Abstract

We report three 850 nm, vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL)-based optical links using 90 nm complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) circuits that achieve new records in speed and power efficiency. Two receiver (RX) circuit designs explore the tradeoffs between speed, power, and silicon area. The two RXs are first tested with a simple transmitter (TX), delivering full-link power efficiencies of 1.37 pJ/bit at 15 Gb/s and 3.6 pJ/bit at 25 Gb/s. An improved TX using feed-forward equalization (FFE) and an advanced VCSEL is then introduced. The link using the FFE TX achieves full-link power efficiencies of 1.5, 2.0, and 3.8 pJ/bit at 22.5, 25, and 28.5 Gb/s, respectively.

© 2012 OSA

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  1. A. Benner, D. Kuchta, P. Pepeljugoski, R. Budd, G. Hougham, B. Fasano, K. Marston, H. Bagheri, E. Seminaro, H. Xu, D. Meadowcroft, M. Fields, L. McColloch, M. Robinson, F. Miller, R. Kaneshiro, R. Granger, D. Childers, and E. Childers, “Optics for high-performance servers and supercomputers,” in Proc. Optical Fiber Commun. Conf., 2010, OTuH1.
  2. J. Kash, A. Benner, F. Doany, D. Kuchta, B. Lee, P. Pepeljugoski, L. Schares, C. Schow, and M. Taubenblatt, “Optical interconnects in future servers,” in Proc. Optical Fiber Commun. Conf., 2011, OWQ1.
  3. I. Young, E. Mohammed, J. Liao, A. Kern, S. Palermo, B. Block, M. Reshotko, and P. Chang, “Optical I/O technology for tera-scale computing,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 45, no. 1, pp. 235–248, Jan.2010.
    [CrossRef]
  4. C. Kromer, G. Sialm, C. Berger, T. Morf, M. Schmatz, F. Ellinger, D. Erni, G.-L. Bona, and H. Jackel, “A 100-mW 4×10Gb/s transceiver in 80-nm CMOS for high-density optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 40, no. 12, pp. 2667–2679, Dec.2005.
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  7. Y. Lee, D. Kawamura, T. Takai, K. Kogo, K. Adachi, T. Sugawara, N. Chujo, Y. Matsuoka, S. Hamamura, K. Yamazaki, Y. Ishigami, T. Takemoto, F. Yuki, H. Yamashita, and S. Tsuji, “25-Gb/s 100-m MMF transmission using a prototype 1.3-µm-range CMOS-based transceiver for optical interconnections,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 24, no. 6, pp. 467–469, Mar.15, 2012.
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  16. E. M. Cherry and D. E. Hooper, “The design of wide-band transistor feedback amplifiers,” Proc. IEE, vol. 110, no. 2, pp. 375–389, Feb.1963.
  17. N. Li, C. Schow, D. Kuchta, F. Doany, B. Lee, W. Luo, C. Xie, X. Sun, K. Jackson, and C. Lei, “High-performance 850 nm VCSEL and photodetector arrays for 25 Gb/s parallel optical interconnects,” in Proc. Optical Fiber Commun. Conf., 2010, OTuP2.
  18. T. Dickson, K. Yau, T. Chalvatzis, A. Mangan, E. Laskin, R. Beerkens, P. Westergaard, M. Tazlauanu, M.-T. Yang, and S. Voinigescu, “The invariance of characteristic current densities in nanoscale MOSFETs and its impact on algorithmic design methodologies and design porting of Si(Ge) (Bi)CMOS high-speed building blocks,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 41, no. 8, pp. 1830–1845, Aug.2006.
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  20. F. Liu, D. Patil, J. Lexau, P. Amberg, M. Dayringer, J. Gainsley, H. Moghadam, X. Zheng, J. Cunningham, A. Krishnamoorthy, E. Alon, and R. Ho, “10 Gbps, 530 fJ/b optical transceiver circuits in 40 nm CMOS,” in Symp. VLSI Circuits Dig. Tech. Papers, 2011, pp. 290–291.

2012

C. Schow, A. Rylyakov, C. Baks, F. Doany, and J. Kash, “25-Gb/s 6.5-pJ/bit 90-nm CMOS-driven multimode optical link,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 24, no. 10, pp. 824–826, May15, 2012.
[CrossRef]

A. Rylyakov, C. Schow, B. Lee, F. Doany, C. Baks, and J. Kash, “Transmitter predistortion for simultaneous improvements in bit rate, sensitivity, jitter, and power efficiency in 20 Gb/s CMOS-driven VCSEL links,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 399–405, Feb.15, 2012.
[CrossRef]

Y. Lee, D. Kawamura, T. Takai, K. Kogo, K. Adachi, T. Sugawara, N. Chujo, Y. Matsuoka, S. Hamamura, K. Yamazaki, Y. Ishigami, T. Takemoto, F. Yuki, H. Yamashita, and S. Tsuji, “25-Gb/s 100-m MMF transmission using a prototype 1.3-µm-range CMOS-based transceiver for optical interconnections,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 24, no. 6, pp. 467–469, Mar.15, 2012.
[CrossRef]

J. Buckwalter, X. Zheng, G. Li, K. Raj, and A. Krishnamoorthy, “A monolithic 25-Gb/s transceiver with photonic ring modulators and Ge detectors in a 130-nm CMOS SOI process,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 47, no. 6, pp. 1309–1322, June2012.
[CrossRef]

N. Li, C. Xie, W. Luo, C. Helms, L. Wang, C. Liu, Q. Sun, S. Huang, C. Lei, K. Jackson, and R. Carson, “Emcore’s 1 Gb/s to 25 Gb/s VCSELs,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 8276, pp. 827603-1–827603-10, 2012.

2010

I. Young, E. Mohammed, J. Liao, A. Kern, S. Palermo, B. Block, M. Reshotko, and P. Chang, “Optical I/O technology for tera-scale computing,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 45, no. 1, pp. 235–248, Jan.2010.
[CrossRef]

2006

T. Dickson, K. Yau, T. Chalvatzis, A. Mangan, E. Laskin, R. Beerkens, P. Westergaard, M. Tazlauanu, M.-T. Yang, and S. Voinigescu, “The invariance of characteristic current densities in nanoscale MOSFETs and its impact on algorithmic design methodologies and design porting of Si(Ge) (Bi)CMOS high-speed building blocks,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 41, no. 8, pp. 1830–1845, Aug.2006.
[CrossRef]

2005

C. Kromer, G. Sialm, C. Berger, T. Morf, M. Schmatz, F. Ellinger, D. Erni, G.-L. Bona, and H. Jackel, “A 100-mW 4×10Gb/s transceiver in 80-nm CMOS for high-density optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 40, no. 12, pp. 2667–2679, Dec.2005.
[CrossRef]

1963

E. M. Cherry and D. E. Hooper, “The design of wide-band transistor feedback amplifiers,” Proc. IEE, vol. 110, no. 2, pp. 375–389, Feb.1963.

Achouche, M.

X. Yin, J. Put, J. Verbrugghe, J. Gillis, X.-Z. Qiu, J. Bauwelinck, J. Vandewege, H.-G. Krimmel, and M. Achouche, “A 10 Gb/s burst-mode TIA with on-chip reset/lock CM signaling detection and limiting amplifier with a 75 ns settling time,” in IEEE Int. Solid-State Circuits Conf. Dig. Tech. Papers, 2012, pp. 416–417.

Adachi, K.

Y. Lee, D. Kawamura, T. Takai, K. Kogo, K. Adachi, T. Sugawara, N. Chujo, Y. Matsuoka, S. Hamamura, K. Yamazaki, Y. Ishigami, T. Takemoto, F. Yuki, H. Yamashita, and S. Tsuji, “25-Gb/s 100-m MMF transmission using a prototype 1.3-µm-range CMOS-based transceiver for optical interconnections,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 24, no. 6, pp. 467–469, Mar.15, 2012.
[CrossRef]

Alon, E.

F. Liu, D. Patil, J. Lexau, P. Amberg, M. Dayringer, J. Gainsley, H. Moghadam, X. Zheng, J. Cunningham, A. Krishnamoorthy, E. Alon, and R. Ho, “10 Gbps, 530 fJ/b optical transceiver circuits in 40 nm CMOS,” in Symp. VLSI Circuits Dig. Tech. Papers, 2011, pp. 290–291.

Amberg, P.

F. Liu, D. Patil, J. Lexau, P. Amberg, M. Dayringer, J. Gainsley, H. Moghadam, X. Zheng, J. Cunningham, A. Krishnamoorthy, E. Alon, and R. Ho, “10 Gbps, 530 fJ/b optical transceiver circuits in 40 nm CMOS,” in Symp. VLSI Circuits Dig. Tech. Papers, 2011, pp. 290–291.

Bagheri, H.

A. Benner, D. Kuchta, P. Pepeljugoski, R. Budd, G. Hougham, B. Fasano, K. Marston, H. Bagheri, E. Seminaro, H. Xu, D. Meadowcroft, M. Fields, L. McColloch, M. Robinson, F. Miller, R. Kaneshiro, R. Granger, D. Childers, and E. Childers, “Optics for high-performance servers and supercomputers,” in Proc. Optical Fiber Commun. Conf., 2010, OTuH1.

Baks, C.

C. Schow, A. Rylyakov, C. Baks, F. Doany, and J. Kash, “25-Gb/s 6.5-pJ/bit 90-nm CMOS-driven multimode optical link,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 24, no. 10, pp. 824–826, May15, 2012.
[CrossRef]

A. Rylyakov, C. Schow, B. Lee, F. Doany, C. Baks, and J. Kash, “Transmitter predistortion for simultaneous improvements in bit rate, sensitivity, jitter, and power efficiency in 20 Gb/s CMOS-driven VCSEL links,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 399–405, Feb.15, 2012.
[CrossRef]

A. Rylyakov, C. Schow, J. Proesel, D. Kuchta, C. Baks, N. Li, C. Xie, and K. Jackson, “A 40-Gb/s, 850-nm, VCSEL-based full optical link,” in Proc. Optical Fiber Commun. Conf., 2012, OTh1E.1.

Bauwelinck, J.

X. Yin, J. Put, J. Verbrugghe, J. Gillis, X.-Z. Qiu, J. Bauwelinck, J. Vandewege, H.-G. Krimmel, and M. Achouche, “A 10 Gb/s burst-mode TIA with on-chip reset/lock CM signaling detection and limiting amplifier with a 75 ns settling time,” in IEEE Int. Solid-State Circuits Conf. Dig. Tech. Papers, 2012, pp. 416–417.

Beerkens, R.

T. Dickson, K. Yau, T. Chalvatzis, A. Mangan, E. Laskin, R. Beerkens, P. Westergaard, M. Tazlauanu, M.-T. Yang, and S. Voinigescu, “The invariance of characteristic current densities in nanoscale MOSFETs and its impact on algorithmic design methodologies and design porting of Si(Ge) (Bi)CMOS high-speed building blocks,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 41, no. 8, pp. 1830–1845, Aug.2006.
[CrossRef]

Benner, A.

A. Benner, D. Kuchta, P. Pepeljugoski, R. Budd, G. Hougham, B. Fasano, K. Marston, H. Bagheri, E. Seminaro, H. Xu, D. Meadowcroft, M. Fields, L. McColloch, M. Robinson, F. Miller, R. Kaneshiro, R. Granger, D. Childers, and E. Childers, “Optics for high-performance servers and supercomputers,” in Proc. Optical Fiber Commun. Conf., 2010, OTuH1.

J. Kash, A. Benner, F. Doany, D. Kuchta, B. Lee, P. Pepeljugoski, L. Schares, C. Schow, and M. Taubenblatt, “Optical interconnects in future servers,” in Proc. Optical Fiber Commun. Conf., 2011, OWQ1.

Berger, C.

C. Kromer, G. Sialm, C. Berger, T. Morf, M. Schmatz, F. Ellinger, D. Erni, G.-L. Bona, and H. Jackel, “A 100-mW 4×10Gb/s transceiver in 80-nm CMOS for high-density optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 40, no. 12, pp. 2667–2679, Dec.2005.
[CrossRef]

Block, B.

I. Young, E. Mohammed, J. Liao, A. Kern, S. Palermo, B. Block, M. Reshotko, and P. Chang, “Optical I/O technology for tera-scale computing,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 45, no. 1, pp. 235–248, Jan.2010.
[CrossRef]

Bona, G.-L.

C. Kromer, G. Sialm, C. Berger, T. Morf, M. Schmatz, F. Ellinger, D. Erni, G.-L. Bona, and H. Jackel, “A 100-mW 4×10Gb/s transceiver in 80-nm CMOS for high-density optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 40, no. 12, pp. 2667–2679, Dec.2005.
[CrossRef]

Buckwalter, J.

J. Buckwalter, X. Zheng, G. Li, K. Raj, and A. Krishnamoorthy, “A monolithic 25-Gb/s transceiver with photonic ring modulators and Ge detectors in a 130-nm CMOS SOI process,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 47, no. 6, pp. 1309–1322, June2012.
[CrossRef]

Budd, R.

A. Benner, D. Kuchta, P. Pepeljugoski, R. Budd, G. Hougham, B. Fasano, K. Marston, H. Bagheri, E. Seminaro, H. Xu, D. Meadowcroft, M. Fields, L. McColloch, M. Robinson, F. Miller, R. Kaneshiro, R. Granger, D. Childers, and E. Childers, “Optics for high-performance servers and supercomputers,” in Proc. Optical Fiber Commun. Conf., 2010, OTuH1.

Carson, R.

N. Li, C. Xie, W. Luo, C. Helms, L. Wang, C. Liu, Q. Sun, S. Huang, C. Lei, K. Jackson, and R. Carson, “Emcore’s 1 Gb/s to 25 Gb/s VCSELs,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 8276, pp. 827603-1–827603-10, 2012.

Chalvatzis, T.

T. Dickson, K. Yau, T. Chalvatzis, A. Mangan, E. Laskin, R. Beerkens, P. Westergaard, M. Tazlauanu, M.-T. Yang, and S. Voinigescu, “The invariance of characteristic current densities in nanoscale MOSFETs and its impact on algorithmic design methodologies and design porting of Si(Ge) (Bi)CMOS high-speed building blocks,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 41, no. 8, pp. 1830–1845, Aug.2006.
[CrossRef]

Chang, P.

I. Young, E. Mohammed, J. Liao, A. Kern, S. Palermo, B. Block, M. Reshotko, and P. Chang, “Optical I/O technology for tera-scale computing,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 45, no. 1, pp. 235–248, Jan.2010.
[CrossRef]

Cherry, E. M.

E. M. Cherry and D. E. Hooper, “The design of wide-band transistor feedback amplifiers,” Proc. IEE, vol. 110, no. 2, pp. 375–389, Feb.1963.

Childers, D.

A. Benner, D. Kuchta, P. Pepeljugoski, R. Budd, G. Hougham, B. Fasano, K. Marston, H. Bagheri, E. Seminaro, H. Xu, D. Meadowcroft, M. Fields, L. McColloch, M. Robinson, F. Miller, R. Kaneshiro, R. Granger, D. Childers, and E. Childers, “Optics for high-performance servers and supercomputers,” in Proc. Optical Fiber Commun. Conf., 2010, OTuH1.

Childers, E.

A. Benner, D. Kuchta, P. Pepeljugoski, R. Budd, G. Hougham, B. Fasano, K. Marston, H. Bagheri, E. Seminaro, H. Xu, D. Meadowcroft, M. Fields, L. McColloch, M. Robinson, F. Miller, R. Kaneshiro, R. Granger, D. Childers, and E. Childers, “Optics for high-performance servers and supercomputers,” in Proc. Optical Fiber Commun. Conf., 2010, OTuH1.

Chujo, N.

Y. Lee, D. Kawamura, T. Takai, K. Kogo, K. Adachi, T. Sugawara, N. Chujo, Y. Matsuoka, S. Hamamura, K. Yamazaki, Y. Ishigami, T. Takemoto, F. Yuki, H. Yamashita, and S. Tsuji, “25-Gb/s 100-m MMF transmission using a prototype 1.3-µm-range CMOS-based transceiver for optical interconnections,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 24, no. 6, pp. 467–469, Mar.15, 2012.
[CrossRef]

Cunningham, J.

X. Zheng, Y. Luo, J. Lexau, F. Liu, G. Li, H. Thacker, I. Shubin, J. Yao, R. Ho, J. Cunningham, and A. Krishnamoorthy, “A complete 10 Gbps chip-to-chip digital CMOS silicon photonic link,” in CLEO Tech. Dig., 2012, CTh5D.6.

F. Liu, D. Patil, J. Lexau, P. Amberg, M. Dayringer, J. Gainsley, H. Moghadam, X. Zheng, J. Cunningham, A. Krishnamoorthy, E. Alon, and R. Ho, “10 Gbps, 530 fJ/b optical transceiver circuits in 40 nm CMOS,” in Symp. VLSI Circuits Dig. Tech. Papers, 2011, pp. 290–291.

Dayringer, M.

F. Liu, D. Patil, J. Lexau, P. Amberg, M. Dayringer, J. Gainsley, H. Moghadam, X. Zheng, J. Cunningham, A. Krishnamoorthy, E. Alon, and R. Ho, “10 Gbps, 530 fJ/b optical transceiver circuits in 40 nm CMOS,” in Symp. VLSI Circuits Dig. Tech. Papers, 2011, pp. 290–291.

Dickson, T.

T. Dickson, K. Yau, T. Chalvatzis, A. Mangan, E. Laskin, R. Beerkens, P. Westergaard, M. Tazlauanu, M.-T. Yang, and S. Voinigescu, “The invariance of characteristic current densities in nanoscale MOSFETs and its impact on algorithmic design methodologies and design porting of Si(Ge) (Bi)CMOS high-speed building blocks,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 41, no. 8, pp. 1830–1845, Aug.2006.
[CrossRef]

Doany, F.

A. Rylyakov, C. Schow, B. Lee, F. Doany, C. Baks, and J. Kash, “Transmitter predistortion for simultaneous improvements in bit rate, sensitivity, jitter, and power efficiency in 20 Gb/s CMOS-driven VCSEL links,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 399–405, Feb.15, 2012.
[CrossRef]

C. Schow, A. Rylyakov, C. Baks, F. Doany, and J. Kash, “25-Gb/s 6.5-pJ/bit 90-nm CMOS-driven multimode optical link,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 24, no. 10, pp. 824–826, May15, 2012.
[CrossRef]

J. Kash, A. Benner, F. Doany, D. Kuchta, B. Lee, P. Pepeljugoski, L. Schares, C. Schow, and M. Taubenblatt, “Optical interconnects in future servers,” in Proc. Optical Fiber Commun. Conf., 2011, OWQ1.

N. Li, C. Schow, D. Kuchta, F. Doany, B. Lee, W. Luo, C. Xie, X. Sun, K. Jackson, and C. Lei, “High-performance 850 nm VCSEL and photodetector arrays for 25 Gb/s parallel optical interconnects,” in Proc. Optical Fiber Commun. Conf., 2010, OTuP2.

Ellinger, F.

C. Kromer, G. Sialm, C. Berger, T. Morf, M. Schmatz, F. Ellinger, D. Erni, G.-L. Bona, and H. Jackel, “A 100-mW 4×10Gb/s transceiver in 80-nm CMOS for high-density optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 40, no. 12, pp. 2667–2679, Dec.2005.
[CrossRef]

Erni, D.

C. Kromer, G. Sialm, C. Berger, T. Morf, M. Schmatz, F. Ellinger, D. Erni, G.-L. Bona, and H. Jackel, “A 100-mW 4×10Gb/s transceiver in 80-nm CMOS for high-density optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 40, no. 12, pp. 2667–2679, Dec.2005.
[CrossRef]

Fasano, B.

A. Benner, D. Kuchta, P. Pepeljugoski, R. Budd, G. Hougham, B. Fasano, K. Marston, H. Bagheri, E. Seminaro, H. Xu, D. Meadowcroft, M. Fields, L. McColloch, M. Robinson, F. Miller, R. Kaneshiro, R. Granger, D. Childers, and E. Childers, “Optics for high-performance servers and supercomputers,” in Proc. Optical Fiber Commun. Conf., 2010, OTuH1.

Fields, M.

A. Benner, D. Kuchta, P. Pepeljugoski, R. Budd, G. Hougham, B. Fasano, K. Marston, H. Bagheri, E. Seminaro, H. Xu, D. Meadowcroft, M. Fields, L. McColloch, M. Robinson, F. Miller, R. Kaneshiro, R. Granger, D. Childers, and E. Childers, “Optics for high-performance servers and supercomputers,” in Proc. Optical Fiber Commun. Conf., 2010, OTuH1.

Gainsley, J.

F. Liu, D. Patil, J. Lexau, P. Amberg, M. Dayringer, J. Gainsley, H. Moghadam, X. Zheng, J. Cunningham, A. Krishnamoorthy, E. Alon, and R. Ho, “10 Gbps, 530 fJ/b optical transceiver circuits in 40 nm CMOS,” in Symp. VLSI Circuits Dig. Tech. Papers, 2011, pp. 290–291.

Gillis, J.

X. Yin, J. Put, J. Verbrugghe, J. Gillis, X.-Z. Qiu, J. Bauwelinck, J. Vandewege, H.-G. Krimmel, and M. Achouche, “A 10 Gb/s burst-mode TIA with on-chip reset/lock CM signaling detection and limiting amplifier with a 75 ns settling time,” in IEEE Int. Solid-State Circuits Conf. Dig. Tech. Papers, 2012, pp. 416–417.

Granger, R.

A. Benner, D. Kuchta, P. Pepeljugoski, R. Budd, G. Hougham, B. Fasano, K. Marston, H. Bagheri, E. Seminaro, H. Xu, D. Meadowcroft, M. Fields, L. McColloch, M. Robinson, F. Miller, R. Kaneshiro, R. Granger, D. Childers, and E. Childers, “Optics for high-performance servers and supercomputers,” in Proc. Optical Fiber Commun. Conf., 2010, OTuH1.

Hamamura, S.

Y. Lee, D. Kawamura, T. Takai, K. Kogo, K. Adachi, T. Sugawara, N. Chujo, Y. Matsuoka, S. Hamamura, K. Yamazaki, Y. Ishigami, T. Takemoto, F. Yuki, H. Yamashita, and S. Tsuji, “25-Gb/s 100-m MMF transmission using a prototype 1.3-µm-range CMOS-based transceiver for optical interconnections,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 24, no. 6, pp. 467–469, Mar.15, 2012.
[CrossRef]

Helms, C.

N. Li, C. Xie, W. Luo, C. Helms, L. Wang, C. Liu, Q. Sun, S. Huang, C. Lei, K. Jackson, and R. Carson, “Emcore’s 1 Gb/s to 25 Gb/s VCSELs,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 8276, pp. 827603-1–827603-10, 2012.

Ho, R.

X. Zheng, Y. Luo, J. Lexau, F. Liu, G. Li, H. Thacker, I. Shubin, J. Yao, R. Ho, J. Cunningham, and A. Krishnamoorthy, “A complete 10 Gbps chip-to-chip digital CMOS silicon photonic link,” in CLEO Tech. Dig., 2012, CTh5D.6.

F. Liu, D. Patil, J. Lexau, P. Amberg, M. Dayringer, J. Gainsley, H. Moghadam, X. Zheng, J. Cunningham, A. Krishnamoorthy, E. Alon, and R. Ho, “10 Gbps, 530 fJ/b optical transceiver circuits in 40 nm CMOS,” in Symp. VLSI Circuits Dig. Tech. Papers, 2011, pp. 290–291.

Hooper, D. E.

E. M. Cherry and D. E. Hooper, “The design of wide-band transistor feedback amplifiers,” Proc. IEE, vol. 110, no. 2, pp. 375–389, Feb.1963.

Hougham, G.

A. Benner, D. Kuchta, P. Pepeljugoski, R. Budd, G. Hougham, B. Fasano, K. Marston, H. Bagheri, E. Seminaro, H. Xu, D. Meadowcroft, M. Fields, L. McColloch, M. Robinson, F. Miller, R. Kaneshiro, R. Granger, D. Childers, and E. Childers, “Optics for high-performance servers and supercomputers,” in Proc. Optical Fiber Commun. Conf., 2010, OTuH1.

Huang, S.

N. Li, C. Xie, W. Luo, C. Helms, L. Wang, C. Liu, Q. Sun, S. Huang, C. Lei, K. Jackson, and R. Carson, “Emcore’s 1 Gb/s to 25 Gb/s VCSELs,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 8276, pp. 827603-1–827603-10, 2012.

Ishigami, Y.

Y. Lee, D. Kawamura, T. Takai, K. Kogo, K. Adachi, T. Sugawara, N. Chujo, Y. Matsuoka, S. Hamamura, K. Yamazaki, Y. Ishigami, T. Takemoto, F. Yuki, H. Yamashita, and S. Tsuji, “25-Gb/s 100-m MMF transmission using a prototype 1.3-µm-range CMOS-based transceiver for optical interconnections,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 24, no. 6, pp. 467–469, Mar.15, 2012.
[CrossRef]

Jackel, H.

C. Kromer, G. Sialm, C. Berger, T. Morf, M. Schmatz, F. Ellinger, D. Erni, G.-L. Bona, and H. Jackel, “A 100-mW 4×10Gb/s transceiver in 80-nm CMOS for high-density optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 40, no. 12, pp. 2667–2679, Dec.2005.
[CrossRef]

Jackson, K.

N. Li, C. Xie, W. Luo, C. Helms, L. Wang, C. Liu, Q. Sun, S. Huang, C. Lei, K. Jackson, and R. Carson, “Emcore’s 1 Gb/s to 25 Gb/s VCSELs,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 8276, pp. 827603-1–827603-10, 2012.

N. Li, C. Schow, D. Kuchta, F. Doany, B. Lee, W. Luo, C. Xie, X. Sun, K. Jackson, and C. Lei, “High-performance 850 nm VCSEL and photodetector arrays for 25 Gb/s parallel optical interconnects,” in Proc. Optical Fiber Commun. Conf., 2010, OTuP2.

A. Rylyakov, C. Schow, J. Proesel, D. Kuchta, C. Baks, N. Li, C. Xie, and K. Jackson, “A 40-Gb/s, 850-nm, VCSEL-based full optical link,” in Proc. Optical Fiber Commun. Conf., 2012, OTh1E.1.

Kaneshiro, R.

A. Benner, D. Kuchta, P. Pepeljugoski, R. Budd, G. Hougham, B. Fasano, K. Marston, H. Bagheri, E. Seminaro, H. Xu, D. Meadowcroft, M. Fields, L. McColloch, M. Robinson, F. Miller, R. Kaneshiro, R. Granger, D. Childers, and E. Childers, “Optics for high-performance servers and supercomputers,” in Proc. Optical Fiber Commun. Conf., 2010, OTuH1.

Kash, J.

A. Rylyakov, C. Schow, B. Lee, F. Doany, C. Baks, and J. Kash, “Transmitter predistortion for simultaneous improvements in bit rate, sensitivity, jitter, and power efficiency in 20 Gb/s CMOS-driven VCSEL links,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 399–405, Feb.15, 2012.
[CrossRef]

C. Schow, A. Rylyakov, C. Baks, F. Doany, and J. Kash, “25-Gb/s 6.5-pJ/bit 90-nm CMOS-driven multimode optical link,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 24, no. 10, pp. 824–826, May15, 2012.
[CrossRef]

J. Kash, A. Benner, F. Doany, D. Kuchta, B. Lee, P. Pepeljugoski, L. Schares, C. Schow, and M. Taubenblatt, “Optical interconnects in future servers,” in Proc. Optical Fiber Commun. Conf., 2011, OWQ1.

Kawamura, D.

Y. Lee, D. Kawamura, T. Takai, K. Kogo, K. Adachi, T. Sugawara, N. Chujo, Y. Matsuoka, S. Hamamura, K. Yamazaki, Y. Ishigami, T. Takemoto, F. Yuki, H. Yamashita, and S. Tsuji, “25-Gb/s 100-m MMF transmission using a prototype 1.3-µm-range CMOS-based transceiver for optical interconnections,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 24, no. 6, pp. 467–469, Mar.15, 2012.
[CrossRef]

Kern, A.

I. Young, E. Mohammed, J. Liao, A. Kern, S. Palermo, B. Block, M. Reshotko, and P. Chang, “Optical I/O technology for tera-scale computing,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 45, no. 1, pp. 235–248, Jan.2010.
[CrossRef]

Kogo, K.

Y. Lee, D. Kawamura, T. Takai, K. Kogo, K. Adachi, T. Sugawara, N. Chujo, Y. Matsuoka, S. Hamamura, K. Yamazaki, Y. Ishigami, T. Takemoto, F. Yuki, H. Yamashita, and S. Tsuji, “25-Gb/s 100-m MMF transmission using a prototype 1.3-µm-range CMOS-based transceiver for optical interconnections,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 24, no. 6, pp. 467–469, Mar.15, 2012.
[CrossRef]

Koizumi, H.

H. Koizumi, M. Togashi, M. Nogawa, and Y. Ohtomo, “A 10 Gb/s burst-mode laser diode driver for burst-by-burst power saving,” in IEEE Int. Solid-State Circuits Conf. Dig. Tech. Papers, 2012, pp. 414–415.

Kossel, M.

T. Toifl, M. Kossel, C. Menolfi, T. Morf, and M. Schmatz, “A 23 GHz differential amplifier with monolithically integrated T-coils in 0.09µm CMOS technology,” in IEEE MTT-S Int. Microw. Symp. Dig., 2003, pp. 239–242.

Krimmel, H.-G.

X. Yin, J. Put, J. Verbrugghe, J. Gillis, X.-Z. Qiu, J. Bauwelinck, J. Vandewege, H.-G. Krimmel, and M. Achouche, “A 10 Gb/s burst-mode TIA with on-chip reset/lock CM signaling detection and limiting amplifier with a 75 ns settling time,” in IEEE Int. Solid-State Circuits Conf. Dig. Tech. Papers, 2012, pp. 416–417.

Krishnamoorthy, A.

J. Buckwalter, X. Zheng, G. Li, K. Raj, and A. Krishnamoorthy, “A monolithic 25-Gb/s transceiver with photonic ring modulators and Ge detectors in a 130-nm CMOS SOI process,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 47, no. 6, pp. 1309–1322, June2012.
[CrossRef]

X. Zheng, Y. Luo, J. Lexau, F. Liu, G. Li, H. Thacker, I. Shubin, J. Yao, R. Ho, J. Cunningham, and A. Krishnamoorthy, “A complete 10 Gbps chip-to-chip digital CMOS silicon photonic link,” in CLEO Tech. Dig., 2012, CTh5D.6.

F. Liu, D. Patil, J. Lexau, P. Amberg, M. Dayringer, J. Gainsley, H. Moghadam, X. Zheng, J. Cunningham, A. Krishnamoorthy, E. Alon, and R. Ho, “10 Gbps, 530 fJ/b optical transceiver circuits in 40 nm CMOS,” in Symp. VLSI Circuits Dig. Tech. Papers, 2011, pp. 290–291.

Kromer, C.

C. Kromer, G. Sialm, C. Berger, T. Morf, M. Schmatz, F. Ellinger, D. Erni, G.-L. Bona, and H. Jackel, “A 100-mW 4×10Gb/s transceiver in 80-nm CMOS for high-density optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 40, no. 12, pp. 2667–2679, Dec.2005.
[CrossRef]

Kuchta, D.

J. Kash, A. Benner, F. Doany, D. Kuchta, B. Lee, P. Pepeljugoski, L. Schares, C. Schow, and M. Taubenblatt, “Optical interconnects in future servers,” in Proc. Optical Fiber Commun. Conf., 2011, OWQ1.

A. Benner, D. Kuchta, P. Pepeljugoski, R. Budd, G. Hougham, B. Fasano, K. Marston, H. Bagheri, E. Seminaro, H. Xu, D. Meadowcroft, M. Fields, L. McColloch, M. Robinson, F. Miller, R. Kaneshiro, R. Granger, D. Childers, and E. Childers, “Optics for high-performance servers and supercomputers,” in Proc. Optical Fiber Commun. Conf., 2010, OTuH1.

A. Rylyakov, C. Schow, J. Proesel, D. Kuchta, C. Baks, N. Li, C. Xie, and K. Jackson, “A 40-Gb/s, 850-nm, VCSEL-based full optical link,” in Proc. Optical Fiber Commun. Conf., 2012, OTh1E.1.

N. Li, C. Schow, D. Kuchta, F. Doany, B. Lee, W. Luo, C. Xie, X. Sun, K. Jackson, and C. Lei, “High-performance 850 nm VCSEL and photodetector arrays for 25 Gb/s parallel optical interconnects,” in Proc. Optical Fiber Commun. Conf., 2010, OTuP2.

Laskin, E.

T. Dickson, K. Yau, T. Chalvatzis, A. Mangan, E. Laskin, R. Beerkens, P. Westergaard, M. Tazlauanu, M.-T. Yang, and S. Voinigescu, “The invariance of characteristic current densities in nanoscale MOSFETs and its impact on algorithmic design methodologies and design porting of Si(Ge) (Bi)CMOS high-speed building blocks,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 41, no. 8, pp. 1830–1845, Aug.2006.
[CrossRef]

Lee, B.

A. Rylyakov, C. Schow, B. Lee, F. Doany, C. Baks, and J. Kash, “Transmitter predistortion for simultaneous improvements in bit rate, sensitivity, jitter, and power efficiency in 20 Gb/s CMOS-driven VCSEL links,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 399–405, Feb.15, 2012.
[CrossRef]

J. Kash, A. Benner, F. Doany, D. Kuchta, B. Lee, P. Pepeljugoski, L. Schares, C. Schow, and M. Taubenblatt, “Optical interconnects in future servers,” in Proc. Optical Fiber Commun. Conf., 2011, OWQ1.

N. Li, C. Schow, D. Kuchta, F. Doany, B. Lee, W. Luo, C. Xie, X. Sun, K. Jackson, and C. Lei, “High-performance 850 nm VCSEL and photodetector arrays for 25 Gb/s parallel optical interconnects,” in Proc. Optical Fiber Commun. Conf., 2010, OTuP2.

Lee, Y.

Y. Lee, D. Kawamura, T. Takai, K. Kogo, K. Adachi, T. Sugawara, N. Chujo, Y. Matsuoka, S. Hamamura, K. Yamazaki, Y. Ishigami, T. Takemoto, F. Yuki, H. Yamashita, and S. Tsuji, “25-Gb/s 100-m MMF transmission using a prototype 1.3-µm-range CMOS-based transceiver for optical interconnections,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 24, no. 6, pp. 467–469, Mar.15, 2012.
[CrossRef]

Lei, C.

N. Li, C. Xie, W. Luo, C. Helms, L. Wang, C. Liu, Q. Sun, S. Huang, C. Lei, K. Jackson, and R. Carson, “Emcore’s 1 Gb/s to 25 Gb/s VCSELs,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 8276, pp. 827603-1–827603-10, 2012.

N. Li, C. Schow, D. Kuchta, F. Doany, B. Lee, W. Luo, C. Xie, X. Sun, K. Jackson, and C. Lei, “High-performance 850 nm VCSEL and photodetector arrays for 25 Gb/s parallel optical interconnects,” in Proc. Optical Fiber Commun. Conf., 2010, OTuP2.

Lexau, J.

X. Zheng, Y. Luo, J. Lexau, F. Liu, G. Li, H. Thacker, I. Shubin, J. Yao, R. Ho, J. Cunningham, and A. Krishnamoorthy, “A complete 10 Gbps chip-to-chip digital CMOS silicon photonic link,” in CLEO Tech. Dig., 2012, CTh5D.6.

F. Liu, D. Patil, J. Lexau, P. Amberg, M. Dayringer, J. Gainsley, H. Moghadam, X. Zheng, J. Cunningham, A. Krishnamoorthy, E. Alon, and R. Ho, “10 Gbps, 530 fJ/b optical transceiver circuits in 40 nm CMOS,” in Symp. VLSI Circuits Dig. Tech. Papers, 2011, pp. 290–291.

Li, G.

J. Buckwalter, X. Zheng, G. Li, K. Raj, and A. Krishnamoorthy, “A monolithic 25-Gb/s transceiver with photonic ring modulators and Ge detectors in a 130-nm CMOS SOI process,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 47, no. 6, pp. 1309–1322, June2012.
[CrossRef]

X. Zheng, Y. Luo, J. Lexau, F. Liu, G. Li, H. Thacker, I. Shubin, J. Yao, R. Ho, J. Cunningham, and A. Krishnamoorthy, “A complete 10 Gbps chip-to-chip digital CMOS silicon photonic link,” in CLEO Tech. Dig., 2012, CTh5D.6.

Li, N.

N. Li, C. Xie, W. Luo, C. Helms, L. Wang, C. Liu, Q. Sun, S. Huang, C. Lei, K. Jackson, and R. Carson, “Emcore’s 1 Gb/s to 25 Gb/s VCSELs,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 8276, pp. 827603-1–827603-10, 2012.

N. Li, C. Schow, D. Kuchta, F. Doany, B. Lee, W. Luo, C. Xie, X. Sun, K. Jackson, and C. Lei, “High-performance 850 nm VCSEL and photodetector arrays for 25 Gb/s parallel optical interconnects,” in Proc. Optical Fiber Commun. Conf., 2010, OTuP2.

A. Rylyakov, C. Schow, J. Proesel, D. Kuchta, C. Baks, N. Li, C. Xie, and K. Jackson, “A 40-Gb/s, 850-nm, VCSEL-based full optical link,” in Proc. Optical Fiber Commun. Conf., 2012, OTh1E.1.

Liao, J.

I. Young, E. Mohammed, J. Liao, A. Kern, S. Palermo, B. Block, M. Reshotko, and P. Chang, “Optical I/O technology for tera-scale computing,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 45, no. 1, pp. 235–248, Jan.2010.
[CrossRef]

Liu, C.

N. Li, C. Xie, W. Luo, C. Helms, L. Wang, C. Liu, Q. Sun, S. Huang, C. Lei, K. Jackson, and R. Carson, “Emcore’s 1 Gb/s to 25 Gb/s VCSELs,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 8276, pp. 827603-1–827603-10, 2012.

Liu, F.

X. Zheng, Y. Luo, J. Lexau, F. Liu, G. Li, H. Thacker, I. Shubin, J. Yao, R. Ho, J. Cunningham, and A. Krishnamoorthy, “A complete 10 Gbps chip-to-chip digital CMOS silicon photonic link,” in CLEO Tech. Dig., 2012, CTh5D.6.

F. Liu, D. Patil, J. Lexau, P. Amberg, M. Dayringer, J. Gainsley, H. Moghadam, X. Zheng, J. Cunningham, A. Krishnamoorthy, E. Alon, and R. Ho, “10 Gbps, 530 fJ/b optical transceiver circuits in 40 nm CMOS,” in Symp. VLSI Circuits Dig. Tech. Papers, 2011, pp. 290–291.

Luo, W.

N. Li, C. Xie, W. Luo, C. Helms, L. Wang, C. Liu, Q. Sun, S. Huang, C. Lei, K. Jackson, and R. Carson, “Emcore’s 1 Gb/s to 25 Gb/s VCSELs,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 8276, pp. 827603-1–827603-10, 2012.

N. Li, C. Schow, D. Kuchta, F. Doany, B. Lee, W. Luo, C. Xie, X. Sun, K. Jackson, and C. Lei, “High-performance 850 nm VCSEL and photodetector arrays for 25 Gb/s parallel optical interconnects,” in Proc. Optical Fiber Commun. Conf., 2010, OTuP2.

Luo, Y.

X. Zheng, Y. Luo, J. Lexau, F. Liu, G. Li, H. Thacker, I. Shubin, J. Yao, R. Ho, J. Cunningham, and A. Krishnamoorthy, “A complete 10 Gbps chip-to-chip digital CMOS silicon photonic link,” in CLEO Tech. Dig., 2012, CTh5D.6.

Mangan, A.

T. Dickson, K. Yau, T. Chalvatzis, A. Mangan, E. Laskin, R. Beerkens, P. Westergaard, M. Tazlauanu, M.-T. Yang, and S. Voinigescu, “The invariance of characteristic current densities in nanoscale MOSFETs and its impact on algorithmic design methodologies and design porting of Si(Ge) (Bi)CMOS high-speed building blocks,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 41, no. 8, pp. 1830–1845, Aug.2006.
[CrossRef]

Marston, K.

A. Benner, D. Kuchta, P. Pepeljugoski, R. Budd, G. Hougham, B. Fasano, K. Marston, H. Bagheri, E. Seminaro, H. Xu, D. Meadowcroft, M. Fields, L. McColloch, M. Robinson, F. Miller, R. Kaneshiro, R. Granger, D. Childers, and E. Childers, “Optics for high-performance servers and supercomputers,” in Proc. Optical Fiber Commun. Conf., 2010, OTuH1.

Matsuoka, Y.

Y. Lee, D. Kawamura, T. Takai, K. Kogo, K. Adachi, T. Sugawara, N. Chujo, Y. Matsuoka, S. Hamamura, K. Yamazaki, Y. Ishigami, T. Takemoto, F. Yuki, H. Yamashita, and S. Tsuji, “25-Gb/s 100-m MMF transmission using a prototype 1.3-µm-range CMOS-based transceiver for optical interconnections,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 24, no. 6, pp. 467–469, Mar.15, 2012.
[CrossRef]

McColloch, L.

A. Benner, D. Kuchta, P. Pepeljugoski, R. Budd, G. Hougham, B. Fasano, K. Marston, H. Bagheri, E. Seminaro, H. Xu, D. Meadowcroft, M. Fields, L. McColloch, M. Robinson, F. Miller, R. Kaneshiro, R. Granger, D. Childers, and E. Childers, “Optics for high-performance servers and supercomputers,” in Proc. Optical Fiber Commun. Conf., 2010, OTuH1.

Meadowcroft, D.

A. Benner, D. Kuchta, P. Pepeljugoski, R. Budd, G. Hougham, B. Fasano, K. Marston, H. Bagheri, E. Seminaro, H. Xu, D. Meadowcroft, M. Fields, L. McColloch, M. Robinson, F. Miller, R. Kaneshiro, R. Granger, D. Childers, and E. Childers, “Optics for high-performance servers and supercomputers,” in Proc. Optical Fiber Commun. Conf., 2010, OTuH1.

Menolfi, C.

T. Toifl, M. Kossel, C. Menolfi, T. Morf, and M. Schmatz, “A 23 GHz differential amplifier with monolithically integrated T-coils in 0.09µm CMOS technology,” in IEEE MTT-S Int. Microw. Symp. Dig., 2003, pp. 239–242.

Miller, F.

A. Benner, D. Kuchta, P. Pepeljugoski, R. Budd, G. Hougham, B. Fasano, K. Marston, H. Bagheri, E. Seminaro, H. Xu, D. Meadowcroft, M. Fields, L. McColloch, M. Robinson, F. Miller, R. Kaneshiro, R. Granger, D. Childers, and E. Childers, “Optics for high-performance servers and supercomputers,” in Proc. Optical Fiber Commun. Conf., 2010, OTuH1.

Moghadam, H.

F. Liu, D. Patil, J. Lexau, P. Amberg, M. Dayringer, J. Gainsley, H. Moghadam, X. Zheng, J. Cunningham, A. Krishnamoorthy, E. Alon, and R. Ho, “10 Gbps, 530 fJ/b optical transceiver circuits in 40 nm CMOS,” in Symp. VLSI Circuits Dig. Tech. Papers, 2011, pp. 290–291.

Mohammed, E.

I. Young, E. Mohammed, J. Liao, A. Kern, S. Palermo, B. Block, M. Reshotko, and P. Chang, “Optical I/O technology for tera-scale computing,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 45, no. 1, pp. 235–248, Jan.2010.
[CrossRef]

Morf, T.

C. Kromer, G. Sialm, C. Berger, T. Morf, M. Schmatz, F. Ellinger, D. Erni, G.-L. Bona, and H. Jackel, “A 100-mW 4×10Gb/s transceiver in 80-nm CMOS for high-density optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 40, no. 12, pp. 2667–2679, Dec.2005.
[CrossRef]

T. Toifl, M. Kossel, C. Menolfi, T. Morf, and M. Schmatz, “A 23 GHz differential amplifier with monolithically integrated T-coils in 0.09µm CMOS technology,” in IEEE MTT-S Int. Microw. Symp. Dig., 2003, pp. 239–242.

Nogawa, M.

H. Koizumi, M. Togashi, M. Nogawa, and Y. Ohtomo, “A 10 Gb/s burst-mode laser diode driver for burst-by-burst power saving,” in IEEE Int. Solid-State Circuits Conf. Dig. Tech. Papers, 2012, pp. 414–415.

Ohtomo, Y.

H. Koizumi, M. Togashi, M. Nogawa, and Y. Ohtomo, “A 10 Gb/s burst-mode laser diode driver for burst-by-burst power saving,” in IEEE Int. Solid-State Circuits Conf. Dig. Tech. Papers, 2012, pp. 414–415.

Palermo, S.

I. Young, E. Mohammed, J. Liao, A. Kern, S. Palermo, B. Block, M. Reshotko, and P. Chang, “Optical I/O technology for tera-scale computing,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 45, no. 1, pp. 235–248, Jan.2010.
[CrossRef]

Patil, D.

F. Liu, D. Patil, J. Lexau, P. Amberg, M. Dayringer, J. Gainsley, H. Moghadam, X. Zheng, J. Cunningham, A. Krishnamoorthy, E. Alon, and R. Ho, “10 Gbps, 530 fJ/b optical transceiver circuits in 40 nm CMOS,” in Symp. VLSI Circuits Dig. Tech. Papers, 2011, pp. 290–291.

Pepeljugoski, P.

J. Kash, A. Benner, F. Doany, D. Kuchta, B. Lee, P. Pepeljugoski, L. Schares, C. Schow, and M. Taubenblatt, “Optical interconnects in future servers,” in Proc. Optical Fiber Commun. Conf., 2011, OWQ1.

A. Benner, D. Kuchta, P. Pepeljugoski, R. Budd, G. Hougham, B. Fasano, K. Marston, H. Bagheri, E. Seminaro, H. Xu, D. Meadowcroft, M. Fields, L. McColloch, M. Robinson, F. Miller, R. Kaneshiro, R. Granger, D. Childers, and E. Childers, “Optics for high-performance servers and supercomputers,” in Proc. Optical Fiber Commun. Conf., 2010, OTuH1.

Proesel, J.

J. Proesel, C. Schow, and A. Rylyakov, “Ultra low power 10- to 25-Gb/s CMOS-driven VCSEL links,” in Proc. Optical Fiber Commun. Conf., 2012, OW4I.3.

J. Proesel, C. Schow, and A. Rylyakov, “25 Gb/s 3.6 pJ/b and 15 Gb/s 1.37 pJ/b VCSEL-based optical links in 90 nm CMOS,” in IEEE Int. Solid-State Circuits Conf. Dig. Tech. Papers, 2012, pp. 418–419.

A. Rylyakov, C. Schow, J. Proesel, D. Kuchta, C. Baks, N. Li, C. Xie, and K. Jackson, “A 40-Gb/s, 850-nm, VCSEL-based full optical link,” in Proc. Optical Fiber Commun. Conf., 2012, OTh1E.1.

Put, J.

X. Yin, J. Put, J. Verbrugghe, J. Gillis, X.-Z. Qiu, J. Bauwelinck, J. Vandewege, H.-G. Krimmel, and M. Achouche, “A 10 Gb/s burst-mode TIA with on-chip reset/lock CM signaling detection and limiting amplifier with a 75 ns settling time,” in IEEE Int. Solid-State Circuits Conf. Dig. Tech. Papers, 2012, pp. 416–417.

Qiu, X.-Z.

X. Yin, J. Put, J. Verbrugghe, J. Gillis, X.-Z. Qiu, J. Bauwelinck, J. Vandewege, H.-G. Krimmel, and M. Achouche, “A 10 Gb/s burst-mode TIA with on-chip reset/lock CM signaling detection and limiting amplifier with a 75 ns settling time,” in IEEE Int. Solid-State Circuits Conf. Dig. Tech. Papers, 2012, pp. 416–417.

Raj, K.

J. Buckwalter, X. Zheng, G. Li, K. Raj, and A. Krishnamoorthy, “A monolithic 25-Gb/s transceiver with photonic ring modulators and Ge detectors in a 130-nm CMOS SOI process,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 47, no. 6, pp. 1309–1322, June2012.
[CrossRef]

Reshotko, M.

I. Young, E. Mohammed, J. Liao, A. Kern, S. Palermo, B. Block, M. Reshotko, and P. Chang, “Optical I/O technology for tera-scale computing,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 45, no. 1, pp. 235–248, Jan.2010.
[CrossRef]

Robinson, M.

A. Benner, D. Kuchta, P. Pepeljugoski, R. Budd, G. Hougham, B. Fasano, K. Marston, H. Bagheri, E. Seminaro, H. Xu, D. Meadowcroft, M. Fields, L. McColloch, M. Robinson, F. Miller, R. Kaneshiro, R. Granger, D. Childers, and E. Childers, “Optics for high-performance servers and supercomputers,” in Proc. Optical Fiber Commun. Conf., 2010, OTuH1.

Rylyakov, A.

A. Rylyakov, C. Schow, B. Lee, F. Doany, C. Baks, and J. Kash, “Transmitter predistortion for simultaneous improvements in bit rate, sensitivity, jitter, and power efficiency in 20 Gb/s CMOS-driven VCSEL links,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 399–405, Feb.15, 2012.
[CrossRef]

C. Schow, A. Rylyakov, C. Baks, F. Doany, and J. Kash, “25-Gb/s 6.5-pJ/bit 90-nm CMOS-driven multimode optical link,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 24, no. 10, pp. 824–826, May15, 2012.
[CrossRef]

A. Rylyakov, C. Schow, J. Proesel, D. Kuchta, C. Baks, N. Li, C. Xie, and K. Jackson, “A 40-Gb/s, 850-nm, VCSEL-based full optical link,” in Proc. Optical Fiber Commun. Conf., 2012, OTh1E.1.

J. Proesel, C. Schow, and A. Rylyakov, “Ultra low power 10- to 25-Gb/s CMOS-driven VCSEL links,” in Proc. Optical Fiber Commun. Conf., 2012, OW4I.3.

J. Proesel, C. Schow, and A. Rylyakov, “25 Gb/s 3.6 pJ/b and 15 Gb/s 1.37 pJ/b VCSEL-based optical links in 90 nm CMOS,” in IEEE Int. Solid-State Circuits Conf. Dig. Tech. Papers, 2012, pp. 418–419.

Schares, L.

J. Kash, A. Benner, F. Doany, D. Kuchta, B. Lee, P. Pepeljugoski, L. Schares, C. Schow, and M. Taubenblatt, “Optical interconnects in future servers,” in Proc. Optical Fiber Commun. Conf., 2011, OWQ1.

Schmatz, M.

C. Kromer, G. Sialm, C. Berger, T. Morf, M. Schmatz, F. Ellinger, D. Erni, G.-L. Bona, and H. Jackel, “A 100-mW 4×10Gb/s transceiver in 80-nm CMOS for high-density optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 40, no. 12, pp. 2667–2679, Dec.2005.
[CrossRef]

T. Toifl, M. Kossel, C. Menolfi, T. Morf, and M. Schmatz, “A 23 GHz differential amplifier with monolithically integrated T-coils in 0.09µm CMOS technology,” in IEEE MTT-S Int. Microw. Symp. Dig., 2003, pp. 239–242.

Schow, C.

A. Rylyakov, C. Schow, B. Lee, F. Doany, C. Baks, and J. Kash, “Transmitter predistortion for simultaneous improvements in bit rate, sensitivity, jitter, and power efficiency in 20 Gb/s CMOS-driven VCSEL links,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 399–405, Feb.15, 2012.
[CrossRef]

C. Schow, A. Rylyakov, C. Baks, F. Doany, and J. Kash, “25-Gb/s 6.5-pJ/bit 90-nm CMOS-driven multimode optical link,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 24, no. 10, pp. 824–826, May15, 2012.
[CrossRef]

J. Kash, A. Benner, F. Doany, D. Kuchta, B. Lee, P. Pepeljugoski, L. Schares, C. Schow, and M. Taubenblatt, “Optical interconnects in future servers,” in Proc. Optical Fiber Commun. Conf., 2011, OWQ1.

N. Li, C. Schow, D. Kuchta, F. Doany, B. Lee, W. Luo, C. Xie, X. Sun, K. Jackson, and C. Lei, “High-performance 850 nm VCSEL and photodetector arrays for 25 Gb/s parallel optical interconnects,” in Proc. Optical Fiber Commun. Conf., 2010, OTuP2.

A. Rylyakov, C. Schow, J. Proesel, D. Kuchta, C. Baks, N. Li, C. Xie, and K. Jackson, “A 40-Gb/s, 850-nm, VCSEL-based full optical link,” in Proc. Optical Fiber Commun. Conf., 2012, OTh1E.1.

J. Proesel, C. Schow, and A. Rylyakov, “25 Gb/s 3.6 pJ/b and 15 Gb/s 1.37 pJ/b VCSEL-based optical links in 90 nm CMOS,” in IEEE Int. Solid-State Circuits Conf. Dig. Tech. Papers, 2012, pp. 418–419.

J. Proesel, C. Schow, and A. Rylyakov, “Ultra low power 10- to 25-Gb/s CMOS-driven VCSEL links,” in Proc. Optical Fiber Commun. Conf., 2012, OW4I.3.

Seminaro, E.

A. Benner, D. Kuchta, P. Pepeljugoski, R. Budd, G. Hougham, B. Fasano, K. Marston, H. Bagheri, E. Seminaro, H. Xu, D. Meadowcroft, M. Fields, L. McColloch, M. Robinson, F. Miller, R. Kaneshiro, R. Granger, D. Childers, and E. Childers, “Optics for high-performance servers and supercomputers,” in Proc. Optical Fiber Commun. Conf., 2010, OTuH1.

Shubin, I.

X. Zheng, Y. Luo, J. Lexau, F. Liu, G. Li, H. Thacker, I. Shubin, J. Yao, R. Ho, J. Cunningham, and A. Krishnamoorthy, “A complete 10 Gbps chip-to-chip digital CMOS silicon photonic link,” in CLEO Tech. Dig., 2012, CTh5D.6.

Sialm, G.

C. Kromer, G. Sialm, C. Berger, T. Morf, M. Schmatz, F. Ellinger, D. Erni, G.-L. Bona, and H. Jackel, “A 100-mW 4×10Gb/s transceiver in 80-nm CMOS for high-density optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 40, no. 12, pp. 2667–2679, Dec.2005.
[CrossRef]

Sugawara, T.

Y. Lee, D. Kawamura, T. Takai, K. Kogo, K. Adachi, T. Sugawara, N. Chujo, Y. Matsuoka, S. Hamamura, K. Yamazaki, Y. Ishigami, T. Takemoto, F. Yuki, H. Yamashita, and S. Tsuji, “25-Gb/s 100-m MMF transmission using a prototype 1.3-µm-range CMOS-based transceiver for optical interconnections,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 24, no. 6, pp. 467–469, Mar.15, 2012.
[CrossRef]

Sun, Q.

N. Li, C. Xie, W. Luo, C. Helms, L. Wang, C. Liu, Q. Sun, S. Huang, C. Lei, K. Jackson, and R. Carson, “Emcore’s 1 Gb/s to 25 Gb/s VCSELs,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 8276, pp. 827603-1–827603-10, 2012.

Sun, X.

N. Li, C. Schow, D. Kuchta, F. Doany, B. Lee, W. Luo, C. Xie, X. Sun, K. Jackson, and C. Lei, “High-performance 850 nm VCSEL and photodetector arrays for 25 Gb/s parallel optical interconnects,” in Proc. Optical Fiber Commun. Conf., 2010, OTuP2.

Takai, T.

Y. Lee, D. Kawamura, T. Takai, K. Kogo, K. Adachi, T. Sugawara, N. Chujo, Y. Matsuoka, S. Hamamura, K. Yamazaki, Y. Ishigami, T. Takemoto, F. Yuki, H. Yamashita, and S. Tsuji, “25-Gb/s 100-m MMF transmission using a prototype 1.3-µm-range CMOS-based transceiver for optical interconnections,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 24, no. 6, pp. 467–469, Mar.15, 2012.
[CrossRef]

Takemoto, T.

Y. Lee, D. Kawamura, T. Takai, K. Kogo, K. Adachi, T. Sugawara, N. Chujo, Y. Matsuoka, S. Hamamura, K. Yamazaki, Y. Ishigami, T. Takemoto, F. Yuki, H. Yamashita, and S. Tsuji, “25-Gb/s 100-m MMF transmission using a prototype 1.3-µm-range CMOS-based transceiver for optical interconnections,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 24, no. 6, pp. 467–469, Mar.15, 2012.
[CrossRef]

Taubenblatt, M.

J. Kash, A. Benner, F. Doany, D. Kuchta, B. Lee, P. Pepeljugoski, L. Schares, C. Schow, and M. Taubenblatt, “Optical interconnects in future servers,” in Proc. Optical Fiber Commun. Conf., 2011, OWQ1.

Tazlauanu, M.

T. Dickson, K. Yau, T. Chalvatzis, A. Mangan, E. Laskin, R. Beerkens, P. Westergaard, M. Tazlauanu, M.-T. Yang, and S. Voinigescu, “The invariance of characteristic current densities in nanoscale MOSFETs and its impact on algorithmic design methodologies and design porting of Si(Ge) (Bi)CMOS high-speed building blocks,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 41, no. 8, pp. 1830–1845, Aug.2006.
[CrossRef]

Thacker, H.

X. Zheng, Y. Luo, J. Lexau, F. Liu, G. Li, H. Thacker, I. Shubin, J. Yao, R. Ho, J. Cunningham, and A. Krishnamoorthy, “A complete 10 Gbps chip-to-chip digital CMOS silicon photonic link,” in CLEO Tech. Dig., 2012, CTh5D.6.

Togashi, M.

H. Koizumi, M. Togashi, M. Nogawa, and Y. Ohtomo, “A 10 Gb/s burst-mode laser diode driver for burst-by-burst power saving,” in IEEE Int. Solid-State Circuits Conf. Dig. Tech. Papers, 2012, pp. 414–415.

Toifl, T.

T. Toifl, M. Kossel, C. Menolfi, T. Morf, and M. Schmatz, “A 23 GHz differential amplifier with monolithically integrated T-coils in 0.09µm CMOS technology,” in IEEE MTT-S Int. Microw. Symp. Dig., 2003, pp. 239–242.

Tsuji, S.

Y. Lee, D. Kawamura, T. Takai, K. Kogo, K. Adachi, T. Sugawara, N. Chujo, Y. Matsuoka, S. Hamamura, K. Yamazaki, Y. Ishigami, T. Takemoto, F. Yuki, H. Yamashita, and S. Tsuji, “25-Gb/s 100-m MMF transmission using a prototype 1.3-µm-range CMOS-based transceiver for optical interconnections,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 24, no. 6, pp. 467–469, Mar.15, 2012.
[CrossRef]

Vandewege, J.

X. Yin, J. Put, J. Verbrugghe, J. Gillis, X.-Z. Qiu, J. Bauwelinck, J. Vandewege, H.-G. Krimmel, and M. Achouche, “A 10 Gb/s burst-mode TIA with on-chip reset/lock CM signaling detection and limiting amplifier with a 75 ns settling time,” in IEEE Int. Solid-State Circuits Conf. Dig. Tech. Papers, 2012, pp. 416–417.

Verbrugghe, J.

X. Yin, J. Put, J. Verbrugghe, J. Gillis, X.-Z. Qiu, J. Bauwelinck, J. Vandewege, H.-G. Krimmel, and M. Achouche, “A 10 Gb/s burst-mode TIA with on-chip reset/lock CM signaling detection and limiting amplifier with a 75 ns settling time,” in IEEE Int. Solid-State Circuits Conf. Dig. Tech. Papers, 2012, pp. 416–417.

Voinigescu, S.

T. Dickson, K. Yau, T. Chalvatzis, A. Mangan, E. Laskin, R. Beerkens, P. Westergaard, M. Tazlauanu, M.-T. Yang, and S. Voinigescu, “The invariance of characteristic current densities in nanoscale MOSFETs and its impact on algorithmic design methodologies and design porting of Si(Ge) (Bi)CMOS high-speed building blocks,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 41, no. 8, pp. 1830–1845, Aug.2006.
[CrossRef]

Wang, L.

N. Li, C. Xie, W. Luo, C. Helms, L. Wang, C. Liu, Q. Sun, S. Huang, C. Lei, K. Jackson, and R. Carson, “Emcore’s 1 Gb/s to 25 Gb/s VCSELs,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 8276, pp. 827603-1–827603-10, 2012.

Westergaard, P.

T. Dickson, K. Yau, T. Chalvatzis, A. Mangan, E. Laskin, R. Beerkens, P. Westergaard, M. Tazlauanu, M.-T. Yang, and S. Voinigescu, “The invariance of characteristic current densities in nanoscale MOSFETs and its impact on algorithmic design methodologies and design porting of Si(Ge) (Bi)CMOS high-speed building blocks,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 41, no. 8, pp. 1830–1845, Aug.2006.
[CrossRef]

Xie, C.

N. Li, C. Xie, W. Luo, C. Helms, L. Wang, C. Liu, Q. Sun, S. Huang, C. Lei, K. Jackson, and R. Carson, “Emcore’s 1 Gb/s to 25 Gb/s VCSELs,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 8276, pp. 827603-1–827603-10, 2012.

N. Li, C. Schow, D. Kuchta, F. Doany, B. Lee, W. Luo, C. Xie, X. Sun, K. Jackson, and C. Lei, “High-performance 850 nm VCSEL and photodetector arrays for 25 Gb/s parallel optical interconnects,” in Proc. Optical Fiber Commun. Conf., 2010, OTuP2.

A. Rylyakov, C. Schow, J. Proesel, D. Kuchta, C. Baks, N. Li, C. Xie, and K. Jackson, “A 40-Gb/s, 850-nm, VCSEL-based full optical link,” in Proc. Optical Fiber Commun. Conf., 2012, OTh1E.1.

Xu, H.

A. Benner, D. Kuchta, P. Pepeljugoski, R. Budd, G. Hougham, B. Fasano, K. Marston, H. Bagheri, E. Seminaro, H. Xu, D. Meadowcroft, M. Fields, L. McColloch, M. Robinson, F. Miller, R. Kaneshiro, R. Granger, D. Childers, and E. Childers, “Optics for high-performance servers and supercomputers,” in Proc. Optical Fiber Commun. Conf., 2010, OTuH1.

Yamashita, H.

Y. Lee, D. Kawamura, T. Takai, K. Kogo, K. Adachi, T. Sugawara, N. Chujo, Y. Matsuoka, S. Hamamura, K. Yamazaki, Y. Ishigami, T. Takemoto, F. Yuki, H. Yamashita, and S. Tsuji, “25-Gb/s 100-m MMF transmission using a prototype 1.3-µm-range CMOS-based transceiver for optical interconnections,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 24, no. 6, pp. 467–469, Mar.15, 2012.
[CrossRef]

Yamazaki, K.

Y. Lee, D. Kawamura, T. Takai, K. Kogo, K. Adachi, T. Sugawara, N. Chujo, Y. Matsuoka, S. Hamamura, K. Yamazaki, Y. Ishigami, T. Takemoto, F. Yuki, H. Yamashita, and S. Tsuji, “25-Gb/s 100-m MMF transmission using a prototype 1.3-µm-range CMOS-based transceiver for optical interconnections,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 24, no. 6, pp. 467–469, Mar.15, 2012.
[CrossRef]

Yang, M.-T.

T. Dickson, K. Yau, T. Chalvatzis, A. Mangan, E. Laskin, R. Beerkens, P. Westergaard, M. Tazlauanu, M.-T. Yang, and S. Voinigescu, “The invariance of characteristic current densities in nanoscale MOSFETs and its impact on algorithmic design methodologies and design porting of Si(Ge) (Bi)CMOS high-speed building blocks,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 41, no. 8, pp. 1830–1845, Aug.2006.
[CrossRef]

Yao, J.

X. Zheng, Y. Luo, J. Lexau, F. Liu, G. Li, H. Thacker, I. Shubin, J. Yao, R. Ho, J. Cunningham, and A. Krishnamoorthy, “A complete 10 Gbps chip-to-chip digital CMOS silicon photonic link,” in CLEO Tech. Dig., 2012, CTh5D.6.

Yau, K.

T. Dickson, K. Yau, T. Chalvatzis, A. Mangan, E. Laskin, R. Beerkens, P. Westergaard, M. Tazlauanu, M.-T. Yang, and S. Voinigescu, “The invariance of characteristic current densities in nanoscale MOSFETs and its impact on algorithmic design methodologies and design porting of Si(Ge) (Bi)CMOS high-speed building blocks,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 41, no. 8, pp. 1830–1845, Aug.2006.
[CrossRef]

Yin, X.

X. Yin, J. Put, J. Verbrugghe, J. Gillis, X.-Z. Qiu, J. Bauwelinck, J. Vandewege, H.-G. Krimmel, and M. Achouche, “A 10 Gb/s burst-mode TIA with on-chip reset/lock CM signaling detection and limiting amplifier with a 75 ns settling time,” in IEEE Int. Solid-State Circuits Conf. Dig. Tech. Papers, 2012, pp. 416–417.

Young, I.

I. Young, E. Mohammed, J. Liao, A. Kern, S. Palermo, B. Block, M. Reshotko, and P. Chang, “Optical I/O technology for tera-scale computing,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 45, no. 1, pp. 235–248, Jan.2010.
[CrossRef]

Yuki, F.

Y. Lee, D. Kawamura, T. Takai, K. Kogo, K. Adachi, T. Sugawara, N. Chujo, Y. Matsuoka, S. Hamamura, K. Yamazaki, Y. Ishigami, T. Takemoto, F. Yuki, H. Yamashita, and S. Tsuji, “25-Gb/s 100-m MMF transmission using a prototype 1.3-µm-range CMOS-based transceiver for optical interconnections,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 24, no. 6, pp. 467–469, Mar.15, 2012.
[CrossRef]

Zheng, X.

J. Buckwalter, X. Zheng, G. Li, K. Raj, and A. Krishnamoorthy, “A monolithic 25-Gb/s transceiver with photonic ring modulators and Ge detectors in a 130-nm CMOS SOI process,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 47, no. 6, pp. 1309–1322, June2012.
[CrossRef]

X. Zheng, Y. Luo, J. Lexau, F. Liu, G. Li, H. Thacker, I. Shubin, J. Yao, R. Ho, J. Cunningham, and A. Krishnamoorthy, “A complete 10 Gbps chip-to-chip digital CMOS silicon photonic link,” in CLEO Tech. Dig., 2012, CTh5D.6.

F. Liu, D. Patil, J. Lexau, P. Amberg, M. Dayringer, J. Gainsley, H. Moghadam, X. Zheng, J. Cunningham, A. Krishnamoorthy, E. Alon, and R. Ho, “10 Gbps, 530 fJ/b optical transceiver circuits in 40 nm CMOS,” in Symp. VLSI Circuits Dig. Tech. Papers, 2011, pp. 290–291.

IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits

I. Young, E. Mohammed, J. Liao, A. Kern, S. Palermo, B. Block, M. Reshotko, and P. Chang, “Optical I/O technology for tera-scale computing,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 45, no. 1, pp. 235–248, Jan.2010.
[CrossRef]

C. Kromer, G. Sialm, C. Berger, T. Morf, M. Schmatz, F. Ellinger, D. Erni, G.-L. Bona, and H. Jackel, “A 100-mW 4×10Gb/s transceiver in 80-nm CMOS for high-density optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 40, no. 12, pp. 2667–2679, Dec.2005.
[CrossRef]

J. Buckwalter, X. Zheng, G. Li, K. Raj, and A. Krishnamoorthy, “A monolithic 25-Gb/s transceiver with photonic ring modulators and Ge detectors in a 130-nm CMOS SOI process,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 47, no. 6, pp. 1309–1322, June2012.
[CrossRef]

T. Dickson, K. Yau, T. Chalvatzis, A. Mangan, E. Laskin, R. Beerkens, P. Westergaard, M. Tazlauanu, M.-T. Yang, and S. Voinigescu, “The invariance of characteristic current densities in nanoscale MOSFETs and its impact on algorithmic design methodologies and design porting of Si(Ge) (Bi)CMOS high-speed building blocks,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 41, no. 8, pp. 1830–1845, Aug.2006.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

C. Schow, A. Rylyakov, C. Baks, F. Doany, and J. Kash, “25-Gb/s 6.5-pJ/bit 90-nm CMOS-driven multimode optical link,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 24, no. 10, pp. 824–826, May15, 2012.
[CrossRef]

Y. Lee, D. Kawamura, T. Takai, K. Kogo, K. Adachi, T. Sugawara, N. Chujo, Y. Matsuoka, S. Hamamura, K. Yamazaki, Y. Ishigami, T. Takemoto, F. Yuki, H. Yamashita, and S. Tsuji, “25-Gb/s 100-m MMF transmission using a prototype 1.3-µm-range CMOS-based transceiver for optical interconnections,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 24, no. 6, pp. 467–469, Mar.15, 2012.
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

Proc. IEE

E. M. Cherry and D. E. Hooper, “The design of wide-band transistor feedback amplifiers,” Proc. IEE, vol. 110, no. 2, pp. 375–389, Feb.1963.

Proc. SPIE

N. Li, C. Xie, W. Luo, C. Helms, L. Wang, C. Liu, Q. Sun, S. Huang, C. Lei, K. Jackson, and R. Carson, “Emcore’s 1 Gb/s to 25 Gb/s VCSELs,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 8276, pp. 827603-1–827603-10, 2012.

Other

N. Li, C. Schow, D. Kuchta, F. Doany, B. Lee, W. Luo, C. Xie, X. Sun, K. Jackson, and C. Lei, “High-performance 850 nm VCSEL and photodetector arrays for 25 Gb/s parallel optical interconnects,” in Proc. Optical Fiber Commun. Conf., 2010, OTuP2.

T. Toifl, M. Kossel, C. Menolfi, T. Morf, and M. Schmatz, “A 23 GHz differential amplifier with monolithically integrated T-coils in 0.09µm CMOS technology,” in IEEE MTT-S Int. Microw. Symp. Dig., 2003, pp. 239–242.

F. Liu, D. Patil, J. Lexau, P. Amberg, M. Dayringer, J. Gainsley, H. Moghadam, X. Zheng, J. Cunningham, A. Krishnamoorthy, E. Alon, and R. Ho, “10 Gbps, 530 fJ/b optical transceiver circuits in 40 nm CMOS,” in Symp. VLSI Circuits Dig. Tech. Papers, 2011, pp. 290–291.

A. Rylyakov, C. Schow, J. Proesel, D. Kuchta, C. Baks, N. Li, C. Xie, and K. Jackson, “A 40-Gb/s, 850-nm, VCSEL-based full optical link,” in Proc. Optical Fiber Commun. Conf., 2012, OTh1E.1.

H. Koizumi, M. Togashi, M. Nogawa, and Y. Ohtomo, “A 10 Gb/s burst-mode laser diode driver for burst-by-burst power saving,” in IEEE Int. Solid-State Circuits Conf. Dig. Tech. Papers, 2012, pp. 414–415.

X. Yin, J. Put, J. Verbrugghe, J. Gillis, X.-Z. Qiu, J. Bauwelinck, J. Vandewege, H.-G. Krimmel, and M. Achouche, “A 10 Gb/s burst-mode TIA with on-chip reset/lock CM signaling detection and limiting amplifier with a 75 ns settling time,” in IEEE Int. Solid-State Circuits Conf. Dig. Tech. Papers, 2012, pp. 416–417.

J. Proesel, C. Schow, and A. Rylyakov, “Ultra low power 10- to 25-Gb/s CMOS-driven VCSEL links,” in Proc. Optical Fiber Commun. Conf., 2012, OW4I.3.

J. Proesel, C. Schow, and A. Rylyakov, “25 Gb/s 3.6 pJ/b and 15 Gb/s 1.37 pJ/b VCSEL-based optical links in 90 nm CMOS,” in IEEE Int. Solid-State Circuits Conf. Dig. Tech. Papers, 2012, pp. 418–419.

X. Zheng, Y. Luo, J. Lexau, F. Liu, G. Li, H. Thacker, I. Shubin, J. Yao, R. Ho, J. Cunningham, and A. Krishnamoorthy, “A complete 10 Gbps chip-to-chip digital CMOS silicon photonic link,” in CLEO Tech. Dig., 2012, CTh5D.6.

A. Benner, D. Kuchta, P. Pepeljugoski, R. Budd, G. Hougham, B. Fasano, K. Marston, H. Bagheri, E. Seminaro, H. Xu, D. Meadowcroft, M. Fields, L. McColloch, M. Robinson, F. Miller, R. Kaneshiro, R. Granger, D. Childers, and E. Childers, “Optics for high-performance servers and supercomputers,” in Proc. Optical Fiber Commun. Conf., 2010, OTuH1.

J. Kash, A. Benner, F. Doany, D. Kuchta, B. Lee, P. Pepeljugoski, L. Schares, C. Schow, and M. Taubenblatt, “Optical interconnects in future servers,” in Proc. Optical Fiber Commun. Conf., 2011, OWQ1.

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Figures (20)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(Color online) VCSEL-based multimode fiber optical link block diagram.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Block diagram of the LDD TX.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(Color online) Block diagram of the T-Coil RX.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(Color online) Block diagram of the CMOS inverter RX.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(Color online) Photographs of the LDD TX, T-coil RX, and CMOS inverter RX after wirebond assembly on the custom high-speed PCB.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(Color online) Measured eye diagrams for LDD TX, T-coil RX, and CMOS inverter RX at nominal supply voltages (except 25 Gb/s LDD TX eye; see text). All eyes have BER < 1 0 12 in the center.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(Color online) Measured BER versus OMA at the PD for the LDD TX to T-coil RX link across different data rates, PRBS lengths, and fiber lengths at nominal supply voltages.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(Color online) Measured BER versus OMA at the PD for the LDD TX to CMOS inverter RX link across different data rates, PRBS lengths, and fiber lengths at nominal supply voltages.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(Color online) Measured bathtub curves for the LDD TX to both RX links showing horizontal eye openings at BER = 1 0 10 .

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

(Color online) Optimized power efficiency versus data rate for the LDD TX to T-coil RX link. RX eye (inset in graph) and power breakdown are shown at the best power efficiency point.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

(Color online) Optimized power efficiency versus data rate for the LDD TX to CMOS inverter RX link. RX eye (inset in graph) and power breakdown are shown at the best power efficiency point.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

(Color online) Block diagram of the FFE TX and example waveforms.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

(Color online) Photograph of FFE TX after wirebond assembly on the custom high-speed PCB.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

(Color online) Measured eye diagrams for FFE TX to T-coil RX link at the 108 mW power setting. All eyes have BER < 1 0 12 in the center.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

(Color online) Measured BER versus OMA at the PD for the FFE TX to T-coil RX link across different data rates and PRBS lengths at the 108 mW power setting.

Fig. 16
Fig. 16

(Color online) Measured bathtub curves for the FFE TX to T-coil RX link showing horizontal eye openings at BER = 1 0 10 at the 108 mW power setting.

Fig. 17
Fig. 17

(Color online) Measured eye diagrams for FFE TX to T-coil RX link at the 49 mW power setting. All eyes have BER < 1 0 12 in the center.

Fig. 18
Fig. 18

(Color online) Measured BER versus OMA at the PD for the FFE TX to T-coil RX link across different data rates at the 49 mW power setting.

Fig. 19
Fig. 19

(Color online) Measured bathtub curves for the FFE TX to T-coil RX link showing horizontal eye openings at BER = 1 0 10 at the 49 mW power setting.

Fig. 20
Fig. 20

(Color online) Optimized power efficiency versus data rate for the FFE TX to T-coil RX link. A power breakdown is given at the best power efficiency point of 22.5 Gb/s.