Abstract

We demonstrate a 120 Gb/s coherent polarization- multiplexed quadrature-phase-shift-keyed transceiver with soft-decision forward-error-correction (SD-FEC) coding based on Turbo Product Code. This industry-first transceiver module utilizes a 40 nm complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) application-specific integrated circuit with integrated analog-to-digital conversion, digital signal processing and SD-FEC, and is packaged according to a multi-source agreement from the Optical Internetworking Forum. Through several long-haul and ultra-long-haul system experiments (over 1000 km to 3760 km), we validate the robustness of the transceiver and demonstrate its high tolerance to various system impairments, including fiber nonlinearity, chromatic dispersion up to 60,000 ps/nm, polarization mode dispersion, polarization-dependent loss, polarization transients and multiple-path interference.

© 2012 OSA

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  25. B. Heffner, “Automated measurement of polarization mode dispersion using Jones matrix eigenanalysis,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 4, no. 9, pp. 1066–1069, Sept.1992.
    [CrossRef]
  26. S. L. Woodward, L. E. Nelson, M. D. Feuer, X. Zhou, P. D. Magill, S. Foo, D. Hanson, D. McGhan, H. Sun, M. Moyer, and M. O’Sullivan, “Characterization of real-time PMD and chromatic dispersion monitoring in a high-PMD 46-Gbps transmission system,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 20, no. 24, pp. 2048–2050, Dec.2008, and references therein.
    [CrossRef]
  27. S. L. Woodward, L. E. Nelson, C. R. Schneider, L. A. Knox, M. O’Sullivan, C. Laperle, M. Moyer, and S. H. Foo, “Field observations of optical parameters using integrated performance monitoring,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, Los Angeles, CA, 2012, JWA20.
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  35. M. Rasztovits-Wiech, M. Danner, and W. R. Leeb, “Optical signal-to-noise-ratio measurement in WDM networks using polarization extinction,” in Proc. ECOC, Sept. 1998, pp. 549–550.
  36. M. Arikawa, T. Okamoto, E. de Gabory, T. Ito, and K. Fukuchi, “WDM transmission of 127 Gb/s PM-QPSK signal over 3350 km SMF-only line with chromatic dispersion compensation using real-time DSP-LSI,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, Los Angeles, CA, 2012, NTh1I.4.

2011 (1)

2010 (4)

P. Winzer, “Beyond 100G Ethernet,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 48, no. 7, pp. 26–30, July2010.
[CrossRef]

F. Chang, K. Onohara, and T. Mizuochi, “Forward error correction for 100G transport networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 48, no. 3, pp. S48–S55, 2010.
[CrossRef]

K. Onohara, T. Sugihara, Y. Konishi, Y. Miyata, T. Inoue, S. Kametani, K. Sugihara, K. Kubo, H. Yoshida, and T. Mizuochi, “Soft-decision-based forward error correction for 100 Gb/s transport systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum. Electron., vol. 16, no. 5, pp. 1258–1267, Sept./Oct.2010.
[CrossRef]

S. Savory, “Digital coherent optical receivers: algorithms and subsystems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol. 16, no. 5, pp. 1164–1179, Sept./Oct.2010.
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

2008 (4)

2001 (1)

C. R. S. Fludger, Y. Zhu, V. Handerek, and R. J. Mears, “Impact of MPI and modulation format on transmission systems employing distributed Raman amplification,” Electron. Lett., vol. 37, no. 15, pp. 970–972, July19, 2001.
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

R. M. Jopson, L. E. Nelson, and H. Kogelnik, “Measurement of second-order polarization-mode dispersion vectors in optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 11, no. 9, pp. 1153–1155, Sept.1999.
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

B. Heffner, “Automated measurement of polarization mode dispersion using Jones matrix eigenanalysis,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 4, no. 9, pp. 1066–1069, Sept.1992.
[CrossRef]

Ait Sab, O.

O. Ait Sab, “FEC techniques in submarine transmission systems,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, Anaheim, CA, 2001, TuF1.

Akita, M.

M. Akita, H. Fujita, T. Mizuochi, K. Kubo, H. Yoshida, K. Kuno, and S. Kurahashi, “Third generation FEC employing Turbo Product Code for long-haul DWDM transmission systems,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, Anaheim, CA, 2002, WP2.

Antona, J.

C. Martinelli, G. Charlet, L. Pierre, J. Antona, and D. Bayart, “System impairment of double-Rayleigh scattering and dependence on modulation format,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, Atlanta, Georgia, 2003, FE3.

Aoki, Y.

T. Tanimura, Y. Aoki, H. Nakashima, T. Hoshida, J. Li, Z. Tao, and J. C. Rasmussen, “FPGA-based 112 Gb/s coherent DP-QPSK receiver and multi-stage PMD-PDL emulator for fast evaluation of digital signal processing algorithms,” in Proc. ECOC, Torino, Italy, 2010, Tu.5.A.3.

Arikawa, M.

M. Arikawa, T. Okamoto, E. de Gabory, T. Ito, and K. Fukuchi, “WDM transmission of 127 Gb/s PM-QPSK signal over 3350 km SMF-only line with chromatic dispersion compensation using real-time DSP-LSI,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, Los Angeles, CA, 2012, NTh1I.4.

Awadalla, A.

Bayart, D.

C. Martinelli, G. Charlet, L. Pierre, J. Antona, and D. Bayart, “System impairment of double-Rayleigh scattering and dependence on modulation format,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, Atlanta, Georgia, 2003, FE3.

Birk, M.

M. Birk, P. Gerard, R. Curto, L. E. Nelson, X. Zhou, P. Magill, T. J. Schmidt, C. Malouin, B. Zhang, E. Ibragimov, S. Khatana, M. Glavanovic, R. Lofland, R. Marcoccia, R. Saunders, G. Nicholl, M. Nowell, and F. Forghieri, “Real-time single-carrier coherent 100 Gb/s PM-QPSK field trial,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 29, no. 4, pp. 417–425, Feb.2011.
[CrossRef]

L. E. Nelson, Y. Pan, M. Birk, R. Isaac, C. Rasmussen, M. Giveh chi, and B. Mikkelsen, “WDM performance and multiple-path interference tolerance of a real-time 120 Gbps Pol-Mux QPSK transceiver with soft decision FEC,” in Proc. NFOEC, Los Angeles, CA, 2012, NTh1I.5.

G. Zhang, L. E. Nelson, Y. Pan, M. Birk, C. Skolnick, C. Rasmussen, M. Givehchi, B. Mikkelsen, T. Scherer, T. Downs, and W. Keil, “3760 km, 100G SSMF transmission over commercial terrestrial DWDM ROADM systems using SD-FEC,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, Los Angeles, CA, 2012, PDP5D.4.

Bromage, J.

J. Bromage, L. E. Nelson, C. H. Kim, P. J. Winzer, R.-J. Essiambre, and R. M. Jopson, “Relative impact of multiple-path interference and amplified spontaneous emission noise on optical receiver performance,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, Anaheim, CA, 2002, TuR3.

Bülow, H.

A. Klekamp and H. Bülow, “Experimental comparison of PMD tolerances of binary 43 Gb/s modulation formats without and with PMD compensation,” in Proc. ECOC, Cannes, France, 2006, Tu4.2.4.

Chang, F.

F. Chang, K. Onohara, and T. Mizuochi, “Forward error correction for 100G transport networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 48, no. 3, pp. S48–S55, 2010.
[CrossRef]

Charlet, G.

C. Martinelli, G. Charlet, L. Pierre, J. Antona, and D. Bayart, “System impairment of double-Rayleigh scattering and dependence on modulation format,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, Atlanta, Georgia, 2003, FE3.

Craig, R. M.

R. M. Craig, “Visualizing the limitations of four-state measurement of PDL and results of a six-state alternative,” in Symp. on Optical Fiber Measurements (SOFM 2002), Boulder, CO, Sept. 24–26, 2002, pp. 121–124.

Curto, R.

Danner, M.

M. Rasztovits-Wiech, M. Danner, and W. R. Leeb, “Optical signal-to-noise-ratio measurement in WDM networks using polarization extinction,” in Proc. ECOC, Sept. 1998, pp. 549–550.

de Gabory, E.

M. Arikawa, T. Okamoto, E. de Gabory, T. Ito, and K. Fukuchi, “WDM transmission of 127 Gb/s PM-QPSK signal over 3350 km SMF-only line with chromatic dispersion compensation using real-time DSP-LSI,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, Los Angeles, CA, 2012, NTh1I.4.

de Man, E.

C. R. S Fludger, T. Duthel, D. van den Borne, C. Schulien, E.-D. Schmidt, T. Wuth, J. Geyer, E. de Man, G. D. Khoe, and H. de Waardt, “Coherent equalization and POLMUX-RZ-DQPSK for robust 100-GE transmission,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 64–72, Jan.2008.
[CrossRef]

C. R. S. Fludger, T. Duthel, D. van den Borne, C. Schulien, E.-D. Schmidt, T. Wuth, E. de Man, G. D. Khoe, and H. de Waardt, “10 × 111 Gbit/s, 50 GHz spaced, POLMUX-RZ-DQPSK transmission over 2375 km employing coherent equalization,” in Proc. OFC, Anaheim, CA, 2007, PDP22.

de Waardt, H.

C. R. S Fludger, T. Duthel, D. van den Borne, C. Schulien, E.-D. Schmidt, T. Wuth, J. Geyer, E. de Man, G. D. Khoe, and H. de Waardt, “Coherent equalization and POLMUX-RZ-DQPSK for robust 100-GE transmission,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 64–72, Jan.2008.
[CrossRef]

C. R. S. Fludger, T. Duthel, D. van den Borne, C. Schulien, E.-D. Schmidt, T. Wuth, E. de Man, G. D. Khoe, and H. de Waardt, “10 × 111 Gbit/s, 50 GHz spaced, POLMUX-RZ-DQPSK transmission over 2375 km employing coherent equalization,” in Proc. OFC, Anaheim, CA, 2007, PDP22.

Downs, T.

G. Zhang, L. E. Nelson, Y. Pan, M. Birk, C. Skolnick, C. Rasmussen, M. Givehchi, B. Mikkelsen, T. Scherer, T. Downs, and W. Keil, “3760 km, 100G SSMF transmission over commercial terrestrial DWDM ROADM systems using SD-FEC,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, Los Angeles, CA, 2012, PDP5D.4.

Duthel, T.

C. R. S Fludger, T. Duthel, D. van den Borne, C. Schulien, E.-D. Schmidt, T. Wuth, J. Geyer, E. de Man, G. D. Khoe, and H. de Waardt, “Coherent equalization and POLMUX-RZ-DQPSK for robust 100-GE transmission,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 64–72, Jan.2008.
[CrossRef]

C. R. S. Fludger, T. Duthel, D. van den Borne, C. Schulien, E.-D. Schmidt, T. Wuth, E. de Man, G. D. Khoe, and H. de Waardt, “10 × 111 Gbit/s, 50 GHz spaced, POLMUX-RZ-DQPSK transmission over 2375 km employing coherent equalization,” in Proc. OFC, Anaheim, CA, 2007, PDP22.

T. Duthel, C. R. S. Fludger, J. Geyer, and C. Schulien, “Impact of polarization dependent loss on coherent POLMUX-NRZ-DQPSK,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, San Diego, CA, 2008, OThU5.

Essiambre, R.-J.

J. Bromage, L. E. Nelson, C. H. Kim, P. J. Winzer, R.-J. Essiambre, and R. M. Jopson, “Relative impact of multiple-path interference and amplified spontaneous emission noise on optical receiver performance,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, Anaheim, CA, 2002, TuR3.

Feuer, M. D.

L. E. Nelson, S. L. Woodward, S. Foo, X. Zhou, M. D. Feuer, D. Hanson, D. McGhan, H. Sun, M. Moyer, M. O. Sullivan, and P. D. Magill, “Performance of a 46-Gbps dual-polarization QPSK transceiver with real-time coherent equalization over high PMD fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 158–169, Feb.2009.
[CrossRef]

S. L. Woodward, L. E. Nelson, M. D. Feuer, X. Zhou, P. D. Magill, S. Foo, D. Hanson, D. McGhan, H. Sun, M. Moyer, and M. O’Sullivan, “Characterization of real-time PMD and chromatic dispersion monitoring in a high-PMD 46-Gbps transmission system,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 20, no. 24, pp. 2048–2050, Dec.2008, and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Fludger, C. R. S

Fludger, C. R. S.

C. R. S. Fludger, Y. Zhu, V. Handerek, and R. J. Mears, “Impact of MPI and modulation format on transmission systems employing distributed Raman amplification,” Electron. Lett., vol. 37, no. 15, pp. 970–972, July19, 2001.
[CrossRef]

C. R. S. Fludger, T. Duthel, D. van den Borne, C. Schulien, E.-D. Schmidt, T. Wuth, E. de Man, G. D. Khoe, and H. de Waardt, “10 × 111 Gbit/s, 50 GHz spaced, POLMUX-RZ-DQPSK transmission over 2375 km employing coherent equalization,” in Proc. OFC, Anaheim, CA, 2007, PDP22.

T. Duthel, C. R. S. Fludger, J. Geyer, and C. Schulien, “Impact of polarization dependent loss on coherent POLMUX-NRZ-DQPSK,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, San Diego, CA, 2008, OThU5.

Foo, S.

L. E. Nelson, S. L. Woodward, S. Foo, X. Zhou, M. D. Feuer, D. Hanson, D. McGhan, H. Sun, M. Moyer, M. O. Sullivan, and P. D. Magill, “Performance of a 46-Gbps dual-polarization QPSK transceiver with real-time coherent equalization over high PMD fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 158–169, Feb.2009.
[CrossRef]

S. L. Woodward, L. E. Nelson, M. D. Feuer, X. Zhou, P. D. Magill, S. Foo, D. Hanson, D. McGhan, H. Sun, M. Moyer, and M. O’Sullivan, “Characterization of real-time PMD and chromatic dispersion monitoring in a high-PMD 46-Gbps transmission system,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 20, no. 24, pp. 2048–2050, Dec.2008, and references therein.
[CrossRef]

L. E. Nelson, X. Zhou, S. L. Woodward, S. Foo, H. Sun, M. Moyer, and M. O’Sullivan, “Tolerance of 46-Gb/s dual-polarization quadrature-phase shift keyed signals to multiple-path interference,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, San Diego, CA, 2009, OTuN3.

Foo, S. H.

S. L. Woodward, L. E. Nelson, C. R. Schneider, L. A. Knox, M. O’Sullivan, C. Laperle, M. Moyer, and S. H. Foo, “Field observations of optical parameters using integrated performance monitoring,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, Los Angeles, CA, 2012, JWA20.

Forghieri, F.

Fujita, H.

M. Akita, H. Fujita, T. Mizuochi, K. Kubo, H. Yoshida, K. Kuno, and S. Kurahashi, “Third generation FEC employing Turbo Product Code for long-haul DWDM transmission systems,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, Anaheim, CA, 2002, WP2.

Fukuchi, K.

M. Arikawa, T. Okamoto, E. de Gabory, T. Ito, and K. Fukuchi, “WDM transmission of 127 Gb/s PM-QPSK signal over 3350 km SMF-only line with chromatic dispersion compensation using real-time DSP-LSI,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, Los Angeles, CA, 2012, NTh1I.4.

Gerard, P.

Geyer, J.

Giveh chi, M.

L. E. Nelson, Y. Pan, M. Birk, R. Isaac, C. Rasmussen, M. Giveh chi, and B. Mikkelsen, “WDM performance and multiple-path interference tolerance of a real-time 120 Gbps Pol-Mux QPSK transceiver with soft decision FEC,” in Proc. NFOEC, Los Angeles, CA, 2012, NTh1I.5.

Givehchi, M.

G. Zhang, L. E. Nelson, Y. Pan, M. Birk, C. Skolnick, C. Rasmussen, M. Givehchi, B. Mikkelsen, T. Scherer, T. Downs, and W. Keil, “3760 km, 100G SSMF transmission over commercial terrestrial DWDM ROADM systems using SD-FEC,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, Los Angeles, CA, 2012, PDP5D.4.

Glavanovic, M.

Handerek, V.

C. R. S. Fludger, Y. Zhu, V. Handerek, and R. J. Mears, “Impact of MPI and modulation format on transmission systems employing distributed Raman amplification,” Electron. Lett., vol. 37, no. 15, pp. 970–972, July19, 2001.
[CrossRef]

Hanson, D.

L. E. Nelson, S. L. Woodward, S. Foo, X. Zhou, M. D. Feuer, D. Hanson, D. McGhan, H. Sun, M. Moyer, M. O. Sullivan, and P. D. Magill, “Performance of a 46-Gbps dual-polarization QPSK transceiver with real-time coherent equalization over high PMD fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 158–169, Feb.2009.
[CrossRef]

S. L. Woodward, L. E. Nelson, M. D. Feuer, X. Zhou, P. D. Magill, S. Foo, D. Hanson, D. McGhan, H. Sun, M. Moyer, and M. O’Sullivan, “Characterization of real-time PMD and chromatic dispersion monitoring in a high-PMD 46-Gbps transmission system,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 20, no. 24, pp. 2048–2050, Dec.2008, and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Heffner, B.

B. Heffner, “Automated measurement of polarization mode dispersion using Jones matrix eigenanalysis,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 4, no. 9, pp. 1066–1069, Sept.1992.
[CrossRef]

Hoshida, T.

O. Vassilieva, T. Hoshida, X. Wang, J. Rasmussen, H. Miyata, and T. Naito, “Impact of polarization dependent loss and cross-phase modulation on polarization multiplexed DQPSK signals,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, San Diego, CA, 2008, OThU6.

T. Tanimura, Y. Aoki, H. Nakashima, T. Hoshida, J. Li, Z. Tao, and J. C. Rasmussen, “FPGA-based 112 Gb/s coherent DP-QPSK receiver and multi-stage PMD-PDL emulator for fast evaluation of digital signal processing algorithms,” in Proc. ECOC, Torino, Italy, 2010, Tu.5.A.3.

Ibragimov, E.

Inoue, T.

K. Onohara, T. Sugihara, Y. Konishi, Y. Miyata, T. Inoue, S. Kametani, K. Sugihara, K. Kubo, H. Yoshida, and T. Mizuochi, “Soft-decision-based forward error correction for 100 Gb/s transport systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum. Electron., vol. 16, no. 5, pp. 1258–1267, Sept./Oct.2010.
[CrossRef]

Isaac, R.

L. E. Nelson, Y. Pan, M. Birk, R. Isaac, C. Rasmussen, M. Giveh chi, and B. Mikkelsen, “WDM performance and multiple-path interference tolerance of a real-time 120 Gbps Pol-Mux QPSK transceiver with soft decision FEC,” in Proc. NFOEC, Los Angeles, CA, 2012, NTh1I.5.

Ito, T.

M. Arikawa, T. Okamoto, E. de Gabory, T. Ito, and K. Fukuchi, “WDM transmission of 127 Gb/s PM-QPSK signal over 3350 km SMF-only line with chromatic dispersion compensation using real-time DSP-LSI,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, Los Angeles, CA, 2012, NTh1I.4.

Jopson, R. M.

R. M. Jopson, L. E. Nelson, and H. Kogelnik, “Measurement of second-order polarization-mode dispersion vectors in optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 11, no. 9, pp. 1153–1155, Sept.1999.
[CrossRef]

J. Bromage, L. E. Nelson, C. H. Kim, P. J. Winzer, R.-J. Essiambre, and R. M. Jopson, “Relative impact of multiple-path interference and amplified spontaneous emission noise on optical receiver performance,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, Anaheim, CA, 2002, TuR3.

Kametani, S.

K. Onohara, T. Sugihara, Y. Konishi, Y. Miyata, T. Inoue, S. Kametani, K. Sugihara, K. Kubo, H. Yoshida, and T. Mizuochi, “Soft-decision-based forward error correction for 100 Gb/s transport systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum. Electron., vol. 16, no. 5, pp. 1258–1267, Sept./Oct.2010.
[CrossRef]

Keil, W.

G. Zhang, L. E. Nelson, Y. Pan, M. Birk, C. Skolnick, C. Rasmussen, M. Givehchi, B. Mikkelsen, T. Scherer, T. Downs, and W. Keil, “3760 km, 100G SSMF transmission over commercial terrestrial DWDM ROADM systems using SD-FEC,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, Los Angeles, CA, 2012, PDP5D.4.

Khatana, S.

Khoe, G. D.

C. R. S Fludger, T. Duthel, D. van den Borne, C. Schulien, E.-D. Schmidt, T. Wuth, J. Geyer, E. de Man, G. D. Khoe, and H. de Waardt, “Coherent equalization and POLMUX-RZ-DQPSK for robust 100-GE transmission,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 64–72, Jan.2008.
[CrossRef]

C. R. S. Fludger, T. Duthel, D. van den Borne, C. Schulien, E.-D. Schmidt, T. Wuth, E. de Man, G. D. Khoe, and H. de Waardt, “10 × 111 Gbit/s, 50 GHz spaced, POLMUX-RZ-DQPSK transmission over 2375 km employing coherent equalization,” in Proc. OFC, Anaheim, CA, 2007, PDP22.

Kim, C. H.

J. Bromage, L. E. Nelson, C. H. Kim, P. J. Winzer, R.-J. Essiambre, and R. M. Jopson, “Relative impact of multiple-path interference and amplified spontaneous emission noise on optical receiver performance,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, Anaheim, CA, 2002, TuR3.

Klekamp, A.

A. Klekamp and H. Bülow, “Experimental comparison of PMD tolerances of binary 43 Gb/s modulation formats without and with PMD compensation,” in Proc. ECOC, Cannes, France, 2006, Tu4.2.4.

Knox, L. A.

S. L. Woodward, L. E. Nelson, C. R. Schneider, L. A. Knox, M. O’Sullivan, C. Laperle, M. Moyer, and S. H. Foo, “Field observations of optical parameters using integrated performance monitoring,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, Los Angeles, CA, 2012, JWA20.

Kogelnik, H.

R. M. Jopson, L. E. Nelson, and H. Kogelnik, “Measurement of second-order polarization-mode dispersion vectors in optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 11, no. 9, pp. 1153–1155, Sept.1999.
[CrossRef]

Konishi, Y.

K. Onohara, T. Sugihara, Y. Konishi, Y. Miyata, T. Inoue, S. Kametani, K. Sugihara, K. Kubo, H. Yoshida, and T. Mizuochi, “Soft-decision-based forward error correction for 100 Gb/s transport systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum. Electron., vol. 16, no. 5, pp. 1258–1267, Sept./Oct.2010.
[CrossRef]

Krause, D. J.

Kubo, K.

K. Onohara, T. Sugihara, Y. Konishi, Y. Miyata, T. Inoue, S. Kametani, K. Sugihara, K. Kubo, H. Yoshida, and T. Mizuochi, “Soft-decision-based forward error correction for 100 Gb/s transport systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum. Electron., vol. 16, no. 5, pp. 1258–1267, Sept./Oct.2010.
[CrossRef]

Y. Miyata, K. Sugihara, W. Matsumoto, K. Onohara, T. Sugihara, K. Kubo, H. Yoshida, and T. Mizuochi, “A triple-concatenated FEC using soft-decision decoding for 100  Gb/s optical transmission,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, San Diego, CA, 2010, OThL3.

M. Akita, H. Fujita, T. Mizuochi, K. Kubo, H. Yoshida, K. Kuno, and S. Kurahashi, “Third generation FEC employing Turbo Product Code for long-haul DWDM transmission systems,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, Anaheim, CA, 2002, WP2.

Kuno, K.

M. Akita, H. Fujita, T. Mizuochi, K. Kubo, H. Yoshida, K. Kuno, and S. Kurahashi, “Third generation FEC employing Turbo Product Code for long-haul DWDM transmission systems,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, Anaheim, CA, 2002, WP2.

Kurahashi, S.

M. Akita, H. Fujita, T. Mizuochi, K. Kubo, H. Yoshida, K. Kuno, and S. Kurahashi, “Third generation FEC employing Turbo Product Code for long-haul DWDM transmission systems,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, Anaheim, CA, 2002, WP2.

Laperle, C.

K. Roberts, M. O’Sullivan, K.-T. Wu, H. Sun, A. Awadalla, D. J. Krause, and C. Laperle, “Performance of dual-polarization QPSK for optical transport systems,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 27, no. 16, pp. 3546–3559, Aug.2009.
[CrossRef]

S. L. Woodward, L. E. Nelson, C. R. Schneider, L. A. Knox, M. O’Sullivan, C. Laperle, M. Moyer, and S. H. Foo, “Field observations of optical parameters using integrated performance monitoring,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, Los Angeles, CA, 2012, JWA20.

Leeb, W. R.

M. Rasztovits-Wiech, M. Danner, and W. R. Leeb, “Optical signal-to-noise-ratio measurement in WDM networks using polarization extinction,” in Proc. ECOC, Sept. 1998, pp. 549–550.

Li, J.

T. Tanimura, Y. Aoki, H. Nakashima, T. Hoshida, J. Li, Z. Tao, and J. C. Rasmussen, “FPGA-based 112 Gb/s coherent DP-QPSK receiver and multi-stage PMD-PDL emulator for fast evaluation of digital signal processing algorithms,” in Proc. ECOC, Torino, Italy, 2010, Tu.5.A.3.

Lofland, R.

Magill, P.

Magill, P. D.

L. E. Nelson, S. L. Woodward, S. Foo, X. Zhou, M. D. Feuer, D. Hanson, D. McGhan, H. Sun, M. Moyer, M. O. Sullivan, and P. D. Magill, “Performance of a 46-Gbps dual-polarization QPSK transceiver with real-time coherent equalization over high PMD fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 158–169, Feb.2009.
[CrossRef]

S. L. Woodward, L. E. Nelson, M. D. Feuer, X. Zhou, P. D. Magill, S. Foo, D. Hanson, D. McGhan, H. Sun, M. Moyer, and M. O’Sullivan, “Characterization of real-time PMD and chromatic dispersion monitoring in a high-PMD 46-Gbps transmission system,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 20, no. 24, pp. 2048–2050, Dec.2008, and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Malouin, C.

Marcoccia, R.

Martinelli, C.

C. Martinelli, G. Charlet, L. Pierre, J. Antona, and D. Bayart, “System impairment of double-Rayleigh scattering and dependence on modulation format,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, Atlanta, Georgia, 2003, FE3.

Matsumoto, W.

Y. Miyata, K. Sugihara, W. Matsumoto, K. Onohara, T. Sugihara, K. Kubo, H. Yoshida, and T. Mizuochi, “A triple-concatenated FEC using soft-decision decoding for 100  Gb/s optical transmission,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, San Diego, CA, 2010, OThL3.

McGhan, D.

L. E. Nelson, S. L. Woodward, S. Foo, X. Zhou, M. D. Feuer, D. Hanson, D. McGhan, H. Sun, M. Moyer, M. O. Sullivan, and P. D. Magill, “Performance of a 46-Gbps dual-polarization QPSK transceiver with real-time coherent equalization over high PMD fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 158–169, Feb.2009.
[CrossRef]

S. L. Woodward, L. E. Nelson, M. D. Feuer, X. Zhou, P. D. Magill, S. Foo, D. Hanson, D. McGhan, H. Sun, M. Moyer, and M. O’Sullivan, “Characterization of real-time PMD and chromatic dispersion monitoring in a high-PMD 46-Gbps transmission system,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 20, no. 24, pp. 2048–2050, Dec.2008, and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Mears, R. J.

C. R. S. Fludger, Y. Zhu, V. Handerek, and R. J. Mears, “Impact of MPI and modulation format on transmission systems employing distributed Raman amplification,” Electron. Lett., vol. 37, no. 15, pp. 970–972, July19, 2001.
[CrossRef]

Mikkelsen, B.

G. Zhang, L. E. Nelson, Y. Pan, M. Birk, C. Skolnick, C. Rasmussen, M. Givehchi, B. Mikkelsen, T. Scherer, T. Downs, and W. Keil, “3760 km, 100G SSMF transmission over commercial terrestrial DWDM ROADM systems using SD-FEC,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, Los Angeles, CA, 2012, PDP5D.4.

L. E. Nelson, Y. Pan, M. Birk, R. Isaac, C. Rasmussen, M. Giveh chi, and B. Mikkelsen, “WDM performance and multiple-path interference tolerance of a real-time 120 Gbps Pol-Mux QPSK transceiver with soft decision FEC,” in Proc. NFOEC, Los Angeles, CA, 2012, NTh1I.5.

Miyata, H.

O. Vassilieva, T. Hoshida, X. Wang, J. Rasmussen, H. Miyata, and T. Naito, “Impact of polarization dependent loss and cross-phase modulation on polarization multiplexed DQPSK signals,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, San Diego, CA, 2008, OThU6.

Miyata, Y.

K. Onohara, T. Sugihara, Y. Konishi, Y. Miyata, T. Inoue, S. Kametani, K. Sugihara, K. Kubo, H. Yoshida, and T. Mizuochi, “Soft-decision-based forward error correction for 100 Gb/s transport systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum. Electron., vol. 16, no. 5, pp. 1258–1267, Sept./Oct.2010.
[CrossRef]

Y. Miyata, K. Sugihara, W. Matsumoto, K. Onohara, T. Sugihara, K. Kubo, H. Yoshida, and T. Mizuochi, “A triple-concatenated FEC using soft-decision decoding for 100  Gb/s optical transmission,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, San Diego, CA, 2010, OThL3.

Mizuochi, T.

K. Onohara, T. Sugihara, Y. Konishi, Y. Miyata, T. Inoue, S. Kametani, K. Sugihara, K. Kubo, H. Yoshida, and T. Mizuochi, “Soft-decision-based forward error correction for 100 Gb/s transport systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum. Electron., vol. 16, no. 5, pp. 1258–1267, Sept./Oct.2010.
[CrossRef]

F. Chang, K. Onohara, and T. Mizuochi, “Forward error correction for 100G transport networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 48, no. 3, pp. S48–S55, 2010.
[CrossRef]

Y. Miyata, K. Sugihara, W. Matsumoto, K. Onohara, T. Sugihara, K. Kubo, H. Yoshida, and T. Mizuochi, “A triple-concatenated FEC using soft-decision decoding for 100  Gb/s optical transmission,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, San Diego, CA, 2010, OThL3.

M. Akita, H. Fujita, T. Mizuochi, K. Kubo, H. Yoshida, K. Kuno, and S. Kurahashi, “Third generation FEC employing Turbo Product Code for long-haul DWDM transmission systems,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, Anaheim, CA, 2002, WP2.

Moyer, M.

L. E. Nelson, S. L. Woodward, S. Foo, X. Zhou, M. D. Feuer, D. Hanson, D. McGhan, H. Sun, M. Moyer, M. O. Sullivan, and P. D. Magill, “Performance of a 46-Gbps dual-polarization QPSK transceiver with real-time coherent equalization over high PMD fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 158–169, Feb.2009.
[CrossRef]

S. L. Woodward, L. E. Nelson, M. D. Feuer, X. Zhou, P. D. Magill, S. Foo, D. Hanson, D. McGhan, H. Sun, M. Moyer, and M. O’Sullivan, “Characterization of real-time PMD and chromatic dispersion monitoring in a high-PMD 46-Gbps transmission system,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 20, no. 24, pp. 2048–2050, Dec.2008, and references therein.
[CrossRef]

S. L. Woodward, L. E. Nelson, C. R. Schneider, L. A. Knox, M. O’Sullivan, C. Laperle, M. Moyer, and S. H. Foo, “Field observations of optical parameters using integrated performance monitoring,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, Los Angeles, CA, 2012, JWA20.

L. E. Nelson, X. Zhou, S. L. Woodward, S. Foo, H. Sun, M. Moyer, and M. O’Sullivan, “Tolerance of 46-Gb/s dual-polarization quadrature-phase shift keyed signals to multiple-path interference,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, San Diego, CA, 2009, OTuN3.

Naito, T.

O. Vassilieva, T. Hoshida, X. Wang, J. Rasmussen, H. Miyata, and T. Naito, “Impact of polarization dependent loss and cross-phase modulation on polarization multiplexed DQPSK signals,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, San Diego, CA, 2008, OThU6.

Nakashima, H.

T. Tanimura, Y. Aoki, H. Nakashima, T. Hoshida, J. Li, Z. Tao, and J. C. Rasmussen, “FPGA-based 112 Gb/s coherent DP-QPSK receiver and multi-stage PMD-PDL emulator for fast evaluation of digital signal processing algorithms,” in Proc. ECOC, Torino, Italy, 2010, Tu.5.A.3.

Nelson, L. E.

M. Birk, P. Gerard, R. Curto, L. E. Nelson, X. Zhou, P. Magill, T. J. Schmidt, C. Malouin, B. Zhang, E. Ibragimov, S. Khatana, M. Glavanovic, R. Lofland, R. Marcoccia, R. Saunders, G. Nicholl, M. Nowell, and F. Forghieri, “Real-time single-carrier coherent 100 Gb/s PM-QPSK field trial,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 29, no. 4, pp. 417–425, Feb.2011.
[CrossRef]

L. E. Nelson, S. L. Woodward, S. Foo, X. Zhou, M. D. Feuer, D. Hanson, D. McGhan, H. Sun, M. Moyer, M. O. Sullivan, and P. D. Magill, “Performance of a 46-Gbps dual-polarization QPSK transceiver with real-time coherent equalization over high PMD fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 158–169, Feb.2009.
[CrossRef]

S. L. Woodward, L. E. Nelson, M. D. Feuer, X. Zhou, P. D. Magill, S. Foo, D. Hanson, D. McGhan, H. Sun, M. Moyer, and M. O’Sullivan, “Characterization of real-time PMD and chromatic dispersion monitoring in a high-PMD 46-Gbps transmission system,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 20, no. 24, pp. 2048–2050, Dec.2008, and references therein.
[CrossRef]

R. M. Jopson, L. E. Nelson, and H. Kogelnik, “Measurement of second-order polarization-mode dispersion vectors in optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 11, no. 9, pp. 1153–1155, Sept.1999.
[CrossRef]

L. E. Nelson and S. L. Woodward, “Capabilities of real-time digital coherent transceivers,” in Proc. ECOC, Torino, Italy, 2010, Mo.1.C.5.

L. E. Nelson, X. Zhou, S. L. Woodward, S. Foo, H. Sun, M. Moyer, and M. O’Sullivan, “Tolerance of 46-Gb/s dual-polarization quadrature-phase shift keyed signals to multiple-path interference,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, San Diego, CA, 2009, OTuN3.

L. E. Nelson, Y. Pan, M. Birk, R. Isaac, C. Rasmussen, M. Giveh chi, and B. Mikkelsen, “WDM performance and multiple-path interference tolerance of a real-time 120 Gbps Pol-Mux QPSK transceiver with soft decision FEC,” in Proc. NFOEC, Los Angeles, CA, 2012, NTh1I.5.

G. Zhang, L. E. Nelson, Y. Pan, M. Birk, C. Skolnick, C. Rasmussen, M. Givehchi, B. Mikkelsen, T. Scherer, T. Downs, and W. Keil, “3760 km, 100G SSMF transmission over commercial terrestrial DWDM ROADM systems using SD-FEC,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, Los Angeles, CA, 2012, PDP5D.4.

J. Bromage, L. E. Nelson, C. H. Kim, P. J. Winzer, R.-J. Essiambre, and R. M. Jopson, “Relative impact of multiple-path interference and amplified spontaneous emission noise on optical receiver performance,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, Anaheim, CA, 2002, TuR3.

S. L. Woodward, L. E. Nelson, C. R. Schneider, L. A. Knox, M. O’Sullivan, C. Laperle, M. Moyer, and S. H. Foo, “Field observations of optical parameters using integrated performance monitoring,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, Los Angeles, CA, 2012, JWA20.

L. E. Nelson, “Polarization effects in coherent systems,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, Los Angeles, CA, 2012, OTu1A.4.

Nicholl, G.

Nowell, M.

O’Sullivan, M.

K. Roberts, M. O’Sullivan, K.-T. Wu, H. Sun, A. Awadalla, D. J. Krause, and C. Laperle, “Performance of dual-polarization QPSK for optical transport systems,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 27, no. 16, pp. 3546–3559, Aug.2009.
[CrossRef]

S. L. Woodward, L. E. Nelson, M. D. Feuer, X. Zhou, P. D. Magill, S. Foo, D. Hanson, D. McGhan, H. Sun, M. Moyer, and M. O’Sullivan, “Characterization of real-time PMD and chromatic dispersion monitoring in a high-PMD 46-Gbps transmission system,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 20, no. 24, pp. 2048–2050, Dec.2008, and references therein.
[CrossRef]

S. L. Woodward, L. E. Nelson, C. R. Schneider, L. A. Knox, M. O’Sullivan, C. Laperle, M. Moyer, and S. H. Foo, “Field observations of optical parameters using integrated performance monitoring,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, Los Angeles, CA, 2012, JWA20.

L. E. Nelson, X. Zhou, S. L. Woodward, S. Foo, H. Sun, M. Moyer, and M. O’Sullivan, “Tolerance of 46-Gb/s dual-polarization quadrature-phase shift keyed signals to multiple-path interference,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, San Diego, CA, 2009, OTuN3.

Okamoto, T.

M. Arikawa, T. Okamoto, E. de Gabory, T. Ito, and K. Fukuchi, “WDM transmission of 127 Gb/s PM-QPSK signal over 3350 km SMF-only line with chromatic dispersion compensation using real-time DSP-LSI,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, Los Angeles, CA, 2012, NTh1I.4.

Onohara, K.

K. Onohara, T. Sugihara, Y. Konishi, Y. Miyata, T. Inoue, S. Kametani, K. Sugihara, K. Kubo, H. Yoshida, and T. Mizuochi, “Soft-decision-based forward error correction for 100 Gb/s transport systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum. Electron., vol. 16, no. 5, pp. 1258–1267, Sept./Oct.2010.
[CrossRef]

F. Chang, K. Onohara, and T. Mizuochi, “Forward error correction for 100G transport networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 48, no. 3, pp. S48–S55, 2010.
[CrossRef]

Y. Miyata, K. Sugihara, W. Matsumoto, K. Onohara, T. Sugihara, K. Kubo, H. Yoshida, and T. Mizuochi, “A triple-concatenated FEC using soft-decision decoding for 100  Gb/s optical transmission,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, San Diego, CA, 2010, OThL3.

Pan, Y.

L. E. Nelson, Y. Pan, M. Birk, R. Isaac, C. Rasmussen, M. Giveh chi, and B. Mikkelsen, “WDM performance and multiple-path interference tolerance of a real-time 120 Gbps Pol-Mux QPSK transceiver with soft decision FEC,” in Proc. NFOEC, Los Angeles, CA, 2012, NTh1I.5.

G. Zhang, L. E. Nelson, Y. Pan, M. Birk, C. Skolnick, C. Rasmussen, M. Givehchi, B. Mikkelsen, T. Scherer, T. Downs, and W. Keil, “3760 km, 100G SSMF transmission over commercial terrestrial DWDM ROADM systems using SD-FEC,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, Los Angeles, CA, 2012, PDP5D.4.

Pierre, L.

C. Martinelli, G. Charlet, L. Pierre, J. Antona, and D. Bayart, “System impairment of double-Rayleigh scattering and dependence on modulation format,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, Atlanta, Georgia, 2003, FE3.

Rasmussen, C.

G. Zhang, L. E. Nelson, Y. Pan, M. Birk, C. Skolnick, C. Rasmussen, M. Givehchi, B. Mikkelsen, T. Scherer, T. Downs, and W. Keil, “3760 km, 100G SSMF transmission over commercial terrestrial DWDM ROADM systems using SD-FEC,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, Los Angeles, CA, 2012, PDP5D.4.

L. E. Nelson, Y. Pan, M. Birk, R. Isaac, C. Rasmussen, M. Giveh chi, and B. Mikkelsen, “WDM performance and multiple-path interference tolerance of a real-time 120 Gbps Pol-Mux QPSK transceiver with soft decision FEC,” in Proc. NFOEC, Los Angeles, CA, 2012, NTh1I.5.

Rasmussen, J.

O. Vassilieva, T. Hoshida, X. Wang, J. Rasmussen, H. Miyata, and T. Naito, “Impact of polarization dependent loss and cross-phase modulation on polarization multiplexed DQPSK signals,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, San Diego, CA, 2008, OThU6.

Rasmussen, J. C.

T. Tanimura, Y. Aoki, H. Nakashima, T. Hoshida, J. Li, Z. Tao, and J. C. Rasmussen, “FPGA-based 112 Gb/s coherent DP-QPSK receiver and multi-stage PMD-PDL emulator for fast evaluation of digital signal processing algorithms,” in Proc. ECOC, Torino, Italy, 2010, Tu.5.A.3.

Rasztovits-Wiech, M.

M. Rasztovits-Wiech, M. Danner, and W. R. Leeb, “Optical signal-to-noise-ratio measurement in WDM networks using polarization extinction,” in Proc. ECOC, Sept. 1998, pp. 549–550.

Roberts, K.

Saunders, R.

Savory, S.

S. Savory, “Digital coherent optical receivers: algorithms and subsystems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol. 16, no. 5, pp. 1164–1179, Sept./Oct.2010.
[CrossRef]

Scherer, T.

G. Zhang, L. E. Nelson, Y. Pan, M. Birk, C. Skolnick, C. Rasmussen, M. Givehchi, B. Mikkelsen, T. Scherer, T. Downs, and W. Keil, “3760 km, 100G SSMF transmission over commercial terrestrial DWDM ROADM systems using SD-FEC,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, Los Angeles, CA, 2012, PDP5D.4.

Schmidt, E.-D.

C. R. S Fludger, T. Duthel, D. van den Borne, C. Schulien, E.-D. Schmidt, T. Wuth, J. Geyer, E. de Man, G. D. Khoe, and H. de Waardt, “Coherent equalization and POLMUX-RZ-DQPSK for robust 100-GE transmission,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 64–72, Jan.2008.
[CrossRef]

C. R. S. Fludger, T. Duthel, D. van den Borne, C. Schulien, E.-D. Schmidt, T. Wuth, E. de Man, G. D. Khoe, and H. de Waardt, “10 × 111 Gbit/s, 50 GHz spaced, POLMUX-RZ-DQPSK transmission over 2375 km employing coherent equalization,” in Proc. OFC, Anaheim, CA, 2007, PDP22.

Schmidt, T. J.

Schneider, C. R.

S. L. Woodward, L. E. Nelson, C. R. Schneider, L. A. Knox, M. O’Sullivan, C. Laperle, M. Moyer, and S. H. Foo, “Field observations of optical parameters using integrated performance monitoring,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, Los Angeles, CA, 2012, JWA20.

Schulien, C.

C. R. S Fludger, T. Duthel, D. van den Borne, C. Schulien, E.-D. Schmidt, T. Wuth, J. Geyer, E. de Man, G. D. Khoe, and H. de Waardt, “Coherent equalization and POLMUX-RZ-DQPSK for robust 100-GE transmission,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 64–72, Jan.2008.
[CrossRef]

C. R. S. Fludger, T. Duthel, D. van den Borne, C. Schulien, E.-D. Schmidt, T. Wuth, E. de Man, G. D. Khoe, and H. de Waardt, “10 × 111 Gbit/s, 50 GHz spaced, POLMUX-RZ-DQPSK transmission over 2375 km employing coherent equalization,” in Proc. OFC, Anaheim, CA, 2007, PDP22.

T. Duthel, C. R. S. Fludger, J. Geyer, and C. Schulien, “Impact of polarization dependent loss on coherent POLMUX-NRZ-DQPSK,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, San Diego, CA, 2008, OThU5.

Shtaif, M.

Skolnick, C.

G. Zhang, L. E. Nelson, Y. Pan, M. Birk, C. Skolnick, C. Rasmussen, M. Givehchi, B. Mikkelsen, T. Scherer, T. Downs, and W. Keil, “3760 km, 100G SSMF transmission over commercial terrestrial DWDM ROADM systems using SD-FEC,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, Los Angeles, CA, 2012, PDP5D.4.

Spinnler, B.

B. Spinnler, “Recent advances on polarization multiplexing,” in Proc. LEOS Summer Topical Meeting, Acapulco, Mexico, 2008, TuD2.3.

Sugihara, K.

K. Onohara, T. Sugihara, Y. Konishi, Y. Miyata, T. Inoue, S. Kametani, K. Sugihara, K. Kubo, H. Yoshida, and T. Mizuochi, “Soft-decision-based forward error correction for 100 Gb/s transport systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum. Electron., vol. 16, no. 5, pp. 1258–1267, Sept./Oct.2010.
[CrossRef]

Y. Miyata, K. Sugihara, W. Matsumoto, K. Onohara, T. Sugihara, K. Kubo, H. Yoshida, and T. Mizuochi, “A triple-concatenated FEC using soft-decision decoding for 100  Gb/s optical transmission,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, San Diego, CA, 2010, OThL3.

Sugihara, T.

K. Onohara, T. Sugihara, Y. Konishi, Y. Miyata, T. Inoue, S. Kametani, K. Sugihara, K. Kubo, H. Yoshida, and T. Mizuochi, “Soft-decision-based forward error correction for 100 Gb/s transport systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum. Electron., vol. 16, no. 5, pp. 1258–1267, Sept./Oct.2010.
[CrossRef]

Y. Miyata, K. Sugihara, W. Matsumoto, K. Onohara, T. Sugihara, K. Kubo, H. Yoshida, and T. Mizuochi, “A triple-concatenated FEC using soft-decision decoding for 100  Gb/s optical transmission,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, San Diego, CA, 2010, OThL3.

Sullivan, M. O.

Sun, H.

L. E. Nelson, S. L. Woodward, S. Foo, X. Zhou, M. D. Feuer, D. Hanson, D. McGhan, H. Sun, M. Moyer, M. O. Sullivan, and P. D. Magill, “Performance of a 46-Gbps dual-polarization QPSK transceiver with real-time coherent equalization over high PMD fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 158–169, Feb.2009.
[CrossRef]

K. Roberts, M. O’Sullivan, K.-T. Wu, H. Sun, A. Awadalla, D. J. Krause, and C. Laperle, “Performance of dual-polarization QPSK for optical transport systems,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 27, no. 16, pp. 3546–3559, Aug.2009.
[CrossRef]

H. Sun, K.-T. Wu, and K. Roberts, “Real-time measurements of a 40 Gb/s coherent system,” Opt. Express, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 873–879, Jan.21, 2008.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. L. Woodward, L. E. Nelson, M. D. Feuer, X. Zhou, P. D. Magill, S. Foo, D. Hanson, D. McGhan, H. Sun, M. Moyer, and M. O’Sullivan, “Characterization of real-time PMD and chromatic dispersion monitoring in a high-PMD 46-Gbps transmission system,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 20, no. 24, pp. 2048–2050, Dec.2008, and references therein.
[CrossRef]

L. E. Nelson, X. Zhou, S. L. Woodward, S. Foo, H. Sun, M. Moyer, and M. O’Sullivan, “Tolerance of 46-Gb/s dual-polarization quadrature-phase shift keyed signals to multiple-path interference,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, San Diego, CA, 2009, OTuN3.

Tanimura, T.

T. Tanimura, Y. Aoki, H. Nakashima, T. Hoshida, J. Li, Z. Tao, and J. C. Rasmussen, “FPGA-based 112 Gb/s coherent DP-QPSK receiver and multi-stage PMD-PDL emulator for fast evaluation of digital signal processing algorithms,” in Proc. ECOC, Torino, Italy, 2010, Tu.5.A.3.

Tao, Z.

T. Tanimura, Y. Aoki, H. Nakashima, T. Hoshida, J. Li, Z. Tao, and J. C. Rasmussen, “FPGA-based 112 Gb/s coherent DP-QPSK receiver and multi-stage PMD-PDL emulator for fast evaluation of digital signal processing algorithms,” in Proc. ECOC, Torino, Italy, 2010, Tu.5.A.3.

van den Borne, D.

C. R. S Fludger, T. Duthel, D. van den Borne, C. Schulien, E.-D. Schmidt, T. Wuth, J. Geyer, E. de Man, G. D. Khoe, and H. de Waardt, “Coherent equalization and POLMUX-RZ-DQPSK for robust 100-GE transmission,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 64–72, Jan.2008.
[CrossRef]

C. R. S. Fludger, T. Duthel, D. van den Borne, C. Schulien, E.-D. Schmidt, T. Wuth, E. de Man, G. D. Khoe, and H. de Waardt, “10 × 111 Gbit/s, 50 GHz spaced, POLMUX-RZ-DQPSK transmission over 2375 km employing coherent equalization,” in Proc. OFC, Anaheim, CA, 2007, PDP22.

Vassilieva, O.

O. Vassilieva, T. Hoshida, X. Wang, J. Rasmussen, H. Miyata, and T. Naito, “Impact of polarization dependent loss and cross-phase modulation on polarization multiplexed DQPSK signals,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, San Diego, CA, 2008, OThU6.

Wang, X.

O. Vassilieva, T. Hoshida, X. Wang, J. Rasmussen, H. Miyata, and T. Naito, “Impact of polarization dependent loss and cross-phase modulation on polarization multiplexed DQPSK signals,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, San Diego, CA, 2008, OThU6.

Winzer, P.

P. Winzer, “Beyond 100G Ethernet,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 48, no. 7, pp. 26–30, July2010.
[CrossRef]

Winzer, P. J.

J. Bromage, L. E. Nelson, C. H. Kim, P. J. Winzer, R.-J. Essiambre, and R. M. Jopson, “Relative impact of multiple-path interference and amplified spontaneous emission noise on optical receiver performance,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, Anaheim, CA, 2002, TuR3.

Woodward, S. L.

L. E. Nelson, S. L. Woodward, S. Foo, X. Zhou, M. D. Feuer, D. Hanson, D. McGhan, H. Sun, M. Moyer, M. O. Sullivan, and P. D. Magill, “Performance of a 46-Gbps dual-polarization QPSK transceiver with real-time coherent equalization over high PMD fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 158–169, Feb.2009.
[CrossRef]

S. L. Woodward, L. E. Nelson, M. D. Feuer, X. Zhou, P. D. Magill, S. Foo, D. Hanson, D. McGhan, H. Sun, M. Moyer, and M. O’Sullivan, “Characterization of real-time PMD and chromatic dispersion monitoring in a high-PMD 46-Gbps transmission system,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 20, no. 24, pp. 2048–2050, Dec.2008, and references therein.
[CrossRef]

L. E. Nelson and S. L. Woodward, “Capabilities of real-time digital coherent transceivers,” in Proc. ECOC, Torino, Italy, 2010, Mo.1.C.5.

L. E. Nelson, X. Zhou, S. L. Woodward, S. Foo, H. Sun, M. Moyer, and M. O’Sullivan, “Tolerance of 46-Gb/s dual-polarization quadrature-phase shift keyed signals to multiple-path interference,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, San Diego, CA, 2009, OTuN3.

S. L. Woodward, L. E. Nelson, C. R. Schneider, L. A. Knox, M. O’Sullivan, C. Laperle, M. Moyer, and S. H. Foo, “Field observations of optical parameters using integrated performance monitoring,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, Los Angeles, CA, 2012, JWA20.

Wu, K.-T.

Wuth, T.

C. R. S Fludger, T. Duthel, D. van den Borne, C. Schulien, E.-D. Schmidt, T. Wuth, J. Geyer, E. de Man, G. D. Khoe, and H. de Waardt, “Coherent equalization and POLMUX-RZ-DQPSK for robust 100-GE transmission,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 64–72, Jan.2008.
[CrossRef]

C. R. S. Fludger, T. Duthel, D. van den Borne, C. Schulien, E.-D. Schmidt, T. Wuth, E. de Man, G. D. Khoe, and H. de Waardt, “10 × 111 Gbit/s, 50 GHz spaced, POLMUX-RZ-DQPSK transmission over 2375 km employing coherent equalization,” in Proc. OFC, Anaheim, CA, 2007, PDP22.

Xie, C.

C. Xie, “Polarization-mode-dispersion impairments in 112- Gb/s PDM-QPSK coherent systems,” in Proc. ECOC, Torino, Italy, 2010, Th.10.E.6.

C. Xie, “Polarization-dependent loss induced penalties in PDM-QPSK coherent optical communication systems,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, San Diego, CA, 2010, OWE6.

Yoshida, H.

K. Onohara, T. Sugihara, Y. Konishi, Y. Miyata, T. Inoue, S. Kametani, K. Sugihara, K. Kubo, H. Yoshida, and T. Mizuochi, “Soft-decision-based forward error correction for 100 Gb/s transport systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum. Electron., vol. 16, no. 5, pp. 1258–1267, Sept./Oct.2010.
[CrossRef]

Y. Miyata, K. Sugihara, W. Matsumoto, K. Onohara, T. Sugihara, K. Kubo, H. Yoshida, and T. Mizuochi, “A triple-concatenated FEC using soft-decision decoding for 100  Gb/s optical transmission,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, San Diego, CA, 2010, OThL3.

M. Akita, H. Fujita, T. Mizuochi, K. Kubo, H. Yoshida, K. Kuno, and S. Kurahashi, “Third generation FEC employing Turbo Product Code for long-haul DWDM transmission systems,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, Anaheim, CA, 2002, WP2.

Zhang, B.

Zhang, G.

G. Zhang, L. E. Nelson, Y. Pan, M. Birk, C. Skolnick, C. Rasmussen, M. Givehchi, B. Mikkelsen, T. Scherer, T. Downs, and W. Keil, “3760 km, 100G SSMF transmission over commercial terrestrial DWDM ROADM systems using SD-FEC,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, Los Angeles, CA, 2012, PDP5D.4.

Zhou, X.

M. Birk, P. Gerard, R. Curto, L. E. Nelson, X. Zhou, P. Magill, T. J. Schmidt, C. Malouin, B. Zhang, E. Ibragimov, S. Khatana, M. Glavanovic, R. Lofland, R. Marcoccia, R. Saunders, G. Nicholl, M. Nowell, and F. Forghieri, “Real-time single-carrier coherent 100 Gb/s PM-QPSK field trial,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 29, no. 4, pp. 417–425, Feb.2011.
[CrossRef]

L. E. Nelson, S. L. Woodward, S. Foo, X. Zhou, M. D. Feuer, D. Hanson, D. McGhan, H. Sun, M. Moyer, M. O. Sullivan, and P. D. Magill, “Performance of a 46-Gbps dual-polarization QPSK transceiver with real-time coherent equalization over high PMD fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 158–169, Feb.2009.
[CrossRef]

S. L. Woodward, L. E. Nelson, M. D. Feuer, X. Zhou, P. D. Magill, S. Foo, D. Hanson, D. McGhan, H. Sun, M. Moyer, and M. O’Sullivan, “Characterization of real-time PMD and chromatic dispersion monitoring in a high-PMD 46-Gbps transmission system,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 20, no. 24, pp. 2048–2050, Dec.2008, and references therein.
[CrossRef]

L. E. Nelson, X. Zhou, S. L. Woodward, S. Foo, H. Sun, M. Moyer, and M. O’Sullivan, “Tolerance of 46-Gb/s dual-polarization quadrature-phase shift keyed signals to multiple-path interference,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, San Diego, CA, 2009, OTuN3.

Zhu, Y.

C. R. S. Fludger, Y. Zhu, V. Handerek, and R. J. Mears, “Impact of MPI and modulation format on transmission systems employing distributed Raman amplification,” Electron. Lett., vol. 37, no. 15, pp. 970–972, July19, 2001.
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

C. R. S. Fludger, Y. Zhu, V. Handerek, and R. J. Mears, “Impact of MPI and modulation format on transmission systems employing distributed Raman amplification,” Electron. Lett., vol. 37, no. 15, pp. 970–972, July19, 2001.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Commun. Mag. (2)

P. Winzer, “Beyond 100G Ethernet,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 48, no. 7, pp. 26–30, July2010.
[CrossRef]

F. Chang, K. Onohara, and T. Mizuochi, “Forward error correction for 100G transport networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 48, no. 3, pp. S48–S55, 2010.
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

S. Savory, “Digital coherent optical receivers: algorithms and subsystems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol. 16, no. 5, pp. 1164–1179, Sept./Oct.2010.
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum. Electron. (1)

K. Onohara, T. Sugihara, Y. Konishi, Y. Miyata, T. Inoue, S. Kametani, K. Sugihara, K. Kubo, H. Yoshida, and T. Mizuochi, “Soft-decision-based forward error correction for 100 Gb/s transport systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum. Electron., vol. 16, no. 5, pp. 1258–1267, Sept./Oct.2010.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

R. M. Jopson, L. E. Nelson, and H. Kogelnik, “Measurement of second-order polarization-mode dispersion vectors in optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 11, no. 9, pp. 1153–1155, Sept.1999.
[CrossRef]

B. Heffner, “Automated measurement of polarization mode dispersion using Jones matrix eigenanalysis,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 4, no. 9, pp. 1066–1069, Sept.1992.
[CrossRef]

S. L. Woodward, L. E. Nelson, M. D. Feuer, X. Zhou, P. D. Magill, S. Foo, D. Hanson, D. McGhan, H. Sun, M. Moyer, and M. O’Sullivan, “Characterization of real-time PMD and chromatic dispersion monitoring in a high-PMD 46-Gbps transmission system,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 20, no. 24, pp. 2048–2050, Dec.2008, and references therein.
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (4)

Opt. Express (2)

Other (22)

T. Tanimura, Y. Aoki, H. Nakashima, T. Hoshida, J. Li, Z. Tao, and J. C. Rasmussen, “FPGA-based 112 Gb/s coherent DP-QPSK receiver and multi-stage PMD-PDL emulator for fast evaluation of digital signal processing algorithms,” in Proc. ECOC, Torino, Italy, 2010, Tu.5.A.3.

L. E. Nelson, “Polarization effects in coherent systems,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, Los Angeles, CA, 2012, OTu1A.4.

R. M. Craig, “Visualizing the limitations of four-state measurement of PDL and results of a six-state alternative,” in Symp. on Optical Fiber Measurements (SOFM 2002), Boulder, CO, Sept. 24–26, 2002, pp. 121–124.

S. L. Woodward, L. E. Nelson, C. R. Schneider, L. A. Knox, M. O’Sullivan, C. Laperle, M. Moyer, and S. H. Foo, “Field observations of optical parameters using integrated performance monitoring,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, Los Angeles, CA, 2012, JWA20.

T. Duthel, C. R. S. Fludger, J. Geyer, and C. Schulien, “Impact of polarization dependent loss on coherent POLMUX-NRZ-DQPSK,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, San Diego, CA, 2008, OThU5.

O. Vassilieva, T. Hoshida, X. Wang, J. Rasmussen, H. Miyata, and T. Naito, “Impact of polarization dependent loss and cross-phase modulation on polarization multiplexed DQPSK signals,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, San Diego, CA, 2008, OThU6.

C. Xie, “Polarization-dependent loss induced penalties in PDM-QPSK coherent optical communication systems,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, San Diego, CA, 2010, OWE6.

M. Rasztovits-Wiech, M. Danner, and W. R. Leeb, “Optical signal-to-noise-ratio measurement in WDM networks using polarization extinction,” in Proc. ECOC, Sept. 1998, pp. 549–550.

M. Arikawa, T. Okamoto, E. de Gabory, T. Ito, and K. Fukuchi, “WDM transmission of 127 Gb/s PM-QPSK signal over 3350 km SMF-only line with chromatic dispersion compensation using real-time DSP-LSI,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, Los Angeles, CA, 2012, NTh1I.4.

C. Xie, “Polarization-mode-dispersion impairments in 112- Gb/s PDM-QPSK coherent systems,” in Proc. ECOC, Torino, Italy, 2010, Th.10.E.6.

L. E. Nelson and S. L. Woodward, “Capabilities of real-time digital coherent transceivers,” in Proc. ECOC, Torino, Italy, 2010, Mo.1.C.5.

L. E. Nelson, X. Zhou, S. L. Woodward, S. Foo, H. Sun, M. Moyer, and M. O’Sullivan, “Tolerance of 46-Gb/s dual-polarization quadrature-phase shift keyed signals to multiple-path interference,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, San Diego, CA, 2009, OTuN3.

A. Klekamp and H. Bülow, “Experimental comparison of PMD tolerances of binary 43 Gb/s modulation formats without and with PMD compensation,” in Proc. ECOC, Cannes, France, 2006, Tu4.2.4.

C. R. S. Fludger, T. Duthel, D. van den Borne, C. Schulien, E.-D. Schmidt, T. Wuth, E. de Man, G. D. Khoe, and H. de Waardt, “10 × 111 Gbit/s, 50 GHz spaced, POLMUX-RZ-DQPSK transmission over 2375 km employing coherent equalization,” in Proc. OFC, Anaheim, CA, 2007, PDP22.

J. Bromage, L. E. Nelson, C. H. Kim, P. J. Winzer, R.-J. Essiambre, and R. M. Jopson, “Relative impact of multiple-path interference and amplified spontaneous emission noise on optical receiver performance,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, Anaheim, CA, 2002, TuR3.

C. Martinelli, G. Charlet, L. Pierre, J. Antona, and D. Bayart, “System impairment of double-Rayleigh scattering and dependence on modulation format,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, Atlanta, Georgia, 2003, FE3.

L. E. Nelson, Y. Pan, M. Birk, R. Isaac, C. Rasmussen, M. Giveh chi, and B. Mikkelsen, “WDM performance and multiple-path interference tolerance of a real-time 120 Gbps Pol-Mux QPSK transceiver with soft decision FEC,” in Proc. NFOEC, Los Angeles, CA, 2012, NTh1I.5.

G. Zhang, L. E. Nelson, Y. Pan, M. Birk, C. Skolnick, C. Rasmussen, M. Givehchi, B. Mikkelsen, T. Scherer, T. Downs, and W. Keil, “3760 km, 100G SSMF transmission over commercial terrestrial DWDM ROADM systems using SD-FEC,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, Los Angeles, CA, 2012, PDP5D.4.

B. Spinnler, “Recent advances on polarization multiplexing,” in Proc. LEOS Summer Topical Meeting, Acapulco, Mexico, 2008, TuD2.3.

O. Ait Sab, “FEC techniques in submarine transmission systems,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, Anaheim, CA, 2001, TuF1.

M. Akita, H. Fujita, T. Mizuochi, K. Kubo, H. Yoshida, K. Kuno, and S. Kurahashi, “Third generation FEC employing Turbo Product Code for long-haul DWDM transmission systems,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, Anaheim, CA, 2002, WP2.

Y. Miyata, K. Sugihara, W. Matsumoto, K. Onohara, T. Sugihara, K. Kubo, H. Yoshida, and T. Mizuochi, “A triple-concatenated FEC using soft-decision decoding for 100  Gb/s optical transmission,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, San Diego, CA, 2010, OThL3.

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Figures (16)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(Color online) (a) Block diagram of the 100G MSA transceiver. (b) Block diagram of digital signal processing in the receiver.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(Color online) Block diagram of the 100 Gb/s WDM test setup over the uncompensated 1000 km link. The tunable laser, N7788B polarization controller (PC) and polarimeter were added for the experiments of Section V. Inset: the 40-channel spectrum at the booster output.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(Color online) Measurements of pre-FEC BER versus OSNR for the 100 Gb/s MSA transceiver as channel 20 of the 40 × 100 Gb/s 1000 km system, with + 3 to + 6  dBm/ch launch powers into the spans.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(Color online) Comparison of the measured pre-FEC BER versus OSNR curves from Fig. 3 with the curves measured when the three channels on both sides of channel 20 were turned off.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(Color online) Post-FEC errors versus pre-FEC BER recorded before and after 1000 km transmission with different launch powers.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(Color online) (a) Transmission system A and (b) transmission system B. Optical spectra (measured in 0.5 nm RBW) (c) after system A and (d) at the input to system B.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(Color online) (a) Pre-FEC BER versus 100G launch power after 1920 km. (b) Pre-FEC BER versus 40G launch power after 1920 km.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(Color online) Schematic diagram of the setup for MPI tolerance tests. OPM: optical power meter.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(Color online) OSNR penalty as function of MPI at 1 . 9 × 1 0 2 and 3 . 8 × 1 0 3 pre-FEC BER. Inset: post-FEC error count versus pre-FEC BER recorded for different MPI levels.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

(Color online) Soak test of MPI tolerance: line-side pre-FEC BER over 24 hours with MPI of −10 dBc and ASE noise loading. No errors were recorded on the client side.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

(Color online) Measured required OSNR for 1 . 9 × 1 0 2 pre-FEC BER versus measured DGD of the 10 × 100 km transmission line with high PMD. Inset: histogram of differences between the monitor DGD (i.e., DGD value reported by the 100G MSA transceiver) and the measured DGD.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

(Color online) Measured additional OSNR penalty (defined in the text) versus PDL for the 10 × 100 km systems with PMD and PDL elements (red squares) and with PMD elements only (green diamonds). The black curve shows a separate measurement with first-order PDL only, where the OSNR penalty is the difference in required OSNR to have no uncorrectable FEC blocks with and without PDL.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

(Color online) Measured additional OSNR penalties (defined in the text) versus DGD for the 10 × 100 km systems with PMD and PDL elements (various markers, sorted by the PDL) and with PMD elements only (green diamonds).

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

(Color online) Measured pre-FEC BER versus OSNR, with and without polarization launch scrambling or switching, after transmission over 10 × 100 km without (first set of four curves with markers) and with the inter-stage PMD and PDL elements (second set of four curves with markers).

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

(Color online) Measured pre-FEC BER versus OSNR after transmission over system A (24 × 80 km) and the cascade of systems A and B (47 × 80 km).

Fig. 16
Fig. 16

(Color online) Measured line-side pre-FEC BER after 47 × 80 km transmission without (red curve) and with additional noise loading at the receiver (green curve). Zero errors were recorded on the 100G client-side test set during the soak tests.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table I Elements at EDFA Mid-Stages for the Experiments Discussed in Section V