Abstract

Orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) is a multi-carrier modulation technology that transmits a high-speed data stream using multiple spectrally overlapped lower-speed subcarriers. Optical OFDM (O-OFDM) technology is a promising candidate for future high-speed optical transmission. Based on O-OFDM, a novel elastic optical network architecture with immense flexibility and scalability in spectrum allocation and data rate accommodation can be built to support diverse services and the rapid growth of Internet traffic. This architecture can provide various services directly at the optical layer in a spectrum-efficient way through bandwidth-elastic optical paths. However, carrying various data rate services using a single type of bandwidth-variable transponder might not be cost-efficient. Electrical traffic grooming is a traditional approach for sub-wavelength service accommodation in wavelength division multiplexing networks. However, it places additional electrical switching and optical–electrical–optical conversion requirements on the network, which may lead to higher cost and energy consumption. In contrast, grooming traffic optically is an attractive option for elastic optical networks. In this paper, we propose a novel optical grooming approach to aggregate and distribute traffic directly at the optical layer in OFDM-based elastic optical networks. We study routing and spectrum allocation algorithms of optical grooming to show the benefits of this approach. Our results demonstrate that significant transmitter and spectrum savings can be achieved by the optical grooming versus the non-grooming scenario, and a trade-off between optimizing the number of transmitters and optimizing spectrum usage should be considered during network planning.

© 2012 OSA

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  1. M. Jinno, H. Takara, B. Kozicki, Y. Tsukishima, Y. Sone, and S. Matsuoka, “Spectrum-efficient and scalable elastic optical path network: Architecture, benefits, and enabling technologies,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 47, no. 11, pp. 66–73, Nov.2009.
  2. W. Shieh and I. Djordjevic, OFDM for Optical Communications. Academic Press, 2010.
  3. E. L. Rouzic, P. Gavignet, B. Arzur, and N. Brochier, “Future optical core networks for novel applications,” in Proc. ECOC, 2011, Tu.6.K.1.
  4. M. Jinno, T. Ohara, Y. Sone, A. Hirano, O. Ishida, and M. Tomizawa, “Introducing elasticity and adaptation into the optical domain toward more efficient and scalable optical transport networks,” in ITU-T Kaleidoscope Academic Conf., 2010, S2.2.
  5. B. Kozicki, H. Takara, Y. Tsukishima, T. Yoshimatsu, T. Kobayashi, K. Yonenaga, and M. Jinno, “Optical path aggregation for 1-Tb/s transmission in spectrum-sliced elastic optical path network,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 22, no. 17, pp. 1315–1317, Sept.2010.
  6. A. Morea, A. F. Chong, and O. Rival, “Impact of transparent network constraints on capacity gain of elastic channel spacing,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, 2011, JWA62.
  7. Y. Zhang, X. Zheng, Q. Li, N. Hua, Y. Li, and H. Zhang, “Traffic grooming in spectrum-elastic optical path networks,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, 2011, OTuI1.
  8. K. Sato, “Recent developments in and challenges of elastic optical path networking,” in Proc. ECOC, 2011, Mo.2.K.1.
  9. O. Gerstel, “Flexible use of spectrum and photonic grooming,” in Proc. IPR/PS, 2010, PMD3.
  10. M. Jinno, Y. Sone, H. Takara, A. Hirano, K. Yonenaga, and S. Kawai, “IP traffic offloading to elastic optical layer using multi-flow optical transponder,” in Proc. ECOC, 2011, Mo.2.K.2.
  11. O. Gerstel, M. Jinno, A. Lord, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Elastic optical networking: A new dawn for the optical layer?” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 50, no. 2, pp. s12–s20, Feb.2012.
  12. G. Zhang, M. D. Leenheer, and B. Mukherjee, “Optical grooming in OFDM-based elastic optical networks,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, 2012, OTh1A.
  13. B. Kozicki, H. Takara, T. Yoshimatsu, K. Yonenaga, and M. Jinno, “Filtering characteristics of highly-spectrum efficient spectrum-sliced elastic optical path (SLICE) network,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, 2009, JWA43.
  14. R. Dischler, F. Buchali, and A. Klekamp, “Demonstration of bit rate variable ROADM functionality on an optical OFDM superchannel,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, 2010, OTuM7.
  15. N. Amaya, I. Muhammad, G. S. Zervas, R. Nejabati, D. Simeonidou, Y. R. Zhou, and A. Lord, “Experimental demonstration of a gridless multi-granular optical network supporting flexible spectrum switching,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, 2011, OMW3.
  16. H. Takara, T. Goh, K. Shibahara, K. Yonenaga, S. Kawai, and M. Jinno, “Experimental demonstration of 400 Gb/s multi-flow, multirate, multi-reach optical transmitter for efficient elastic spectral routing,” in Proc. ECOC, 2011, Tu.5.A.4.
  17. D. J. Geisler, N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, T. He, L. Paraschis, O. Gerstel, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Bandwidth scalable, coherent transmitter based on parallel synthesis of multiple spectral slices,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, 2011, OTuE3.
  18. Y. Ma, Q. Yang, Y. Tang, S. Chen, and W. Shieh, “1-Tb/s single-channel coherent optical OFDM transmission with orthogonal-band multiplexing and sub-wavelength bandwidth access,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 28, no. 4, pp. 308–315, Feb.2010.
  19. W. Shieh, “OFDM for flexible high-speed optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 29, no. 10, pp. 1560–1577, May2011.
  20. K. Christodoulopoulos, I. Tomkos, and A. Varvarigos, “Routing and spectrum allocation in OFDM-based optical networks with elastic bandwidth allocation,” in Proc. IEEE Globecom, 2010.
  21. Y. Wang, X. Cao, and Q. Hu, “Routing and spectrum allocation in spectrum-sliced elastic optical path networks,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications (ICC), June 2011.
  22. M. Jinno, H. Takara, B. Kozicki, Y. Tsukishima, T. Yoshimatsu, T. Kobayashi, Y. Miyamoto, K. Yonenaga, A. Takada, O. Ishida, and S. Matsuoka, “Demonstration of novel spectrum-efficient elastic optical path network with per-channel variable capacity of 40 Gb/s to over 400 Gb/s,” in Proc. ECOC, 2008, Th.3.F.6.
  23. A. N. Patel, P. N. Ji, J. P. Jue, and T. Wang, “Defragmentation of transparent flexible optical WDM (FWDM) networks,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, 2011, OTuI8.
  24. G. Zhang, M. D. Leenheer, A. Morea, and B. Mukherjee, “A survey on OFDM-based elastic core optical networking,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, to be published.

2012 (1)

O. Gerstel, M. Jinno, A. Lord, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Elastic optical networking: A new dawn for the optical layer?” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 50, no. 2, pp. s12–s20, Feb.2012.

2011 (1)

W. Shieh, “OFDM for flexible high-speed optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 29, no. 10, pp. 1560–1577, May2011.

2010 (2)

Y. Ma, Q. Yang, Y. Tang, S. Chen, and W. Shieh, “1-Tb/s single-channel coherent optical OFDM transmission with orthogonal-band multiplexing and sub-wavelength bandwidth access,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 28, no. 4, pp. 308–315, Feb.2010.

B. Kozicki, H. Takara, Y. Tsukishima, T. Yoshimatsu, T. Kobayashi, K. Yonenaga, and M. Jinno, “Optical path aggregation for 1-Tb/s transmission in spectrum-sliced elastic optical path network,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 22, no. 17, pp. 1315–1317, Sept.2010.

2009 (1)

M. Jinno, H. Takara, B. Kozicki, Y. Tsukishima, Y. Sone, and S. Matsuoka, “Spectrum-efficient and scalable elastic optical path network: Architecture, benefits, and enabling technologies,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 47, no. 11, pp. 66–73, Nov.2009.

Amaya, N.

N. Amaya, I. Muhammad, G. S. Zervas, R. Nejabati, D. Simeonidou, Y. R. Zhou, and A. Lord, “Experimental demonstration of a gridless multi-granular optical network supporting flexible spectrum switching,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, 2011, OMW3.

Arzur, B.

E. L. Rouzic, P. Gavignet, B. Arzur, and N. Brochier, “Future optical core networks for novel applications,” in Proc. ECOC, 2011, Tu.6.K.1.

Brochier, N.

E. L. Rouzic, P. Gavignet, B. Arzur, and N. Brochier, “Future optical core networks for novel applications,” in Proc. ECOC, 2011, Tu.6.K.1.

Buchali, F.

R. Dischler, F. Buchali, and A. Klekamp, “Demonstration of bit rate variable ROADM functionality on an optical OFDM superchannel,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, 2010, OTuM7.

Cao, X.

Y. Wang, X. Cao, and Q. Hu, “Routing and spectrum allocation in spectrum-sliced elastic optical path networks,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications (ICC), June 2011.

Chen, S.

Chong, A. F.

A. Morea, A. F. Chong, and O. Rival, “Impact of transparent network constraints on capacity gain of elastic channel spacing,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, 2011, JWA62.

Christodoulopoulos, K.

K. Christodoulopoulos, I. Tomkos, and A. Varvarigos, “Routing and spectrum allocation in OFDM-based optical networks with elastic bandwidth allocation,” in Proc. IEEE Globecom, 2010.

Dischler, R.

R. Dischler, F. Buchali, and A. Klekamp, “Demonstration of bit rate variable ROADM functionality on an optical OFDM superchannel,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, 2010, OTuM7.

Djordjevic, I.

W. Shieh and I. Djordjevic, OFDM for Optical Communications. Academic Press, 2010.

Fontaine, N. K.

D. J. Geisler, N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, T. He, L. Paraschis, O. Gerstel, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Bandwidth scalable, coherent transmitter based on parallel synthesis of multiple spectral slices,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, 2011, OTuE3.

Gavignet, P.

E. L. Rouzic, P. Gavignet, B. Arzur, and N. Brochier, “Future optical core networks for novel applications,” in Proc. ECOC, 2011, Tu.6.K.1.

Geisler, D. J.

D. J. Geisler, N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, T. He, L. Paraschis, O. Gerstel, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Bandwidth scalable, coherent transmitter based on parallel synthesis of multiple spectral slices,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, 2011, OTuE3.

Gerstel, O.

O. Gerstel, M. Jinno, A. Lord, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Elastic optical networking: A new dawn for the optical layer?” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 50, no. 2, pp. s12–s20, Feb.2012.

D. J. Geisler, N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, T. He, L. Paraschis, O. Gerstel, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Bandwidth scalable, coherent transmitter based on parallel synthesis of multiple spectral slices,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, 2011, OTuE3.

O. Gerstel, “Flexible use of spectrum and photonic grooming,” in Proc. IPR/PS, 2010, PMD3.

Goh, T.

H. Takara, T. Goh, K. Shibahara, K. Yonenaga, S. Kawai, and M. Jinno, “Experimental demonstration of 400 Gb/s multi-flow, multirate, multi-reach optical transmitter for efficient elastic spectral routing,” in Proc. ECOC, 2011, Tu.5.A.4.

He, T.

D. J. Geisler, N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, T. He, L. Paraschis, O. Gerstel, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Bandwidth scalable, coherent transmitter based on parallel synthesis of multiple spectral slices,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, 2011, OTuE3.

Heritage, J. P.

D. J. Geisler, N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, T. He, L. Paraschis, O. Gerstel, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Bandwidth scalable, coherent transmitter based on parallel synthesis of multiple spectral slices,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, 2011, OTuE3.

Hirano, A.

M. Jinno, T. Ohara, Y. Sone, A. Hirano, O. Ishida, and M. Tomizawa, “Introducing elasticity and adaptation into the optical domain toward more efficient and scalable optical transport networks,” in ITU-T Kaleidoscope Academic Conf., 2010, S2.2.

M. Jinno, Y. Sone, H. Takara, A. Hirano, K. Yonenaga, and S. Kawai, “IP traffic offloading to elastic optical layer using multi-flow optical transponder,” in Proc. ECOC, 2011, Mo.2.K.2.

Hu, Q.

Y. Wang, X. Cao, and Q. Hu, “Routing and spectrum allocation in spectrum-sliced elastic optical path networks,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications (ICC), June 2011.

Hua, N.

Y. Zhang, X. Zheng, Q. Li, N. Hua, Y. Li, and H. Zhang, “Traffic grooming in spectrum-elastic optical path networks,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, 2011, OTuI1.

Ishida, O.

M. Jinno, T. Ohara, Y. Sone, A. Hirano, O. Ishida, and M. Tomizawa, “Introducing elasticity and adaptation into the optical domain toward more efficient and scalable optical transport networks,” in ITU-T Kaleidoscope Academic Conf., 2010, S2.2.

M. Jinno, H. Takara, B. Kozicki, Y. Tsukishima, T. Yoshimatsu, T. Kobayashi, Y. Miyamoto, K. Yonenaga, A. Takada, O. Ishida, and S. Matsuoka, “Demonstration of novel spectrum-efficient elastic optical path network with per-channel variable capacity of 40 Gb/s to over 400 Gb/s,” in Proc. ECOC, 2008, Th.3.F.6.

Ji, P. N.

A. N. Patel, P. N. Ji, J. P. Jue, and T. Wang, “Defragmentation of transparent flexible optical WDM (FWDM) networks,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, 2011, OTuI8.

Jinno, M.

O. Gerstel, M. Jinno, A. Lord, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Elastic optical networking: A new dawn for the optical layer?” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 50, no. 2, pp. s12–s20, Feb.2012.

B. Kozicki, H. Takara, Y. Tsukishima, T. Yoshimatsu, T. Kobayashi, K. Yonenaga, and M. Jinno, “Optical path aggregation for 1-Tb/s transmission in spectrum-sliced elastic optical path network,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 22, no. 17, pp. 1315–1317, Sept.2010.

M. Jinno, H. Takara, B. Kozicki, Y. Tsukishima, Y. Sone, and S. Matsuoka, “Spectrum-efficient and scalable elastic optical path network: Architecture, benefits, and enabling technologies,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 47, no. 11, pp. 66–73, Nov.2009.

M. Jinno, Y. Sone, H. Takara, A. Hirano, K. Yonenaga, and S. Kawai, “IP traffic offloading to elastic optical layer using multi-flow optical transponder,” in Proc. ECOC, 2011, Mo.2.K.2.

M. Jinno, H. Takara, B. Kozicki, Y. Tsukishima, T. Yoshimatsu, T. Kobayashi, Y. Miyamoto, K. Yonenaga, A. Takada, O. Ishida, and S. Matsuoka, “Demonstration of novel spectrum-efficient elastic optical path network with per-channel variable capacity of 40 Gb/s to over 400 Gb/s,” in Proc. ECOC, 2008, Th.3.F.6.

M. Jinno, T. Ohara, Y. Sone, A. Hirano, O. Ishida, and M. Tomizawa, “Introducing elasticity and adaptation into the optical domain toward more efficient and scalable optical transport networks,” in ITU-T Kaleidoscope Academic Conf., 2010, S2.2.

H. Takara, T. Goh, K. Shibahara, K. Yonenaga, S. Kawai, and M. Jinno, “Experimental demonstration of 400 Gb/s multi-flow, multirate, multi-reach optical transmitter for efficient elastic spectral routing,” in Proc. ECOC, 2011, Tu.5.A.4.

B. Kozicki, H. Takara, T. Yoshimatsu, K. Yonenaga, and M. Jinno, “Filtering characteristics of highly-spectrum efficient spectrum-sliced elastic optical path (SLICE) network,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, 2009, JWA43.

Jue, J. P.

A. N. Patel, P. N. Ji, J. P. Jue, and T. Wang, “Defragmentation of transparent flexible optical WDM (FWDM) networks,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, 2011, OTuI8.

Kawai, S.

H. Takara, T. Goh, K. Shibahara, K. Yonenaga, S. Kawai, and M. Jinno, “Experimental demonstration of 400 Gb/s multi-flow, multirate, multi-reach optical transmitter for efficient elastic spectral routing,” in Proc. ECOC, 2011, Tu.5.A.4.

M. Jinno, Y. Sone, H. Takara, A. Hirano, K. Yonenaga, and S. Kawai, “IP traffic offloading to elastic optical layer using multi-flow optical transponder,” in Proc. ECOC, 2011, Mo.2.K.2.

Klekamp, A.

R. Dischler, F. Buchali, and A. Klekamp, “Demonstration of bit rate variable ROADM functionality on an optical OFDM superchannel,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, 2010, OTuM7.

Kobayashi, T.

B. Kozicki, H. Takara, Y. Tsukishima, T. Yoshimatsu, T. Kobayashi, K. Yonenaga, and M. Jinno, “Optical path aggregation for 1-Tb/s transmission in spectrum-sliced elastic optical path network,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 22, no. 17, pp. 1315–1317, Sept.2010.

M. Jinno, H. Takara, B. Kozicki, Y. Tsukishima, T. Yoshimatsu, T. Kobayashi, Y. Miyamoto, K. Yonenaga, A. Takada, O. Ishida, and S. Matsuoka, “Demonstration of novel spectrum-efficient elastic optical path network with per-channel variable capacity of 40 Gb/s to over 400 Gb/s,” in Proc. ECOC, 2008, Th.3.F.6.

Kozicki, B.

B. Kozicki, H. Takara, Y. Tsukishima, T. Yoshimatsu, T. Kobayashi, K. Yonenaga, and M. Jinno, “Optical path aggregation for 1-Tb/s transmission in spectrum-sliced elastic optical path network,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 22, no. 17, pp. 1315–1317, Sept.2010.

M. Jinno, H. Takara, B. Kozicki, Y. Tsukishima, Y. Sone, and S. Matsuoka, “Spectrum-efficient and scalable elastic optical path network: Architecture, benefits, and enabling technologies,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 47, no. 11, pp. 66–73, Nov.2009.

M. Jinno, H. Takara, B. Kozicki, Y. Tsukishima, T. Yoshimatsu, T. Kobayashi, Y. Miyamoto, K. Yonenaga, A. Takada, O. Ishida, and S. Matsuoka, “Demonstration of novel spectrum-efficient elastic optical path network with per-channel variable capacity of 40 Gb/s to over 400 Gb/s,” in Proc. ECOC, 2008, Th.3.F.6.

B. Kozicki, H. Takara, T. Yoshimatsu, K. Yonenaga, and M. Jinno, “Filtering characteristics of highly-spectrum efficient spectrum-sliced elastic optical path (SLICE) network,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, 2009, JWA43.

Leenheer, M. D.

G. Zhang, M. D. Leenheer, A. Morea, and B. Mukherjee, “A survey on OFDM-based elastic core optical networking,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, to be published.

G. Zhang, M. D. Leenheer, and B. Mukherjee, “Optical grooming in OFDM-based elastic optical networks,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, 2012, OTh1A.

Li, Q.

Y. Zhang, X. Zheng, Q. Li, N. Hua, Y. Li, and H. Zhang, “Traffic grooming in spectrum-elastic optical path networks,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, 2011, OTuI1.

Li, Y.

Y. Zhang, X. Zheng, Q. Li, N. Hua, Y. Li, and H. Zhang, “Traffic grooming in spectrum-elastic optical path networks,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, 2011, OTuI1.

Lord, A.

O. Gerstel, M. Jinno, A. Lord, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Elastic optical networking: A new dawn for the optical layer?” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 50, no. 2, pp. s12–s20, Feb.2012.

N. Amaya, I. Muhammad, G. S. Zervas, R. Nejabati, D. Simeonidou, Y. R. Zhou, and A. Lord, “Experimental demonstration of a gridless multi-granular optical network supporting flexible spectrum switching,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, 2011, OMW3.

Ma, Y.

Matsuoka, S.

M. Jinno, H. Takara, B. Kozicki, Y. Tsukishima, Y. Sone, and S. Matsuoka, “Spectrum-efficient and scalable elastic optical path network: Architecture, benefits, and enabling technologies,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 47, no. 11, pp. 66–73, Nov.2009.

M. Jinno, H. Takara, B. Kozicki, Y. Tsukishima, T. Yoshimatsu, T. Kobayashi, Y. Miyamoto, K. Yonenaga, A. Takada, O. Ishida, and S. Matsuoka, “Demonstration of novel spectrum-efficient elastic optical path network with per-channel variable capacity of 40 Gb/s to over 400 Gb/s,” in Proc. ECOC, 2008, Th.3.F.6.

Miyamoto, Y.

M. Jinno, H. Takara, B. Kozicki, Y. Tsukishima, T. Yoshimatsu, T. Kobayashi, Y. Miyamoto, K. Yonenaga, A. Takada, O. Ishida, and S. Matsuoka, “Demonstration of novel spectrum-efficient elastic optical path network with per-channel variable capacity of 40 Gb/s to over 400 Gb/s,” in Proc. ECOC, 2008, Th.3.F.6.

Morea, A.

G. Zhang, M. D. Leenheer, A. Morea, and B. Mukherjee, “A survey on OFDM-based elastic core optical networking,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, to be published.

A. Morea, A. F. Chong, and O. Rival, “Impact of transparent network constraints on capacity gain of elastic channel spacing,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, 2011, JWA62.

Muhammad, I.

N. Amaya, I. Muhammad, G. S. Zervas, R. Nejabati, D. Simeonidou, Y. R. Zhou, and A. Lord, “Experimental demonstration of a gridless multi-granular optical network supporting flexible spectrum switching,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, 2011, OMW3.

Mukherjee, B.

G. Zhang, M. D. Leenheer, A. Morea, and B. Mukherjee, “A survey on OFDM-based elastic core optical networking,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, to be published.

G. Zhang, M. D. Leenheer, and B. Mukherjee, “Optical grooming in OFDM-based elastic optical networks,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, 2012, OTh1A.

Nejabati, R.

N. Amaya, I. Muhammad, G. S. Zervas, R. Nejabati, D. Simeonidou, Y. R. Zhou, and A. Lord, “Experimental demonstration of a gridless multi-granular optical network supporting flexible spectrum switching,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, 2011, OMW3.

Ohara, T.

M. Jinno, T. Ohara, Y. Sone, A. Hirano, O. Ishida, and M. Tomizawa, “Introducing elasticity and adaptation into the optical domain toward more efficient and scalable optical transport networks,” in ITU-T Kaleidoscope Academic Conf., 2010, S2.2.

Paraschis, L.

D. J. Geisler, N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, T. He, L. Paraschis, O. Gerstel, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Bandwidth scalable, coherent transmitter based on parallel synthesis of multiple spectral slices,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, 2011, OTuE3.

Patel, A. N.

A. N. Patel, P. N. Ji, J. P. Jue, and T. Wang, “Defragmentation of transparent flexible optical WDM (FWDM) networks,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, 2011, OTuI8.

Rival, O.

A. Morea, A. F. Chong, and O. Rival, “Impact of transparent network constraints on capacity gain of elastic channel spacing,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, 2011, JWA62.

Rouzic, E. L.

E. L. Rouzic, P. Gavignet, B. Arzur, and N. Brochier, “Future optical core networks for novel applications,” in Proc. ECOC, 2011, Tu.6.K.1.

Sato, K.

K. Sato, “Recent developments in and challenges of elastic optical path networking,” in Proc. ECOC, 2011, Mo.2.K.1.

Scott, R. P.

D. J. Geisler, N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, T. He, L. Paraschis, O. Gerstel, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Bandwidth scalable, coherent transmitter based on parallel synthesis of multiple spectral slices,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, 2011, OTuE3.

Shibahara, K.

H. Takara, T. Goh, K. Shibahara, K. Yonenaga, S. Kawai, and M. Jinno, “Experimental demonstration of 400 Gb/s multi-flow, multirate, multi-reach optical transmitter for efficient elastic spectral routing,” in Proc. ECOC, 2011, Tu.5.A.4.

Shieh, W.

W. Shieh, “OFDM for flexible high-speed optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 29, no. 10, pp. 1560–1577, May2011.

Y. Ma, Q. Yang, Y. Tang, S. Chen, and W. Shieh, “1-Tb/s single-channel coherent optical OFDM transmission with orthogonal-band multiplexing and sub-wavelength bandwidth access,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 28, no. 4, pp. 308–315, Feb.2010.

W. Shieh and I. Djordjevic, OFDM for Optical Communications. Academic Press, 2010.

Simeonidou, D.

N. Amaya, I. Muhammad, G. S. Zervas, R. Nejabati, D. Simeonidou, Y. R. Zhou, and A. Lord, “Experimental demonstration of a gridless multi-granular optical network supporting flexible spectrum switching,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, 2011, OMW3.

Sone, Y.

M. Jinno, H. Takara, B. Kozicki, Y. Tsukishima, Y. Sone, and S. Matsuoka, “Spectrum-efficient and scalable elastic optical path network: Architecture, benefits, and enabling technologies,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 47, no. 11, pp. 66–73, Nov.2009.

M. Jinno, Y. Sone, H. Takara, A. Hirano, K. Yonenaga, and S. Kawai, “IP traffic offloading to elastic optical layer using multi-flow optical transponder,” in Proc. ECOC, 2011, Mo.2.K.2.

M. Jinno, T. Ohara, Y. Sone, A. Hirano, O. Ishida, and M. Tomizawa, “Introducing elasticity and adaptation into the optical domain toward more efficient and scalable optical transport networks,” in ITU-T Kaleidoscope Academic Conf., 2010, S2.2.

Takada, A.

M. Jinno, H. Takara, B. Kozicki, Y. Tsukishima, T. Yoshimatsu, T. Kobayashi, Y. Miyamoto, K. Yonenaga, A. Takada, O. Ishida, and S. Matsuoka, “Demonstration of novel spectrum-efficient elastic optical path network with per-channel variable capacity of 40 Gb/s to over 400 Gb/s,” in Proc. ECOC, 2008, Th.3.F.6.

Takara, H.

B. Kozicki, H. Takara, Y. Tsukishima, T. Yoshimatsu, T. Kobayashi, K. Yonenaga, and M. Jinno, “Optical path aggregation for 1-Tb/s transmission in spectrum-sliced elastic optical path network,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 22, no. 17, pp. 1315–1317, Sept.2010.

M. Jinno, H. Takara, B. Kozicki, Y. Tsukishima, Y. Sone, and S. Matsuoka, “Spectrum-efficient and scalable elastic optical path network: Architecture, benefits, and enabling technologies,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 47, no. 11, pp. 66–73, Nov.2009.

M. Jinno, Y. Sone, H. Takara, A. Hirano, K. Yonenaga, and S. Kawai, “IP traffic offloading to elastic optical layer using multi-flow optical transponder,” in Proc. ECOC, 2011, Mo.2.K.2.

M. Jinno, H. Takara, B. Kozicki, Y. Tsukishima, T. Yoshimatsu, T. Kobayashi, Y. Miyamoto, K. Yonenaga, A. Takada, O. Ishida, and S. Matsuoka, “Demonstration of novel spectrum-efficient elastic optical path network with per-channel variable capacity of 40 Gb/s to over 400 Gb/s,” in Proc. ECOC, 2008, Th.3.F.6.

H. Takara, T. Goh, K. Shibahara, K. Yonenaga, S. Kawai, and M. Jinno, “Experimental demonstration of 400 Gb/s multi-flow, multirate, multi-reach optical transmitter for efficient elastic spectral routing,” in Proc. ECOC, 2011, Tu.5.A.4.

B. Kozicki, H. Takara, T. Yoshimatsu, K. Yonenaga, and M. Jinno, “Filtering characteristics of highly-spectrum efficient spectrum-sliced elastic optical path (SLICE) network,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, 2009, JWA43.

Tang, Y.

Tomizawa, M.

M. Jinno, T. Ohara, Y. Sone, A. Hirano, O. Ishida, and M. Tomizawa, “Introducing elasticity and adaptation into the optical domain toward more efficient and scalable optical transport networks,” in ITU-T Kaleidoscope Academic Conf., 2010, S2.2.

Tomkos, I.

K. Christodoulopoulos, I. Tomkos, and A. Varvarigos, “Routing and spectrum allocation in OFDM-based optical networks with elastic bandwidth allocation,” in Proc. IEEE Globecom, 2010.

Tsukishima, Y.

B. Kozicki, H. Takara, Y. Tsukishima, T. Yoshimatsu, T. Kobayashi, K. Yonenaga, and M. Jinno, “Optical path aggregation for 1-Tb/s transmission in spectrum-sliced elastic optical path network,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 22, no. 17, pp. 1315–1317, Sept.2010.

M. Jinno, H. Takara, B. Kozicki, Y. Tsukishima, Y. Sone, and S. Matsuoka, “Spectrum-efficient and scalable elastic optical path network: Architecture, benefits, and enabling technologies,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 47, no. 11, pp. 66–73, Nov.2009.

M. Jinno, H. Takara, B. Kozicki, Y. Tsukishima, T. Yoshimatsu, T. Kobayashi, Y. Miyamoto, K. Yonenaga, A. Takada, O. Ishida, and S. Matsuoka, “Demonstration of novel spectrum-efficient elastic optical path network with per-channel variable capacity of 40 Gb/s to over 400 Gb/s,” in Proc. ECOC, 2008, Th.3.F.6.

Varvarigos, A.

K. Christodoulopoulos, I. Tomkos, and A. Varvarigos, “Routing and spectrum allocation in OFDM-based optical networks with elastic bandwidth allocation,” in Proc. IEEE Globecom, 2010.

Wang, T.

A. N. Patel, P. N. Ji, J. P. Jue, and T. Wang, “Defragmentation of transparent flexible optical WDM (FWDM) networks,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, 2011, OTuI8.

Wang, Y.

Y. Wang, X. Cao, and Q. Hu, “Routing and spectrum allocation in spectrum-sliced elastic optical path networks,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications (ICC), June 2011.

Yang, Q.

Yonenaga, K.

B. Kozicki, H. Takara, Y. Tsukishima, T. Yoshimatsu, T. Kobayashi, K. Yonenaga, and M. Jinno, “Optical path aggregation for 1-Tb/s transmission in spectrum-sliced elastic optical path network,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 22, no. 17, pp. 1315–1317, Sept.2010.

H. Takara, T. Goh, K. Shibahara, K. Yonenaga, S. Kawai, and M. Jinno, “Experimental demonstration of 400 Gb/s multi-flow, multirate, multi-reach optical transmitter for efficient elastic spectral routing,” in Proc. ECOC, 2011, Tu.5.A.4.

B. Kozicki, H. Takara, T. Yoshimatsu, K. Yonenaga, and M. Jinno, “Filtering characteristics of highly-spectrum efficient spectrum-sliced elastic optical path (SLICE) network,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, 2009, JWA43.

M. Jinno, H. Takara, B. Kozicki, Y. Tsukishima, T. Yoshimatsu, T. Kobayashi, Y. Miyamoto, K. Yonenaga, A. Takada, O. Ishida, and S. Matsuoka, “Demonstration of novel spectrum-efficient elastic optical path network with per-channel variable capacity of 40 Gb/s to over 400 Gb/s,” in Proc. ECOC, 2008, Th.3.F.6.

M. Jinno, Y. Sone, H. Takara, A. Hirano, K. Yonenaga, and S. Kawai, “IP traffic offloading to elastic optical layer using multi-flow optical transponder,” in Proc. ECOC, 2011, Mo.2.K.2.

Yoo, S. J. B.

O. Gerstel, M. Jinno, A. Lord, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Elastic optical networking: A new dawn for the optical layer?” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 50, no. 2, pp. s12–s20, Feb.2012.

D. J. Geisler, N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, T. He, L. Paraschis, O. Gerstel, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Bandwidth scalable, coherent transmitter based on parallel synthesis of multiple spectral slices,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, 2011, OTuE3.

Yoshimatsu, T.

B. Kozicki, H. Takara, Y. Tsukishima, T. Yoshimatsu, T. Kobayashi, K. Yonenaga, and M. Jinno, “Optical path aggregation for 1-Tb/s transmission in spectrum-sliced elastic optical path network,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 22, no. 17, pp. 1315–1317, Sept.2010.

B. Kozicki, H. Takara, T. Yoshimatsu, K. Yonenaga, and M. Jinno, “Filtering characteristics of highly-spectrum efficient spectrum-sliced elastic optical path (SLICE) network,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, 2009, JWA43.

M. Jinno, H. Takara, B. Kozicki, Y. Tsukishima, T. Yoshimatsu, T. Kobayashi, Y. Miyamoto, K. Yonenaga, A. Takada, O. Ishida, and S. Matsuoka, “Demonstration of novel spectrum-efficient elastic optical path network with per-channel variable capacity of 40 Gb/s to over 400 Gb/s,” in Proc. ECOC, 2008, Th.3.F.6.

Zervas, G. S.

N. Amaya, I. Muhammad, G. S. Zervas, R. Nejabati, D. Simeonidou, Y. R. Zhou, and A. Lord, “Experimental demonstration of a gridless multi-granular optical network supporting flexible spectrum switching,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, 2011, OMW3.

Zhang, G.

G. Zhang, M. D. Leenheer, A. Morea, and B. Mukherjee, “A survey on OFDM-based elastic core optical networking,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, to be published.

G. Zhang, M. D. Leenheer, and B. Mukherjee, “Optical grooming in OFDM-based elastic optical networks,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, 2012, OTh1A.

Zhang, H.

Y. Zhang, X. Zheng, Q. Li, N. Hua, Y. Li, and H. Zhang, “Traffic grooming in spectrum-elastic optical path networks,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, 2011, OTuI1.

Zhang, Y.

Y. Zhang, X. Zheng, Q. Li, N. Hua, Y. Li, and H. Zhang, “Traffic grooming in spectrum-elastic optical path networks,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, 2011, OTuI1.

Zheng, X.

Y. Zhang, X. Zheng, Q. Li, N. Hua, Y. Li, and H. Zhang, “Traffic grooming in spectrum-elastic optical path networks,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, 2011, OTuI1.

Zhou, Y. R.

N. Amaya, I. Muhammad, G. S. Zervas, R. Nejabati, D. Simeonidou, Y. R. Zhou, and A. Lord, “Experimental demonstration of a gridless multi-granular optical network supporting flexible spectrum switching,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, 2011, OMW3.

IEEE Commun. Mag. (2)

M. Jinno, H. Takara, B. Kozicki, Y. Tsukishima, Y. Sone, and S. Matsuoka, “Spectrum-efficient and scalable elastic optical path network: Architecture, benefits, and enabling technologies,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 47, no. 11, pp. 66–73, Nov.2009.

O. Gerstel, M. Jinno, A. Lord, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Elastic optical networking: A new dawn for the optical layer?” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 50, no. 2, pp. s12–s20, Feb.2012.

IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials (1)

G. Zhang, M. D. Leenheer, A. Morea, and B. Mukherjee, “A survey on OFDM-based elastic core optical networking,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, to be published.

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

B. Kozicki, H. Takara, Y. Tsukishima, T. Yoshimatsu, T. Kobayashi, K. Yonenaga, and M. Jinno, “Optical path aggregation for 1-Tb/s transmission in spectrum-sliced elastic optical path network,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 22, no. 17, pp. 1315–1317, Sept.2010.

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

W. Shieh, “OFDM for flexible high-speed optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 29, no. 10, pp. 1560–1577, May2011.

Other (18)

K. Christodoulopoulos, I. Tomkos, and A. Varvarigos, “Routing and spectrum allocation in OFDM-based optical networks with elastic bandwidth allocation,” in Proc. IEEE Globecom, 2010.

Y. Wang, X. Cao, and Q. Hu, “Routing and spectrum allocation in spectrum-sliced elastic optical path networks,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications (ICC), June 2011.

M. Jinno, H. Takara, B. Kozicki, Y. Tsukishima, T. Yoshimatsu, T. Kobayashi, Y. Miyamoto, K. Yonenaga, A. Takada, O. Ishida, and S. Matsuoka, “Demonstration of novel spectrum-efficient elastic optical path network with per-channel variable capacity of 40 Gb/s to over 400 Gb/s,” in Proc. ECOC, 2008, Th.3.F.6.

A. N. Patel, P. N. Ji, J. P. Jue, and T. Wang, “Defragmentation of transparent flexible optical WDM (FWDM) networks,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, 2011, OTuI8.

G. Zhang, M. D. Leenheer, and B. Mukherjee, “Optical grooming in OFDM-based elastic optical networks,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, 2012, OTh1A.

B. Kozicki, H. Takara, T. Yoshimatsu, K. Yonenaga, and M. Jinno, “Filtering characteristics of highly-spectrum efficient spectrum-sliced elastic optical path (SLICE) network,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, 2009, JWA43.

R. Dischler, F. Buchali, and A. Klekamp, “Demonstration of bit rate variable ROADM functionality on an optical OFDM superchannel,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, 2010, OTuM7.

N. Amaya, I. Muhammad, G. S. Zervas, R. Nejabati, D. Simeonidou, Y. R. Zhou, and A. Lord, “Experimental demonstration of a gridless multi-granular optical network supporting flexible spectrum switching,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, 2011, OMW3.

H. Takara, T. Goh, K. Shibahara, K. Yonenaga, S. Kawai, and M. Jinno, “Experimental demonstration of 400 Gb/s multi-flow, multirate, multi-reach optical transmitter for efficient elastic spectral routing,” in Proc. ECOC, 2011, Tu.5.A.4.

D. J. Geisler, N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, T. He, L. Paraschis, O. Gerstel, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Bandwidth scalable, coherent transmitter based on parallel synthesis of multiple spectral slices,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, 2011, OTuE3.

A. Morea, A. F. Chong, and O. Rival, “Impact of transparent network constraints on capacity gain of elastic channel spacing,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, 2011, JWA62.

Y. Zhang, X. Zheng, Q. Li, N. Hua, Y. Li, and H. Zhang, “Traffic grooming in spectrum-elastic optical path networks,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, 2011, OTuI1.

K. Sato, “Recent developments in and challenges of elastic optical path networking,” in Proc. ECOC, 2011, Mo.2.K.1.

O. Gerstel, “Flexible use of spectrum and photonic grooming,” in Proc. IPR/PS, 2010, PMD3.

M. Jinno, Y. Sone, H. Takara, A. Hirano, K. Yonenaga, and S. Kawai, “IP traffic offloading to elastic optical layer using multi-flow optical transponder,” in Proc. ECOC, 2011, Mo.2.K.2.

W. Shieh and I. Djordjevic, OFDM for Optical Communications. Academic Press, 2010.

E. L. Rouzic, P. Gavignet, B. Arzur, and N. Brochier, “Future optical core networks for novel applications,” in Proc. ECOC, 2011, Tu.6.K.1.

M. Jinno, T. Ohara, Y. Sone, A. Hirano, O. Ishida, and M. Tomizawa, “Introducing elasticity and adaptation into the optical domain toward more efficient and scalable optical transport networks,” in ITU-T Kaleidoscope Academic Conf., 2010, S2.2.

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Figures (13)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(Color online) An elastic optical network architecture.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(Color online) Optical grooming in an elastic optical network.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The broadcast-and-select OXC structure.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(Color online) A possible case where some same-source traffic cannot be groomed.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(Color online) The five-node network topology used for the small network study.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Transmitter savings in the five-node network.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

The total maximum spectrum index in the five-node network.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(Color online) The topology of NSFnet.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Transmitter savings in NSFnet.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Total spectrum usage in NSFnet.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Total maximum spectrum index in NSFnet.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Total spectrum usage versus guard band size (fixed traffic granularity D=4, using the LSG algorithm for optical grooming).

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Transmitter savings versus maximum transmitter capacity (fixed traffic granularity D=12).

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table I Comparison of WDM and Elastic Optical Networks

Equations (17)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Ctotal=lCl,lE,
Clfsd+Λsd+2g1W×(1xsdi),(s,d),l,psdi:(psdiPsd)(lpsdi),
Ttotal=s,dTsd.
piPsdxsdi=1,(s,d).
δsd,sd+δsd,sd=1,
(1δsd,sd+2xsdixsdj)×(W+2g)fsd+Λsd+2g×(1Gijsd,sd)fsd,s=sddfsd+Λsd+2gfsd,ss,
(1δsd,sd+2xsdixsdj)×(W+2g)fsd+Λsd+2g×(1Gijsd,sd)fsd,s=sddfsd+Λsd+2gfsd,ss.
ijGijsd,sd1,(s,d),(s,d).
Gijsd,sd=Gjisd,sd.
Fsdfsd,(s,d),
fsd+ΛsdFsd+U,(s,d).
FsdFsdW(1Gijsd,sd),dd,(s,d),(s,d),(i,j),
FsdFsdW(1Gijsd,sd),dd,(s,d),(s,d),(i,j).
Msd,sdijGijsd,sd,
dMsd,sd+Tsd=1,
Msd,sdTsd,
Msd,sdijGijsd,sdTsd1.