa, and K. Sato, “Optical network design algorithms that consider optical path add/drop ratio restrictions for OXC hardware scale reduction,” in OFC/NFOEC 2011, Mar. 2011, NThC3.

Y. Yamada, H. Hasegawa, and K. Sato, “Coarse granular routing in optical path networks and impact of supplemental intermediate grooming,” in ECOC 2010, Torino, Sept. 2010, Th.10.F.1.

Zami, T.

T. Zami, “Contention simulation within dynamic, colorless and unidirectional/multidirectional optical cross-connects,” in ECOC 2011, Geneva, Sept. 2011, We.8.K.4.

IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. (3)

X. Cao, V. Anand, Y. Xiong, and C. Qiao, “A study of waveband switching with multilayer multigranular optical cross-connects,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 21, no. 7, pp. 1081–1094, Sept.2003.
[CrossRef]

P.-H. Ho, H. T. Mouftah, and J. Wu, “A scalable design of multigranularity optical cross-connects for the next-generation optical Internet,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 21, pp. 1133–1142, Sept.2003.
[CrossRef]

I. Yagyu, H. Hasegawa, and K. Sato, “An efficient hierarchical optical path network design algorithm based on a traffic demand expression in a Cartesian product space,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 26, no. 6, pp. 22–31, Aug.2008.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

K. Ishii, H. Hasegawa, K. Sato, M. Okuno, and H. Takahashi, “Ultra-compact waveband cross-connect module using waveband selective switches: development and performance verification,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 22, no. 23, pp. 1741–1743, Dec.2010.
[CrossRef]

IEICE Trans. Commun. (2)

Y. Yamada, H. Hasegawa, and K. Sato, “Optical node architecture that utilize dedicated add/drop switches to realize colorless, directionless and contentionless capability,” IEICE Trans. Commun., vol. E95-B, no. 4, pp. 1307–1316, Apr.2012.
[CrossRef]

K. Sato and H. Hasegawa, “Prospects and challenges of Multi-layer optical networks,” IEICE Trans. Commun., vol. E90-B, no. 8, pp. 1890–1902, Aug.2007.
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Commun. Netw. (3)

Nat. Photonics (1)

Y. Vlasov, W. M. J. Green, and F. Xia, “High-throughput silicon nanophotonic wavelength-insensitive switch for on-chip optical networks,” Nat. Photonics, vol. 2, pp. 242–246, Apr.2008.
[CrossRef]

Other (14)

T. Niwa, R. Hirako, H. Hasegawa, K. Sato, M. Okuno, and T. Watanabe, “Compact wavelength tunable filter fabricated on a PLC chip that realizes colorless/directionless/contentionless drop function in optical cross-connect,” in OFC/NFOEC 2012, Los Angeles, Mar. 2012, OTh3D.6.

R. Hirako, K. Ishii, H. Hasegawa, K. Sato, H. Takahashi, and M. Okuno, “Flexible and compact hierarchical optical cross-connect node with waveband add/drop restriction,” in OFC/NFOEC 2011, Los Angeles, Mar. 6–10, 2011, OTuE5.

P. Ghelfi, F. Cugini, L. Potì, A. Bogoni, P. Castoldi, R. Di Muro, and B. Nayar, “Optical cross connects architecture with per-node add&drop functionality,” in NFOEC 2007, Anaheim, Mar. 25, 2007, NTuC3.

S. L. Woodward, M. D. Feuer, P. Palacharla, X. Wang, I. Kim, and D. Bihon, “Intra-node contention in a dynamic, colorless, non-directional ROADM,” in OFC/NFOEC 2010, San Diego, Mar. 2010, PDPC8.

P. Palacharla, X. Wang, I. Kim, D. Bihon, M. D. Feuer, and S. Woodward, “Blocking performance in dynamic optical networks based on colorless, non-directional ROADMs,” in OFC/NFOEC 2011, Mar. 2011, JWA8.

I. Kim, P. Palacharla, X. Wang, D. Bihon, M. D. Feuer, and S. L. Woodward, “Performance of colorless, non-directional ROADMs with modular client-side fiber cross-connects,” in OFC/NFOEC 2012, Los Angeles, Mar. 4, 2012, NM3F.7.

T. Zami, “Contention simulation within dynamic, colorless and unidirectional/multidirectional optical cross-connects,” in ECOC 2011, Geneva, Sept. 2011, We.8.K.4.

R. Jensen, A. Lord, and N. Parsons, “Colourless, directionless, contentionless ROADM architecture using low-loss optical matrix switches,” in ECOC 2010, Torino, Sept. 2010, Mo.2.D.2.

R. A. Jensen, “Optical switch architecture for emerging colorless/directionless/contentionless ROADM networks,” in OFC/NFOEC 2011, Mar. 2011, OThR3.

Y. Yamada, H. Hasegawa, and K. Sato, “Coarse granular routing in optical path networks and impact of supplemental intermediate grooming,” in ECOC 2010, Torino, Sept. 2010, Th.10.F.1.

F. Naruse, Y. Yamada, H. Hasegawa, and K. Sato, “Optical network design algorithms that consider optical path add/drop ratio restrictions for OXC hardware scale reduction,” in OFC/NFOEC 2011, Mar. 2011, NThC3.

F. Naruse, Y. Yamada, H. Hasegawa, and K. Sato, “Evaluations of different optical path add/drop ratio restriction schemes on OXC hardware scale and network resource requirement,” in OFC/NFOEC 2012, Los Angeles, Mar. 2012, OTh1A.5.

K. Harada, K. Shimizu, T. Kudou, and T. Ozeki, “Hierarchical optical path cross-connect systems for large scale WDM networks,” in OFC/NFOEC 1999, Feb. 1999, pp. 356–358.

L. Noirie, C. Blaizot, and E. Dotaro, “Multi-granularity optical cross connect,” in ECOC 2000, Oct. 2000, pp. 269–270.

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Figures (20)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Different add/drop restriction methods.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(Color online) Different add/drop ratio restriction schemes for wavelength paths.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(Color online) Add/drop ratio restriction on each fiber and node architecture with a C/D/C matrix switch.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(Color online) Add/drop ratio restriction on each fiber (or on all wavelengths) and node architecture that uses tunable filters.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(Color online) Two-stage wavelength tunable filter for selection from 96 wavelengths.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(Color online) Add/drop ratio restriction on each wavelength index and node architecture with a C/D/C matrix switch.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(Color online) Add/drop ratio restriction on each wavelength index and node architecture that uses tunable filters.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(Color online) Add/drop ratio restriction on all wavelengths and node architecture with C/D/C matrix switch.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

COST 266 pan-European network.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

France network.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

(Color online) Average matrix switch size (5 × 5).

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

(Color online) Size of the largest matrix switch (5 × 5).

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

(Color online) Average number of NNI ports (5 × 5).

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

(Color online) Average number of WSSs (5 × 5).

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

(Color online) Average matrix switch size (COST 266).

Fig. 16
Fig. 16

(Color online) Average number of NNI ports (COST 266).

Fig. 17
Fig. 17

(Color online) Average number of WSSs (COST 266).

Fig. 18
Fig. 18

(Color online) Average number of NNI ports (each wavelength).

Fig. 19
Fig. 19

(Color online) Average number of NNI ports (each fiber).

Fig. 20
Fig. 20

(Color online) Average number of NNI ports (all wavelengths).