Abstract

Cloud computing services are mainly hosted in remote data centers (DCs) where high performance servers and high capacity storage systems are located. Moving the services to distant servers can help handling the energy bottleneck of the information and communication technologies by leading to significant power savings at the local computing resources, which on the other hand increases the energy consumption of the transport network and the DCs. In this paper, we propose mixed-integer-linear-programming- (MILP-) based provisioning models to guarantee either minimum delayed or maximum power-saving cloud services where high performance DCs are assumed to be located at the core nodes of an IP-over-wavelength division multiplexing network. We further propose heuristics, namely, delay-minimized provisioning and power-minimized provisioning, each of which mimics the behavior of the benchmark MILP formulation. Through numerical results, we show that power savings can be attained at the expense of increased propagation delays. Hence, we finally propose the delay- and power-minimized provisioning (DePoMiP), which aims to minimize the propagation delay, maximize the power savings in the transport network and minimize the power consumption overhead introduced to the DCs. Simulation results verify that DePoMiP achieves low-delay and low-power provisioning in an environment which is dominated by the cloud services.

© 2012 OSA

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  5. J. Li, B. Li, T. Wo, C. Hu, J. Huai, L. Liu, and K. P. Lam, “CyberGuarder: A virtualization security assurance architecture for green cloud computing,” FGCS, Future Gener. Comput. Syst., vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 379–390, 2012.
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. Baliga, R. Ayre, K. Hinton, and R. S. Tucker, “Photonics switching and the energy bottleneck,” in Proc. of OSA Conf. on Photonics in Switching, 2007, pp. 125–126.
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  9. H. Takeshita, N. Yamanaka, S. Okamoto, S. Shimizu, and S. Gao, “Energy efficient network design tool for green IP/Ethernet networks,” Opt. Switching Netw., vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 264–270, 2012.
    [CrossRef]
  10. W. Hou, L. Guo, X. Wang, and X. Wei, “Joint port-cost and power-consumption savings in hybrid hierarchical optical networks,” Opt. Switching Netw., vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 214–224, 2011.
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  11. S. Ricciardi, F. Palmieri, U. Fiore, D. Careglio, G. Santos-Boada, and J. Solé-Pareta, “An energy-aware dynamic RWA framework for next-generation wavelength-routed networks,” Comput. Netw., vol. 56, no. 10, pp. 2420–2442, 2012.
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  13. J. Baliga, R. Ayre, K. Hinton, and R. Tucker, “Green cloud computing: Balancing energy in processing, storage, and transport,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 99, no. 1, pp. 149–167, Jan.2011.
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  17. J. Choi, S. Govindan, J. Jeong, B. Urgaonkar, and A. Sivasubramaniam, “Power consumption prediction and power-aware packing in consolidated environments,” IEEE Trans. Comput., vol. 59, no. 12, pp. 1640–1654, Dec.2010.
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  26. C. Develder, M. De Leenheer, B. Dhoedt, M. Pickavet, D. Colle, F. De Turck, and P. Demeester, “Optical networks for grid and cloud computing applications,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 100, no. 5, pp. 1149–1167, 2012.
    [CrossRef]
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  30. B. Kantarci and H. T. Mouftah, “The impact of time of use (ToU)-awareness in energy and opex performance of a cloud backbone,” in Proc. of IEEE GLOBECOM, Dec. 2012, to be published.
  31. J-W. Huang, L.-C. Wang, and C.-J. Chang, “Power fairness in a scalable ring-based wireless mesh network,” in Proc. of IEEE Vehicular Technology Conf. Fall, Sept. 2007, pp. 341–346.
  32. B. Kantarci and H. T. Mouftah, “Optimal reconfiguration of the cloud network for maximum energy savings,” in Proc. of Workshop on Cloud Computing Optimization, May 2012.
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  34. W. Hu and Q. Zeng, “Multicasting optical cross connects employing splitter-and-delivery switch,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 10, no. 7, pp. 970–972, July1998.
    [CrossRef]

2012 (4)

J. Li, B. Li, T. Wo, C. Hu, J. Huai, L. Liu, and K. P. Lam, “CyberGuarder: A virtualization security assurance architecture for green cloud computing,” FGCS, Future Gener. Comput. Syst., vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 379–390, 2012.
[CrossRef]

H. Takeshita, N. Yamanaka, S. Okamoto, S. Shimizu, and S. Gao, “Energy efficient network design tool for green IP/Ethernet networks,” Opt. Switching Netw., vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 264–270, 2012.
[CrossRef]

S. Ricciardi, F. Palmieri, U. Fiore, D. Careglio, G. Santos-Boada, and J. Solé-Pareta, “An energy-aware dynamic RWA framework for next-generation wavelength-routed networks,” Comput. Netw., vol. 56, no. 10, pp. 2420–2442, 2012.
[CrossRef]

C. Develder, M. De Leenheer, B. Dhoedt, M. Pickavet, D. Colle, F. De Turck, and P. Demeester, “Optical networks for grid and cloud computing applications,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 100, no. 5, pp. 1149–1167, 2012.
[CrossRef]

2011 (5)

X. Dong, T. El-Gorashi, and J. M. H. Elmirghani, “Green IP over WDM networks with data centers,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 29, no. 12, pp. 1861–1880, June2011.
[CrossRef]

J. Baliga, R. Ayre, K. Hinton, and R. Tucker, “Green cloud computing: Balancing energy in processing, storage, and transport,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 99, no. 1, pp. 149–167, Jan.2011.
[CrossRef]

A. Banerjee, T. Mukherjee, G. Varsamopoulos, and S. K. S. Gupta, “Integrating cooling awareness with thermal aware workload placement for HPC data centers,” Sustainable Comput.: Inf. Syst., vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 134–150, June2011.
[CrossRef]

J.-W. Jang, M. Jeon, H.-S. Kim, H. Jo, J.-S. Kim, and S. Maeng, “Energy reduction in consolidated servers through memory-aware virtual machine scheduling,” IEEE Trans. Comput., vol. 60, no. 4, pp. 552–564, Apr.2011.
[CrossRef]

W. Hou, L. Guo, X. Wang, and X. Wei, “Joint port-cost and power-consumption savings in hybrid hierarchical optical networks,” Opt. Switching Netw., vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 214–224, 2011.
[CrossRef]

2010 (4)

Y. Zhang, P. Chowdhury, M. Tornatore, and B. Mukherjee, “Energy efficiency in telecom optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 441–458, 2010.
[CrossRef]

Q. Zhang, L. Cheng, and R. Boutaba, “Cloud computing: State-of-the-art and research challenges,” J. Internet Services Appl., vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 7–18, May2010.
[CrossRef]

J. Choi, S. Govindan, J. Jeong, B. Urgaonkar, and A. Sivasubramaniam, “Power consumption prediction and power-aware packing in consolidated environments,” IEEE Trans. Comput., vol. 59, no. 12, pp. 1640–1654, Dec.2010.
[CrossRef]

N. Charbonneau and V. M. Vokkarane, “Routing and wavelength assignment of static manycast demands over all-optical wavelength-routed WDM networks,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol. 2, no. 7, pp. 442–455, July2010.
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

G. Shen and R. S. Tucker, “Energy-minimized design for IP over WDM networks,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol. 1, pp. 176–186, June2009.
[CrossRef]

K. Hinton, J. Baliga, M. Feng, R. Ayre, and R. S. Tucker, “Power consumption and energy efficiency in the Internet,” IEEE Network, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 6–12, Mar.–Apr.2009.
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

B. Hayes, “Cloud computing,” Commun. ACM, vol. 51, pp. 9–11, July2008.
[CrossRef]

Q. Tang, S. K. S. Gupta, and G. Varsamopoulos, “Energy-efficient thermal-aware task scheduling for homogeneous high-performance computing data centers: A cyber-physical approach,” IEEE Trans. Parallel Distrib. Syst., vol. 19, no. 11, pp. 1458–1472, Nov.2008.
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

W. Hu and Q. Zeng, “Multicasting optical cross connects employing splitter-and-delivery switch,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 10, no. 7, pp. 970–972, July1998.
[CrossRef]

Armbrust, M.

M. Armbrust, A. Fox, G. Rean, A. D. Joseph, R. Katz, A. Konwinski, G. Lee, D. A. Patterson, A. Rabkin, I. Stoica, and M. Zaharia, “Above the clouds: A Berkeley view of cloud computing,” Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences, University of California at Berkeley, , Feb.2009 [Online]. Available: http://www.eecs.berkeley.edu/Pubs/TechRpts/2009/EECS-2009-28.html.

Ayre, R.

J. Baliga, R. Ayre, K. Hinton, and R. Tucker, “Green cloud computing: Balancing energy in processing, storage, and transport,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 99, no. 1, pp. 149–167, Jan.2011.
[CrossRef]

K. Hinton, J. Baliga, M. Feng, R. Ayre, and R. S. Tucker, “Power consumption and energy efficiency in the Internet,” IEEE Network, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 6–12, Mar.–Apr.2009.
[CrossRef]

J. Baliga, R. Ayre, K. Hinton, and R. S. Tucker, “Photonics switching and the energy bottleneck,” in Proc. of OSA Conf. on Photonics in Switching, 2007, pp. 125–126.

Baliga, J.

J. Baliga, R. Ayre, K. Hinton, and R. Tucker, “Green cloud computing: Balancing energy in processing, storage, and transport,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 99, no. 1, pp. 149–167, Jan.2011.
[CrossRef]

K. Hinton, J. Baliga, M. Feng, R. Ayre, and R. S. Tucker, “Power consumption and energy efficiency in the Internet,” IEEE Network, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 6–12, Mar.–Apr.2009.
[CrossRef]

J. Baliga, R. Ayre, K. Hinton, and R. S. Tucker, “Photonics switching and the energy bottleneck,” in Proc. of OSA Conf. on Photonics in Switching, 2007, pp. 125–126.

Banerjee, A.

A. Banerjee, T. Mukherjee, G. Varsamopoulos, and S. K. S. Gupta, “Integrating cooling awareness with thermal aware workload placement for HPC data centers,” Sustainable Comput.: Inf. Syst., vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 134–150, June2011.
[CrossRef]

Bathula, B. G.

B. G. Bathula and J. M. H. Elmirghani, “Green networks: Energy efficient design for optical networks,” in Proc. of Int. Conf. on Wireless and Optical Communication Networks, Apr. 2009, pp. S15.3.1–S15.3.5.

Boutaba, R.

Q. Zhang, L. Cheng, and R. Boutaba, “Cloud computing: State-of-the-art and research challenges,” J. Internet Services Appl., vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 7–18, May2010.
[CrossRef]

Careglio, D.

S. Ricciardi, F. Palmieri, U. Fiore, D. Careglio, G. Santos-Boada, and J. Solé-Pareta, “An energy-aware dynamic RWA framework for next-generation wavelength-routed networks,” Comput. Netw., vol. 56, no. 10, pp. 2420–2442, 2012.
[CrossRef]

S. Ricciardi, D. Careglio, G. Santos-Boada, J. Sole-Pareta, U. Fiore, and F. Palmieri, “Saving energy in data center infrastructures,” in Proc. of Int. Conf. on Data Compression, Communications and Processing, June 2011, pp. 265–270.

Chang, C.-J.

J-W. Huang, L.-C. Wang, and C.-J. Chang, “Power fairness in a scalable ring-based wireless mesh network,” in Proc. of IEEE Vehicular Technology Conf. Fall, Sept. 2007, pp. 341–346.

Charbonneau, N.

Chase, J.

J. Moore, J. Chase, P. Ranganathan, and R. Sharma, “Making scheduling cool: Temperature-aware workload placement in data centers,” in Proc. of USENIX Annu. Technical Conf. (ATEC), Apr. 2005, pp. 61–74.

Cheng, L.

Q. Zhang, L. Cheng, and R. Boutaba, “Cloud computing: State-of-the-art and research challenges,” J. Internet Services Appl., vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 7–18, May2010.
[CrossRef]

Choi, J.

J. Choi, S. Govindan, J. Jeong, B. Urgaonkar, and A. Sivasubramaniam, “Power consumption prediction and power-aware packing in consolidated environments,” IEEE Trans. Comput., vol. 59, no. 12, pp. 1640–1654, Dec.2010.
[CrossRef]

Chowdhury, P.

Y. Zhang, P. Chowdhury, M. Tornatore, and B. Mukherjee, “Energy efficiency in telecom optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 441–458, 2010.
[CrossRef]

Colle, D.

C. Develder, M. De Leenheer, B. Dhoedt, M. Pickavet, D. Colle, F. De Turck, and P. Demeester, “Optical networks for grid and cloud computing applications,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 100, no. 5, pp. 1149–1167, 2012.
[CrossRef]

De Leenheer, M.

C. Develder, M. De Leenheer, B. Dhoedt, M. Pickavet, D. Colle, F. De Turck, and P. Demeester, “Optical networks for grid and cloud computing applications,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 100, no. 5, pp. 1149–1167, 2012.
[CrossRef]

De Turck, F.

C. Develder, M. De Leenheer, B. Dhoedt, M. Pickavet, D. Colle, F. De Turck, and P. Demeester, “Optical networks for grid and cloud computing applications,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 100, no. 5, pp. 1149–1167, 2012.
[CrossRef]

Demeester, P.

C. Develder, M. De Leenheer, B. Dhoedt, M. Pickavet, D. Colle, F. De Turck, and P. Demeester, “Optical networks for grid and cloud computing applications,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 100, no. 5, pp. 1149–1167, 2012.
[CrossRef]

Develder, C.

C. Develder, M. De Leenheer, B. Dhoedt, M. Pickavet, D. Colle, F. De Turck, and P. Demeester, “Optical networks for grid and cloud computing applications,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 100, no. 5, pp. 1149–1167, 2012.
[CrossRef]

Dhoedt, B.

C. Develder, M. De Leenheer, B. Dhoedt, M. Pickavet, D. Colle, F. De Turck, and P. Demeester, “Optical networks for grid and cloud computing applications,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 100, no. 5, pp. 1149–1167, 2012.
[CrossRef]

Dong, X.

El-Gorashi, T.

Elmirghani, J. M. H.

X. Dong, T. El-Gorashi, and J. M. H. Elmirghani, “Green IP over WDM networks with data centers,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 29, no. 12, pp. 1861–1880, June2011.
[CrossRef]

B. G. Bathula and J. M. H. Elmirghani, “Green networks: Energy efficient design for optical networks,” in Proc. of Int. Conf. on Wireless and Optical Communication Networks, Apr. 2009, pp. S15.3.1–S15.3.5.

Feng, M.

K. Hinton, J. Baliga, M. Feng, R. Ayre, and R. S. Tucker, “Power consumption and energy efficiency in the Internet,” IEEE Network, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 6–12, Mar.–Apr.2009.
[CrossRef]

Fiore, U.

S. Ricciardi, F. Palmieri, U. Fiore, D. Careglio, G. Santos-Boada, and J. Solé-Pareta, “An energy-aware dynamic RWA framework for next-generation wavelength-routed networks,” Comput. Netw., vol. 56, no. 10, pp. 2420–2442, 2012.
[CrossRef]

S. Ricciardi, D. Careglio, G. Santos-Boada, J. Sole-Pareta, U. Fiore, and F. Palmieri, “Saving energy in data center infrastructures,” in Proc. of Int. Conf. on Data Compression, Communications and Processing, June 2011, pp. 265–270.

Fox, A.

M. Armbrust, A. Fox, G. Rean, A. D. Joseph, R. Katz, A. Konwinski, G. Lee, D. A. Patterson, A. Rabkin, I. Stoica, and M. Zaharia, “Above the clouds: A Berkeley view of cloud computing,” Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences, University of California at Berkeley, , Feb.2009 [Online]. Available: http://www.eecs.berkeley.edu/Pubs/TechRpts/2009/EECS-2009-28.html.

Gadkar, A. G.

A. G. Gadkar, J. Plante, and V. M. Vokkarane, “Manycasting: Energy-efficient multicasting in WDM optical unicast networks,” in Proc. of IEEE GLOBECOM, Dec. 2011, pp. SAC06.5.1–SAC06.5.5.

Gao, S.

H. Takeshita, N. Yamanaka, S. Okamoto, S. Shimizu, and S. Gao, “Energy efficient network design tool for green IP/Ethernet networks,” Opt. Switching Netw., vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 264–270, 2012.
[CrossRef]

Govindan, S.

J. Choi, S. Govindan, J. Jeong, B. Urgaonkar, and A. Sivasubramaniam, “Power consumption prediction and power-aware packing in consolidated environments,” IEEE Trans. Comput., vol. 59, no. 12, pp. 1640–1654, Dec.2010.
[CrossRef]

Grance, T.

P. Mell and T. Grance, “The NIST definition of cloud computing,” Jan.2011 [Online]. Available: http://csrc.nist.gov/publications/nistpubs/800-145/SP800-145.pdf.

Greenberg, S.

S. Greenberg, W. Tschudi, and J. Weale, “Self-benchmarking guide for data center energy performance,” Lawrence Berkley National Laboratory, 2006 [Online]. Available: http://hightech.lbl.gov/documents/data_centers/self_benchmarking_guide-2.pdf.

Guo, L.

W. Hou, L. Guo, X. Wang, and X. Wei, “Joint port-cost and power-consumption savings in hybrid hierarchical optical networks,” Opt. Switching Netw., vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 214–224, 2011.
[CrossRef]

Gupta, M.

M. Gupta and S. Singh, “Greening of the Internet,” in Proc. of ACM SIGCOMM, Aug. 2003, pp. 19–26.

Gupta, S. K. S.

A. Banerjee, T. Mukherjee, G. Varsamopoulos, and S. K. S. Gupta, “Integrating cooling awareness with thermal aware workload placement for HPC data centers,” Sustainable Comput.: Inf. Syst., vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 134–150, June2011.
[CrossRef]

Q. Tang, S. K. S. Gupta, and G. Varsamopoulos, “Energy-efficient thermal-aware task scheduling for homogeneous high-performance computing data centers: A cyber-physical approach,” IEEE Trans. Parallel Distrib. Syst., vol. 19, no. 11, pp. 1458–1472, Nov.2008.
[CrossRef]

Hayes, B.

B. Hayes, “Cloud computing,” Commun. ACM, vol. 51, pp. 9–11, July2008.
[CrossRef]

Hinton, K.

J. Baliga, R. Ayre, K. Hinton, and R. Tucker, “Green cloud computing: Balancing energy in processing, storage, and transport,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 99, no. 1, pp. 149–167, Jan.2011.
[CrossRef]

K. Hinton, J. Baliga, M. Feng, R. Ayre, and R. S. Tucker, “Power consumption and energy efficiency in the Internet,” IEEE Network, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 6–12, Mar.–Apr.2009.
[CrossRef]

J. Baliga, R. Ayre, K. Hinton, and R. S. Tucker, “Photonics switching and the energy bottleneck,” in Proc. of OSA Conf. on Photonics in Switching, 2007, pp. 125–126.

Hou, W.

W. Hou, L. Guo, X. Wang, and X. Wei, “Joint port-cost and power-consumption savings in hybrid hierarchical optical networks,” Opt. Switching Netw., vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 214–224, 2011.
[CrossRef]

Hu, C.

J. Li, B. Li, T. Wo, C. Hu, J. Huai, L. Liu, and K. P. Lam, “CyberGuarder: A virtualization security assurance architecture for green cloud computing,” FGCS, Future Gener. Comput. Syst., vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 379–390, 2012.
[CrossRef]

Hu, W.

W. Hu and Q. Zeng, “Multicasting optical cross connects employing splitter-and-delivery switch,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 10, no. 7, pp. 970–972, July1998.
[CrossRef]

Huai, J.

J. Li, B. Li, T. Wo, C. Hu, J. Huai, L. Liu, and K. P. Lam, “CyberGuarder: A virtualization security assurance architecture for green cloud computing,” FGCS, Future Gener. Comput. Syst., vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 379–390, 2012.
[CrossRef]

Huang, J-W.

J-W. Huang, L.-C. Wang, and C.-J. Chang, “Power fairness in a scalable ring-based wireless mesh network,” in Proc. of IEEE Vehicular Technology Conf. Fall, Sept. 2007, pp. 341–346.

Jang, J.-W.

J.-W. Jang, M. Jeon, H.-S. Kim, H. Jo, J.-S. Kim, and S. Maeng, “Energy reduction in consolidated servers through memory-aware virtual machine scheduling,” IEEE Trans. Comput., vol. 60, no. 4, pp. 552–564, Apr.2011.
[CrossRef]

Jeon, M.

J.-W. Jang, M. Jeon, H.-S. Kim, H. Jo, J.-S. Kim, and S. Maeng, “Energy reduction in consolidated servers through memory-aware virtual machine scheduling,” IEEE Trans. Comput., vol. 60, no. 4, pp. 552–564, Apr.2011.
[CrossRef]

Jeong, J.

J. Choi, S. Govindan, J. Jeong, B. Urgaonkar, and A. Sivasubramaniam, “Power consumption prediction and power-aware packing in consolidated environments,” IEEE Trans. Comput., vol. 59, no. 12, pp. 1640–1654, Dec.2010.
[CrossRef]

Jo, H.

J.-W. Jang, M. Jeon, H.-S. Kim, H. Jo, J.-S. Kim, and S. Maeng, “Energy reduction in consolidated servers through memory-aware virtual machine scheduling,” IEEE Trans. Comput., vol. 60, no. 4, pp. 552–564, Apr.2011.
[CrossRef]

Joseph, A. D.

M. Armbrust, A. Fox, G. Rean, A. D. Joseph, R. Katz, A. Konwinski, G. Lee, D. A. Patterson, A. Rabkin, I. Stoica, and M. Zaharia, “Above the clouds: A Berkeley view of cloud computing,” Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences, University of California at Berkeley, , Feb.2009 [Online]. Available: http://www.eecs.berkeley.edu/Pubs/TechRpts/2009/EECS-2009-28.html.

Kantarci, B.

B. Kantarci and H. T. Mouftah, “Optimal reconfiguration of the cloud network for maximum energy savings,” in Proc. of Workshop on Cloud Computing Optimization, May 2012.

B. Kantarci and H. T. Mouftah, “The impact of time of use (ToU)-awareness in energy and opex performance of a cloud backbone,” in Proc. of IEEE GLOBECOM, Dec. 2012, to be published.

B. Kantarci and H. T. Mouftah, “Energy-efficient demand provisioning in the cloud,” in Proc. of Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC), Mar. 2012, pp. OM2G.4.1–OM2G.4.3.

B. Kantarci and H. T. Mouftah, “Overcoming the energy versus delay trade-off in cloud network reconfiguration,” in Proc. of IEEE Symp. on Computers and Communications (ISCC), July 2012.

B. Kantarci and H. T. Mouftah, “Energy-efficient cloud services over wavelength-routed optical transport networks,” in Proc. of IEEE GLOBECOM, Dec. 2011, pp. SAC06.6.1–SAC06.6.5.

Katz, R.

M. Armbrust, A. Fox, G. Rean, A. D. Joseph, R. Katz, A. Konwinski, G. Lee, D. A. Patterson, A. Rabkin, I. Stoica, and M. Zaharia, “Above the clouds: A Berkeley view of cloud computing,” Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences, University of California at Berkeley, , Feb.2009 [Online]. Available: http://www.eecs.berkeley.edu/Pubs/TechRpts/2009/EECS-2009-28.html.

Kim, H.-S.

J.-W. Jang, M. Jeon, H.-S. Kim, H. Jo, J.-S. Kim, and S. Maeng, “Energy reduction in consolidated servers through memory-aware virtual machine scheduling,” IEEE Trans. Comput., vol. 60, no. 4, pp. 552–564, Apr.2011.
[CrossRef]

Kim, J.-S.

J.-W. Jang, M. Jeon, H.-S. Kim, H. Jo, J.-S. Kim, and S. Maeng, “Energy reduction in consolidated servers through memory-aware virtual machine scheduling,” IEEE Trans. Comput., vol. 60, no. 4, pp. 552–564, Apr.2011.
[CrossRef]

Konwinski, A.

M. Armbrust, A. Fox, G. Rean, A. D. Joseph, R. Katz, A. Konwinski, G. Lee, D. A. Patterson, A. Rabkin, I. Stoica, and M. Zaharia, “Above the clouds: A Berkeley view of cloud computing,” Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences, University of California at Berkeley, , Feb.2009 [Online]. Available: http://www.eecs.berkeley.edu/Pubs/TechRpts/2009/EECS-2009-28.html.

Lam, K. P.

J. Li, B. Li, T. Wo, C. Hu, J. Huai, L. Liu, and K. P. Lam, “CyberGuarder: A virtualization security assurance architecture for green cloud computing,” FGCS, Future Gener. Comput. Syst., vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 379–390, 2012.
[CrossRef]

Lee, G.

M. Armbrust, A. Fox, G. Rean, A. D. Joseph, R. Katz, A. Konwinski, G. Lee, D. A. Patterson, A. Rabkin, I. Stoica, and M. Zaharia, “Above the clouds: A Berkeley view of cloud computing,” Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences, University of California at Berkeley, , Feb.2009 [Online]. Available: http://www.eecs.berkeley.edu/Pubs/TechRpts/2009/EECS-2009-28.html.

Li, B.

J. Li, B. Li, T. Wo, C. Hu, J. Huai, L. Liu, and K. P. Lam, “CyberGuarder: A virtualization security assurance architecture for green cloud computing,” FGCS, Future Gener. Comput. Syst., vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 379–390, 2012.
[CrossRef]

Li, J.

J. Li, B. Li, T. Wo, C. Hu, J. Huai, L. Liu, and K. P. Lam, “CyberGuarder: A virtualization security assurance architecture for green cloud computing,” FGCS, Future Gener. Comput. Syst., vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 379–390, 2012.
[CrossRef]

Liu, L.

J. Li, B. Li, T. Wo, C. Hu, J. Huai, L. Liu, and K. P. Lam, “CyberGuarder: A virtualization security assurance architecture for green cloud computing,” FGCS, Future Gener. Comput. Syst., vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 379–390, 2012.
[CrossRef]

Maeng, S.

J.-W. Jang, M. Jeon, H.-S. Kim, H. Jo, J.-S. Kim, and S. Maeng, “Energy reduction in consolidated servers through memory-aware virtual machine scheduling,” IEEE Trans. Comput., vol. 60, no. 4, pp. 552–564, Apr.2011.
[CrossRef]

Mell, P.

P. Mell and T. Grance, “The NIST definition of cloud computing,” Jan.2011 [Online]. Available: http://csrc.nist.gov/publications/nistpubs/800-145/SP800-145.pdf.

Moore, J.

J. Moore, J. Chase, P. Ranganathan, and R. Sharma, “Making scheduling cool: Temperature-aware workload placement in data centers,” in Proc. of USENIX Annu. Technical Conf. (ATEC), Apr. 2005, pp. 61–74.

Mouftah, H. T.

B. Kantarci and H. T. Mouftah, “Energy-efficient demand provisioning in the cloud,” in Proc. of Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC), Mar. 2012, pp. OM2G.4.1–OM2G.4.3.

B. Kantarci and H. T. Mouftah, “The impact of time of use (ToU)-awareness in energy and opex performance of a cloud backbone,” in Proc. of IEEE GLOBECOM, Dec. 2012, to be published.

B. Kantarci and H. T. Mouftah, “Optimal reconfiguration of the cloud network for maximum energy savings,” in Proc. of Workshop on Cloud Computing Optimization, May 2012.

B. Kantarci and H. T. Mouftah, “Energy-efficient cloud services over wavelength-routed optical transport networks,” in Proc. of IEEE GLOBECOM, Dec. 2011, pp. SAC06.6.1–SAC06.6.5.

B. Kantarci and H. T. Mouftah, “Overcoming the energy versus delay trade-off in cloud network reconfiguration,” in Proc. of IEEE Symp. on Computers and Communications (ISCC), July 2012.

Mukherjee, B.

Y. Zhang, P. Chowdhury, M. Tornatore, and B. Mukherjee, “Energy efficiency in telecom optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 441–458, 2010.
[CrossRef]

A. S. Reaz, V. Ramamurthi, M. Tornatore, and B. Mukherjee, “Green provisioning of cloud services over wireless-optical broadband access networks,” in Proc. of IEEE GLOBECOM, Dec. 2011, pp. SAC04.3.1–SAC04.3.5.

Mukherjee, T.

A. Banerjee, T. Mukherjee, G. Varsamopoulos, and S. K. S. Gupta, “Integrating cooling awareness with thermal aware workload placement for HPC data centers,” Sustainable Comput.: Inf. Syst., vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 134–150, June2011.
[CrossRef]

Okamoto, S.

H. Takeshita, N. Yamanaka, S. Okamoto, S. Shimizu, and S. Gao, “Energy efficient network design tool for green IP/Ethernet networks,” Opt. Switching Netw., vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 264–270, 2012.
[CrossRef]

Palmieri, F.

S. Ricciardi, F. Palmieri, U. Fiore, D. Careglio, G. Santos-Boada, and J. Solé-Pareta, “An energy-aware dynamic RWA framework for next-generation wavelength-routed networks,” Comput. Netw., vol. 56, no. 10, pp. 2420–2442, 2012.
[CrossRef]

S. Ricciardi, D. Careglio, G. Santos-Boada, J. Sole-Pareta, U. Fiore, and F. Palmieri, “Saving energy in data center infrastructures,” in Proc. of Int. Conf. on Data Compression, Communications and Processing, June 2011, pp. 265–270.

Patterson, D. A.

M. Armbrust, A. Fox, G. Rean, A. D. Joseph, R. Katz, A. Konwinski, G. Lee, D. A. Patterson, A. Rabkin, I. Stoica, and M. Zaharia, “Above the clouds: A Berkeley view of cloud computing,” Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences, University of California at Berkeley, , Feb.2009 [Online]. Available: http://www.eecs.berkeley.edu/Pubs/TechRpts/2009/EECS-2009-28.html.

Pickavet, M.

C. Develder, M. De Leenheer, B. Dhoedt, M. Pickavet, D. Colle, F. De Turck, and P. Demeester, “Optical networks for grid and cloud computing applications,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 100, no. 5, pp. 1149–1167, 2012.
[CrossRef]

Plante, J.

A. G. Gadkar, J. Plante, and V. M. Vokkarane, “Manycasting: Energy-efficient multicasting in WDM optical unicast networks,” in Proc. of IEEE GLOBECOM, Dec. 2011, pp. SAC06.5.1–SAC06.5.5.

Rabkin, A.

M. Armbrust, A. Fox, G. Rean, A. D. Joseph, R. Katz, A. Konwinski, G. Lee, D. A. Patterson, A. Rabkin, I. Stoica, and M. Zaharia, “Above the clouds: A Berkeley view of cloud computing,” Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences, University of California at Berkeley, , Feb.2009 [Online]. Available: http://www.eecs.berkeley.edu/Pubs/TechRpts/2009/EECS-2009-28.html.

Ramamurthi, V.

A. S. Reaz, V. Ramamurthi, M. Tornatore, and B. Mukherjee, “Green provisioning of cloud services over wireless-optical broadband access networks,” in Proc. of IEEE GLOBECOM, Dec. 2011, pp. SAC04.3.1–SAC04.3.5.

Ranganathan, P.

J. Moore, J. Chase, P. Ranganathan, and R. Sharma, “Making scheduling cool: Temperature-aware workload placement in data centers,” in Proc. of USENIX Annu. Technical Conf. (ATEC), Apr. 2005, pp. 61–74.

Rean, G.

M. Armbrust, A. Fox, G. Rean, A. D. Joseph, R. Katz, A. Konwinski, G. Lee, D. A. Patterson, A. Rabkin, I. Stoica, and M. Zaharia, “Above the clouds: A Berkeley view of cloud computing,” Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences, University of California at Berkeley, , Feb.2009 [Online]. Available: http://www.eecs.berkeley.edu/Pubs/TechRpts/2009/EECS-2009-28.html.

Reaz, A. S.

A. S. Reaz, V. Ramamurthi, M. Tornatore, and B. Mukherjee, “Green provisioning of cloud services over wireless-optical broadband access networks,” in Proc. of IEEE GLOBECOM, Dec. 2011, pp. SAC04.3.1–SAC04.3.5.

Ricciardi, S.

S. Ricciardi, F. Palmieri, U. Fiore, D. Careglio, G. Santos-Boada, and J. Solé-Pareta, “An energy-aware dynamic RWA framework for next-generation wavelength-routed networks,” Comput. Netw., vol. 56, no. 10, pp. 2420–2442, 2012.
[CrossRef]

S. Ricciardi, D. Careglio, G. Santos-Boada, J. Sole-Pareta, U. Fiore, and F. Palmieri, “Saving energy in data center infrastructures,” in Proc. of Int. Conf. on Data Compression, Communications and Processing, June 2011, pp. 265–270.

Santos-Boada, G.

S. Ricciardi, F. Palmieri, U. Fiore, D. Careglio, G. Santos-Boada, and J. Solé-Pareta, “An energy-aware dynamic RWA framework for next-generation wavelength-routed networks,” Comput. Netw., vol. 56, no. 10, pp. 2420–2442, 2012.
[CrossRef]

S. Ricciardi, D. Careglio, G. Santos-Boada, J. Sole-Pareta, U. Fiore, and F. Palmieri, “Saving energy in data center infrastructures,” in Proc. of Int. Conf. on Data Compression, Communications and Processing, June 2011, pp. 265–270.

Sharma, R.

J. Moore, J. Chase, P. Ranganathan, and R. Sharma, “Making scheduling cool: Temperature-aware workload placement in data centers,” in Proc. of USENIX Annu. Technical Conf. (ATEC), Apr. 2005, pp. 61–74.

Shen, G.

Shimizu, S.

H. Takeshita, N. Yamanaka, S. Okamoto, S. Shimizu, and S. Gao, “Energy efficient network design tool for green IP/Ethernet networks,” Opt. Switching Netw., vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 264–270, 2012.
[CrossRef]

Singh, S.

M. Gupta and S. Singh, “Greening of the Internet,” in Proc. of ACM SIGCOMM, Aug. 2003, pp. 19–26.

Sivasubramaniam, A.

J. Choi, S. Govindan, J. Jeong, B. Urgaonkar, and A. Sivasubramaniam, “Power consumption prediction and power-aware packing in consolidated environments,” IEEE Trans. Comput., vol. 59, no. 12, pp. 1640–1654, Dec.2010.
[CrossRef]

Sole-Pareta, J.

S. Ricciardi, D. Careglio, G. Santos-Boada, J. Sole-Pareta, U. Fiore, and F. Palmieri, “Saving energy in data center infrastructures,” in Proc. of Int. Conf. on Data Compression, Communications and Processing, June 2011, pp. 265–270.

Solé-Pareta, J.

S. Ricciardi, F. Palmieri, U. Fiore, D. Careglio, G. Santos-Boada, and J. Solé-Pareta, “An energy-aware dynamic RWA framework for next-generation wavelength-routed networks,” Comput. Netw., vol. 56, no. 10, pp. 2420–2442, 2012.
[CrossRef]

Stoica, I.

M. Armbrust, A. Fox, G. Rean, A. D. Joseph, R. Katz, A. Konwinski, G. Lee, D. A. Patterson, A. Rabkin, I. Stoica, and M. Zaharia, “Above the clouds: A Berkeley view of cloud computing,” Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences, University of California at Berkeley, , Feb.2009 [Online]. Available: http://www.eecs.berkeley.edu/Pubs/TechRpts/2009/EECS-2009-28.html.

Takeshita, H.

H. Takeshita, N. Yamanaka, S. Okamoto, S. Shimizu, and S. Gao, “Energy efficient network design tool for green IP/Ethernet networks,” Opt. Switching Netw., vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 264–270, 2012.
[CrossRef]

Tang, Q.

Q. Tang, S. K. S. Gupta, and G. Varsamopoulos, “Energy-efficient thermal-aware task scheduling for homogeneous high-performance computing data centers: A cyber-physical approach,” IEEE Trans. Parallel Distrib. Syst., vol. 19, no. 11, pp. 1458–1472, Nov.2008.
[CrossRef]

Tornatore, M.

Y. Zhang, P. Chowdhury, M. Tornatore, and B. Mukherjee, “Energy efficiency in telecom optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 441–458, 2010.
[CrossRef]

A. S. Reaz, V. Ramamurthi, M. Tornatore, and B. Mukherjee, “Green provisioning of cloud services over wireless-optical broadband access networks,” in Proc. of IEEE GLOBECOM, Dec. 2011, pp. SAC04.3.1–SAC04.3.5.

Tschudi, W.

S. Greenberg, W. Tschudi, and J. Weale, “Self-benchmarking guide for data center energy performance,” Lawrence Berkley National Laboratory, 2006 [Online]. Available: http://hightech.lbl.gov/documents/data_centers/self_benchmarking_guide-2.pdf.

Tucker, R.

J. Baliga, R. Ayre, K. Hinton, and R. Tucker, “Green cloud computing: Balancing energy in processing, storage, and transport,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 99, no. 1, pp. 149–167, Jan.2011.
[CrossRef]

Tucker, R. S.

K. Hinton, J. Baliga, M. Feng, R. Ayre, and R. S. Tucker, “Power consumption and energy efficiency in the Internet,” IEEE Network, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 6–12, Mar.–Apr.2009.
[CrossRef]

G. Shen and R. S. Tucker, “Energy-minimized design for IP over WDM networks,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol. 1, pp. 176–186, June2009.
[CrossRef]

J. Baliga, R. Ayre, K. Hinton, and R. S. Tucker, “Photonics switching and the energy bottleneck,” in Proc. of OSA Conf. on Photonics in Switching, 2007, pp. 125–126.

Urgaonkar, B.

J. Choi, S. Govindan, J. Jeong, B. Urgaonkar, and A. Sivasubramaniam, “Power consumption prediction and power-aware packing in consolidated environments,” IEEE Trans. Comput., vol. 59, no. 12, pp. 1640–1654, Dec.2010.
[CrossRef]

Varsamopoulos, G.

A. Banerjee, T. Mukherjee, G. Varsamopoulos, and S. K. S. Gupta, “Integrating cooling awareness with thermal aware workload placement for HPC data centers,” Sustainable Comput.: Inf. Syst., vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 134–150, June2011.
[CrossRef]

Q. Tang, S. K. S. Gupta, and G. Varsamopoulos, “Energy-efficient thermal-aware task scheduling for homogeneous high-performance computing data centers: A cyber-physical approach,” IEEE Trans. Parallel Distrib. Syst., vol. 19, no. 11, pp. 1458–1472, Nov.2008.
[CrossRef]

Vokkarane, V. M.

N. Charbonneau and V. M. Vokkarane, “Routing and wavelength assignment of static manycast demands over all-optical wavelength-routed WDM networks,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol. 2, no. 7, pp. 442–455, July2010.
[CrossRef]

A. G. Gadkar, J. Plante, and V. M. Vokkarane, “Manycasting: Energy-efficient multicasting in WDM optical unicast networks,” in Proc. of IEEE GLOBECOM, Dec. 2011, pp. SAC06.5.1–SAC06.5.5.

Wang, L.-C.

J-W. Huang, L.-C. Wang, and C.-J. Chang, “Power fairness in a scalable ring-based wireless mesh network,” in Proc. of IEEE Vehicular Technology Conf. Fall, Sept. 2007, pp. 341–346.

Wang, X.

W. Hou, L. Guo, X. Wang, and X. Wei, “Joint port-cost and power-consumption savings in hybrid hierarchical optical networks,” Opt. Switching Netw., vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 214–224, 2011.
[CrossRef]

Weale, J.

S. Greenberg, W. Tschudi, and J. Weale, “Self-benchmarking guide for data center energy performance,” Lawrence Berkley National Laboratory, 2006 [Online]. Available: http://hightech.lbl.gov/documents/data_centers/self_benchmarking_guide-2.pdf.

Wei, X.

W. Hou, L. Guo, X. Wang, and X. Wei, “Joint port-cost and power-consumption savings in hybrid hierarchical optical networks,” Opt. Switching Netw., vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 214–224, 2011.
[CrossRef]

Wo, T.

J. Li, B. Li, T. Wo, C. Hu, J. Huai, L. Liu, and K. P. Lam, “CyberGuarder: A virtualization security assurance architecture for green cloud computing,” FGCS, Future Gener. Comput. Syst., vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 379–390, 2012.
[CrossRef]

Yamanaka, N.

H. Takeshita, N. Yamanaka, S. Okamoto, S. Shimizu, and S. Gao, “Energy efficient network design tool for green IP/Ethernet networks,” Opt. Switching Netw., vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 264–270, 2012.
[CrossRef]

Zaharia, M.

M. Armbrust, A. Fox, G. Rean, A. D. Joseph, R. Katz, A. Konwinski, G. Lee, D. A. Patterson, A. Rabkin, I. Stoica, and M. Zaharia, “Above the clouds: A Berkeley view of cloud computing,” Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences, University of California at Berkeley, , Feb.2009 [Online]. Available: http://www.eecs.berkeley.edu/Pubs/TechRpts/2009/EECS-2009-28.html.

Zeng, Q.

W. Hu and Q. Zeng, “Multicasting optical cross connects employing splitter-and-delivery switch,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 10, no. 7, pp. 970–972, July1998.
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Q.

Q. Zhang, L. Cheng, and R. Boutaba, “Cloud computing: State-of-the-art and research challenges,” J. Internet Services Appl., vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 7–18, May2010.
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y.

Y. Zhang, P. Chowdhury, M. Tornatore, and B. Mukherjee, “Energy efficiency in telecom optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 441–458, 2010.
[CrossRef]

Commun. ACM (1)

B. Hayes, “Cloud computing,” Commun. ACM, vol. 51, pp. 9–11, July2008.
[CrossRef]

Comput. Netw. (1)

S. Ricciardi, F. Palmieri, U. Fiore, D. Careglio, G. Santos-Boada, and J. Solé-Pareta, “An energy-aware dynamic RWA framework for next-generation wavelength-routed networks,” Comput. Netw., vol. 56, no. 10, pp. 2420–2442, 2012.
[CrossRef]

FGCS, Future Gener. Comput. Syst. (1)

J. Li, B. Li, T. Wo, C. Hu, J. Huai, L. Liu, and K. P. Lam, “CyberGuarder: A virtualization security assurance architecture for green cloud computing,” FGCS, Future Gener. Comput. Syst., vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 379–390, 2012.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials (1)

Y. Zhang, P. Chowdhury, M. Tornatore, and B. Mukherjee, “Energy efficiency in telecom optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 441–458, 2010.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Network (1)

K. Hinton, J. Baliga, M. Feng, R. Ayre, and R. S. Tucker, “Power consumption and energy efficiency in the Internet,” IEEE Network, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 6–12, Mar.–Apr.2009.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

W. Hu and Q. Zeng, “Multicasting optical cross connects employing splitter-and-delivery switch,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 10, no. 7, pp. 970–972, July1998.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Comput. (2)

J.-W. Jang, M. Jeon, H.-S. Kim, H. Jo, J.-S. Kim, and S. Maeng, “Energy reduction in consolidated servers through memory-aware virtual machine scheduling,” IEEE Trans. Comput., vol. 60, no. 4, pp. 552–564, Apr.2011.
[CrossRef]

J. Choi, S. Govindan, J. Jeong, B. Urgaonkar, and A. Sivasubramaniam, “Power consumption prediction and power-aware packing in consolidated environments,” IEEE Trans. Comput., vol. 59, no. 12, pp. 1640–1654, Dec.2010.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Parallel Distrib. Syst. (1)

Q. Tang, S. K. S. Gupta, and G. Varsamopoulos, “Energy-efficient thermal-aware task scheduling for homogeneous high-performance computing data centers: A cyber-physical approach,” IEEE Trans. Parallel Distrib. Syst., vol. 19, no. 11, pp. 1458–1472, Nov.2008.
[CrossRef]

J. Internet Services Appl. (1)

Q. Zhang, L. Cheng, and R. Boutaba, “Cloud computing: State-of-the-art and research challenges,” J. Internet Services Appl., vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 7–18, May2010.
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Opt. Commun. Netw. (2)

Opt. Switching Netw. (2)

H. Takeshita, N. Yamanaka, S. Okamoto, S. Shimizu, and S. Gao, “Energy efficient network design tool for green IP/Ethernet networks,” Opt. Switching Netw., vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 264–270, 2012.
[CrossRef]

W. Hou, L. Guo, X. Wang, and X. Wei, “Joint port-cost and power-consumption savings in hybrid hierarchical optical networks,” Opt. Switching Netw., vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 214–224, 2011.
[CrossRef]

Proc. IEEE (2)

J. Baliga, R. Ayre, K. Hinton, and R. Tucker, “Green cloud computing: Balancing energy in processing, storage, and transport,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 99, no. 1, pp. 149–167, Jan.2011.
[CrossRef]

C. Develder, M. De Leenheer, B. Dhoedt, M. Pickavet, D. Colle, F. De Turck, and P. Demeester, “Optical networks for grid and cloud computing applications,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 100, no. 5, pp. 1149–1167, 2012.
[CrossRef]

Sustainable Comput.: Inf. Syst. (1)

A. Banerjee, T. Mukherjee, G. Varsamopoulos, and S. K. S. Gupta, “Integrating cooling awareness with thermal aware workload placement for HPC data centers,” Sustainable Comput.: Inf. Syst., vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 134–150, June2011.
[CrossRef]

Other (16)

S. Greenberg, W. Tschudi, and J. Weale, “Self-benchmarking guide for data center energy performance,” Lawrence Berkley National Laboratory, 2006 [Online]. Available: http://hightech.lbl.gov/documents/data_centers/self_benchmarking_guide-2.pdf.

J. Moore, J. Chase, P. Ranganathan, and R. Sharma, “Making scheduling cool: Temperature-aware workload placement in data centers,” in Proc. of USENIX Annu. Technical Conf. (ATEC), Apr. 2005, pp. 61–74.

M. Gupta and S. Singh, “Greening of the Internet,” in Proc. of ACM SIGCOMM, Aug. 2003, pp. 19–26.

J. Baliga, R. Ayre, K. Hinton, and R. S. Tucker, “Photonics switching and the energy bottleneck,” in Proc. of OSA Conf. on Photonics in Switching, 2007, pp. 125–126.

M. Armbrust, A. Fox, G. Rean, A. D. Joseph, R. Katz, A. Konwinski, G. Lee, D. A. Patterson, A. Rabkin, I. Stoica, and M. Zaharia, “Above the clouds: A Berkeley view of cloud computing,” Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences, University of California at Berkeley, , Feb.2009 [Online]. Available: http://www.eecs.berkeley.edu/Pubs/TechRpts/2009/EECS-2009-28.html.

P. Mell and T. Grance, “The NIST definition of cloud computing,” Jan.2011 [Online]. Available: http://csrc.nist.gov/publications/nistpubs/800-145/SP800-145.pdf.

B. Kantarci and H. T. Mouftah, “Energy-efficient demand provisioning in the cloud,” in Proc. of Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC), Mar. 2012, pp. OM2G.4.1–OM2G.4.3.

S. Ricciardi, D. Careglio, G. Santos-Boada, J. Sole-Pareta, U. Fiore, and F. Palmieri, “Saving energy in data center infrastructures,” in Proc. of Int. Conf. on Data Compression, Communications and Processing, June 2011, pp. 265–270.

B. Kantarci and H. T. Mouftah, “The impact of time of use (ToU)-awareness in energy and opex performance of a cloud backbone,” in Proc. of IEEE GLOBECOM, Dec. 2012, to be published.

J-W. Huang, L.-C. Wang, and C.-J. Chang, “Power fairness in a scalable ring-based wireless mesh network,” in Proc. of IEEE Vehicular Technology Conf. Fall, Sept. 2007, pp. 341–346.

B. Kantarci and H. T. Mouftah, “Optimal reconfiguration of the cloud network for maximum energy savings,” in Proc. of Workshop on Cloud Computing Optimization, May 2012.

B. Kantarci and H. T. Mouftah, “Overcoming the energy versus delay trade-off in cloud network reconfiguration,” in Proc. of IEEE Symp. on Computers and Communications (ISCC), July 2012.

A. G. Gadkar, J. Plante, and V. M. Vokkarane, “Manycasting: Energy-efficient multicasting in WDM optical unicast networks,” in Proc. of IEEE GLOBECOM, Dec. 2011, pp. SAC06.5.1–SAC06.5.5.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(Color online) Topologies considered in the numerical results: (a) cloud over a small six-node topology, (b) cloud over NSFNET.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(Color online) Power consumption increase throughout the day: (a) six-node topology, (b) NSFNET.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(Color online) Channel utilization throughout the day: (a) six-node topology, (b) NSFNET.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(Color online) Node-by-node power consumption throughout the day: (a) six-node topology, (b) NSFNET.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(Color online) Average propagation delay of MILP models: (a) regular traffic, (b) downstream DC traffic, (c) upstream DC traffic.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(Color online) Generic flowchart of the heuristics.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(Color online) Power consumption increase: (a) comparison of DeMiP and PoMiP with the MILP models, (b) comparison of the three heuristics.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(Color online) Channel utilization: (a) DeMiP and PoMiP compared with the MILP models, (b) comparison of the three heuristics.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(Color online) Propagation delay performance: (a)–(c) DeMiP and PoMiP compared with the MILPs; (d)–(f) comparison of the three heuristics; (a), (d) regular traffic; (b), (e) downstream DC traffic; (c), (f) upstream DC traffic.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table I Inputs and Variables of the MILP Models

Tables Icon

Table II Simulation Parameters and Settings

Tables Icon

Table III Internet Demands in the NSFNET Throughout the Day (Gbps)

Equations (25)

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Objective: Minimize i V P i node .
P i node = j N i v P r C i j + j N i p ( P t W i j + S i j P edfa f i j ) .
D min s Ω s UP d V j V Υ up s d γ s j up s d Υ up s d γ j s up s d D max s Ω s UP , ( s ) V ,
D min s Ω s UP d V j V Υ up s d γ d j up s d Υ up s d γ j d up s d D max s Ω s UP , ( s ) V ,
s i d s , i j i [ ( Υ up s d γ i j up s d ) Υ up s d γ j i up s d ] = 0 , ( i ) V ,
j d , j V [ ( Ω d s DOWN γ j d down d s + λ j d s d ) ( Ω d s DOWN γ d j down d s + λ d j s d ) ] = Λ s d + Ω d s DOWN , ( s , d ) V , s d ,
j s , d , j V [ ( Υ down d s γ i j down d s + λ i j s d ) ( Υ down d s γ j i down d s + λ j i s d ) ] = 0 , ( s , d , i ) V , d , s i ,
i d Ω d s DOWN γ i d down d s = Ω d s DOWN , s , d V .
s V d V λ i j s d + Υ up s d γ i j up s d + Υ down d s γ i j down d s C C i j , i , j , V .
W m n i j W n m i j = { C i j m = i C i j m = j 0 else } , m , n , i , j V ,
i V j V W n m i j W f m n 0 , m , n V .
i i d Υ up s d γ i d up s d D max s Ω s UP , s V ,
i i d Υ up s d γ i d up s d D min s Ω s UP , s V ,
i d γ i d up s d 1 , s , d V ,
d V γ i j up s d 1 , s , i , j V .
s . t . P i node = DC i + j N i v P r C i j + j N i p ( P t W i j + S i j P edfa f i j ) , i .
DC d s V i d Θ s , d γ i d up s d = DC d cool + DC d proc , d V .
Objective: Minimize m V d m
d m = n V i V j V ( λ i j m n / Λ m n + γ i j up m n + γ i j down n m ) L i , j , m V .
P total = i N ( j N i v P r C i j + j N i p ( P t W i j + S i j P edfa f i j ) + DC i cool + DC i proc ) .
φ i j v = { l i n k m n l i n k i j φ m n p h y C i j C i j > 0 else } .
φ m n p h y = { P edfa S m n + P t W m n W m n > 0 else } .
R d = { Θ s , d + DC d cool + DC d proc d D s else } .
φ i j v = { l i n k m n l i n k i j φ m n p h y C i j > 0 else } .
φ m n p h y = { ( P edfa S m n + P t W m n ) L f m n W m n > 0 else } .