Abstract

Current optical transport networks use optical channel carriers (wavelengths) that are defined and constrained by a fixed ITU-T dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) grid. Such a grid is not adapted to high data rates (beyond 100 Gb/s) and is inefficient when a wavelength is assigned to a low-rate optical signal. Consequently, the ITU-T is updating the set of DWDM reference frequencies with the inclusion of a smaller channel spacing (e.g., 6.25 GHz) while allowing the allocation of frequency slots, that is, variable-sized frequency ranges composed of a number of slices. In this paper, we propose the design, implementation, and experimental validation of a Generalized Multi-Protocol Label Switching/path computation element (GMPLS/PCE) control plane for such flexible optical networks, using optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing transmission technology, given its unique flexibility, bit-rate/bandwidth scalability, and subwavelength granularity. The control plane uses a distance-adaptive and PCE-based routing and modulation assignment, combined with distributed frequency slot (spectrum) selection. A comparative analysis of path computation algorithms is carried out, highlighting the benefits of extending the path computation function with the knowledge of the status of the slices and the spectral efficiency of the modulation formats.

© 2012 OSA

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References

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  23. S. L. Jansen, B. Spinnler, I. Morita, S. Randel, and H. Tanaka, “100 GbE: QPSK versus OFDM,” Opt. Fiber Technol., vol. 15, pp. 407–413, 2009.
    [CrossRef]
  24. Q. Yang, W. Shieh, and Y. Ma, “Bit and power loading for coherent optical OFDM,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 20, no. 15, pp. 1305–1307, 2008.
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  25. W. Shieh, “High spectral efficiency coherent optical OFDM for 1 Tb/s Ethernet transport,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2009, OWW1.
  26. N. Amaya, G. S. Zervas, B. Rahimzadeh Rofoee, M. Irfan, Y. Qin, and D. Simeonidou, “Field trial of a 1.5 Tb/s adaptive and gridless OXC supporting elastic 1000-fold bandwidth granularity,” in 37th European Conf. and Expo. on Optical Communications, 2011, We.9.K.2.
  27. Y. Li and R. Casellas, Link Management Protocol Extensions for Grid Property Negotiation, internet draft, work in progress.
  28. T. Otani and D. Li, “Generalized labels for lambda-switch-capable (LSC) label switching routers,” RFC 6205, Mar.2011.
  29. C. Margaria, O. González, and F. Zhang, PCEP Extensions for GMPLS, internet draft, work in progress.
  30. I. Roudas, N. Antoniades, T. Otani, T. E. Stern, R. E. Wagner, and D. Q. Chowdhury, “Accurate modeling of optical multiplexer/demultiplexer concatenation in transparent multiwavelength optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 20, no. 6, pp. 921–936, 2002.
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2011 (2)

K. Christodoulopoulos, I. Tomkos, and E. Varvarigos, “Elastic bandwidth allocation in flexible OFDM-based optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 29, no. 9, pp. 1354–1366, 2011.
[CrossRef]

M. Klinkowski and K. Walkowiak, “Routing and spectrum assignment in spectrum sliced elastic optical path network,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol. 15, no. 8, pp. 884–886, Aug.2011.
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

M. Jinno, B. Kozicki, H. Takara, A. Watanabe, Y. Sone, T. Tanaka, and A. Hirano, “Distance adaptive spectrum resource allocation in spectrum sliced elastic optical path network,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 48, no. 8, pp. 138–145, 2010.
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

2008 (1)

Q. Yang, W. Shieh, and Y. Ma, “Bit and power loading for coherent optical OFDM,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 20, no. 15, pp. 1305–1307, 2008.
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

Amaya, N.

N. Amaya, G. S. Zervas, B. Rahimzadeh Rofoee, M. Irfan, Y. Qin, and D. Simeonidou, “Field trial of a 1.5 Tb/s adaptive and gridless OXC supporting elastic 1000-fold bandwidth granularity,” in 37th European Conf. and Expo. on Optical Communications, 2011, We.9.K.2.

Antoniades, N.

Bernstein, G.

Y. Lee, G. Bernstein, and W. Imajuku, “Framework for GMPLS and path computation element (PCE) control of wavelength switched optical networks (WSONs),” RFC 6163, 2011.

Cao, X.

Y. Wang, X. Cao, and Q. Hu, “Routing and spectrum allocation in spectrum-sliced elastic optical path networks,” in 2011 IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications (ICC), 2011.

Casellas, R.

Y. Li and R. Casellas, Link Management Protocol Extensions for Grid Property Negotiation, internet draft, work in progress.

R. Casellas, R. Munoz, J. M. Fàbrega, M. Svaluto-Moreolo, R. Martinez, L. Liu, T. Tsuritani, and I. Morita, “Experimental assessment of a combined PCE-RMA and distributed spectrum allocation mechanism for GMPLS elastic CO-OFDM optical networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2012, OM3G.1.

Chowdhury, D. Q.

Christodoulopoulos, K.

K. Christodoulopoulos, I. Tomkos, and E. Varvarigos, “Elastic bandwidth allocation in flexible OFDM-based optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 29, no. 9, pp. 1354–1366, 2011.
[CrossRef]

K. Christodoulopoulos, I. Tomkos, and E. Varvarigos, “Dynamic bandwidth allocation in flexible OFDM based networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2011, OTuI5.

K. Christodoulopoulos, I. Tomkos, and E. Varvarigos, “Spectrally/bitrate flexible optical network planning,” in 36th European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2010.

Djordjevic, I.

W. Shieh and I. Djordjevic, OFDM for Optical Communications. Elsevier, 2010.

Fàbrega, J. M.

M. Svaluto Moreolo, J. M. Fàbrega, L. Nadal, and F. J. Vílchez, “Software-defined optical OFDM transmission systems: Enabling elasticity in the data plane,” in Proc. ICTON, 2012.

R. Casellas, R. Munoz, J. M. Fàbrega, M. Svaluto-Moreolo, R. Martinez, L. Liu, T. Tsuritani, and I. Morita, “Experimental assessment of a combined PCE-RMA and distributed spectrum allocation mechanism for GMPLS elastic CO-OFDM optical networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2012, OM3G.1.

González, O.

C. Margaria, O. González, and F. Zhang, PCEP Extensions for GMPLS, internet draft, work in progress.

Hasegawa, H.

T. Takagi, H. Hasegawa, K. Sato, Y. Sone, B. Kozicki, A. Hirano, and M. Jinno, “Dynamic routing and frequency slot assignment for elastic optical path networks that adopt distance adaptive modulation,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2011, OTuI7.

Hirano, A.

M. Jinno, B. Kozicki, H. Takara, A. Watanabe, Y. Sone, T. Tanaka, and A. Hirano, “Distance adaptive spectrum resource allocation in spectrum sliced elastic optical path network,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 48, no. 8, pp. 138–145, 2010.
[CrossRef]

M. Jinno, Y. Sone, and A. Hirano, “Management and control aspects of spectrum sliced elastic optical path network (SLICE),” in ECOC Workshop on Operationalizing Dynamic Transport Networks, 2010.

T. Takagi, H. Hasegawa, K. Sato, Y. Sone, B. Kozicki, A. Hirano, and M. Jinno, “Dynamic routing and frequency slot assignment for elastic optical path networks that adopt distance adaptive modulation,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2011, OTuI7.

Hu, Q.

Y. Wang, X. Cao, and Q. Hu, “Routing and spectrum allocation in spectrum-sliced elastic optical path networks,” in 2011 IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications (ICC), 2011.

Imajuku, W.

Y. Lee, G. Bernstein, and W. Imajuku, “Framework for GMPLS and path computation element (PCE) control of wavelength switched optical networks (WSONs),” RFC 6163, 2011.

Irfan, M.

N. Amaya, G. S. Zervas, B. Rahimzadeh Rofoee, M. Irfan, Y. Qin, and D. Simeonidou, “Field trial of a 1.5 Tb/s adaptive and gridless OXC supporting elastic 1000-fold bandwidth granularity,” in 37th European Conf. and Expo. on Optical Communications, 2011, We.9.K.2.

Jansen, S. L.

Jinno, M.

M. Jinno, B. Kozicki, H. Takara, A. Watanabe, Y. Sone, T. Tanaka, and A. Hirano, “Distance adaptive spectrum resource allocation in spectrum sliced elastic optical path network,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 48, no. 8, pp. 138–145, 2010.
[CrossRef]

T. Takagi, H. Hasegawa, K. Sato, Y. Sone, B. Kozicki, A. Hirano, and M. Jinno, “Dynamic routing and frequency slot assignment for elastic optical path networks that adopt distance adaptive modulation,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2011, OTuI7.

M. Jinno, Y. Sone, and A. Hirano, “Management and control aspects of spectrum sliced elastic optical path network (SLICE),” in ECOC Workshop on Operationalizing Dynamic Transport Networks, 2010.

Junyent, G.

L. Velasco, M. Klinkowski, M. Ruiz, V. López, and G. Junyent, “Elastic spectrum allocation for variable traffic in flexible-grid optical networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2012, JTh2A.39.

Klinkowski, M.

M. Klinkowski and K. Walkowiak, “Routing and spectrum assignment in spectrum sliced elastic optical path network,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol. 15, no. 8, pp. 884–886, Aug.2011.
[CrossRef]

L. Velasco, M. Klinkowski, M. Ruiz, V. López, and G. Junyent, “Elastic spectrum allocation for variable traffic in flexible-grid optical networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2012, JTh2A.39.

Kozicki, B.

M. Jinno, B. Kozicki, H. Takara, A. Watanabe, Y. Sone, T. Tanaka, and A. Hirano, “Distance adaptive spectrum resource allocation in spectrum sliced elastic optical path network,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 48, no. 8, pp. 138–145, 2010.
[CrossRef]

T. Takagi, H. Hasegawa, K. Sato, Y. Sone, B. Kozicki, A. Hirano, and M. Jinno, “Dynamic routing and frequency slot assignment for elastic optical path networks that adopt distance adaptive modulation,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2011, OTuI7.

Lee, Y.

Y. Lee, G. Bernstein, and W. Imajuku, “Framework for GMPLS and path computation element (PCE) control of wavelength switched optical networks (WSONs),” RFC 6163, 2011.

Li, D.

T. Otani and D. Li, “Generalized labels for lambda-switch-capable (LSC) label switching routers,” RFC 6205, Mar.2011.

Li, Y.

Y. Li and R. Casellas, Link Management Protocol Extensions for Grid Property Negotiation, internet draft, work in progress.

Liu, L.

R. Casellas, R. Munoz, J. M. Fàbrega, M. Svaluto-Moreolo, R. Martinez, L. Liu, T. Tsuritani, and I. Morita, “Experimental assessment of a combined PCE-RMA and distributed spectrum allocation mechanism for GMPLS elastic CO-OFDM optical networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2012, OM3G.1.

López, V.

L. Velasco, M. Klinkowski, M. Ruiz, V. López, and G. Junyent, “Elastic spectrum allocation for variable traffic in flexible-grid optical networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2012, JTh2A.39.

Ma, Y.

Q. Yang, W. Shieh, and Y. Ma, “Bit and power loading for coherent optical OFDM,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 20, no. 15, pp. 1305–1307, 2008.
[CrossRef]

Margaria, C.

C. Margaria, O. González, and F. Zhang, PCEP Extensions for GMPLS, internet draft, work in progress.

Martinez, R.

R. Casellas, R. Munoz, J. M. Fàbrega, M. Svaluto-Moreolo, R. Martinez, L. Liu, T. Tsuritani, and I. Morita, “Experimental assessment of a combined PCE-RMA and distributed spectrum allocation mechanism for GMPLS elastic CO-OFDM optical networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2012, OM3G.1.

Morita, I.

S. L. Jansen, B. Spinnler, I. Morita, S. Randel, and H. Tanaka, “100 GbE: QPSK versus OFDM,” Opt. Fiber Technol., vol. 15, pp. 407–413, 2009.
[CrossRef]

S. L. Jansen, I. Morita, T. C. W. Schenk, and H. Tanaka, “121.9-Gb/s PMD-OFDM transmission with 2-b/s/Hz spectral efficiency over 1000-km of SSMF,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 177–188, 2009.
[CrossRef]

R. Casellas, R. Munoz, J. M. Fàbrega, M. Svaluto-Moreolo, R. Martinez, L. Liu, T. Tsuritani, and I. Morita, “Experimental assessment of a combined PCE-RMA and distributed spectrum allocation mechanism for GMPLS elastic CO-OFDM optical networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2012, OM3G.1.

Munoz, R.

R. Casellas, R. Munoz, J. M. Fàbrega, M. Svaluto-Moreolo, R. Martinez, L. Liu, T. Tsuritani, and I. Morita, “Experimental assessment of a combined PCE-RMA and distributed spectrum allocation mechanism for GMPLS elastic CO-OFDM optical networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2012, OM3G.1.

Nadal, L.

M. Svaluto Moreolo, J. M. Fàbrega, L. Nadal, and F. J. Vílchez, “Software-defined optical OFDM transmission systems: Enabling elasticity in the data plane,” in Proc. ICTON, 2012.

Otani, T.

Qin, Y.

N. Amaya, G. S. Zervas, B. Rahimzadeh Rofoee, M. Irfan, Y. Qin, and D. Simeonidou, “Field trial of a 1.5 Tb/s adaptive and gridless OXC supporting elastic 1000-fold bandwidth granularity,” in 37th European Conf. and Expo. on Optical Communications, 2011, We.9.K.2.

Randel, S.

S. L. Jansen, B. Spinnler, I. Morita, S. Randel, and H. Tanaka, “100 GbE: QPSK versus OFDM,” Opt. Fiber Technol., vol. 15, pp. 407–413, 2009.
[CrossRef]

Rofoee, B. Rahimzadeh

N. Amaya, G. S. Zervas, B. Rahimzadeh Rofoee, M. Irfan, Y. Qin, and D. Simeonidou, “Field trial of a 1.5 Tb/s adaptive and gridless OXC supporting elastic 1000-fold bandwidth granularity,” in 37th European Conf. and Expo. on Optical Communications, 2011, We.9.K.2.

Roudas, I.

Ruiz, M.

L. Velasco, M. Klinkowski, M. Ruiz, V. López, and G. Junyent, “Elastic spectrum allocation for variable traffic in flexible-grid optical networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2012, JTh2A.39.

Sato, K.

T. Takagi, H. Hasegawa, K. Sato, Y. Sone, B. Kozicki, A. Hirano, and M. Jinno, “Dynamic routing and frequency slot assignment for elastic optical path networks that adopt distance adaptive modulation,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2011, OTuI7.

Schenk, T. C. W.

Seimetz, M.

M. Seimetz, High Order Modulation for Optical Fiber Transmission. Springer, 2009.

Shieh, W.

Q. Yang, W. Shieh, and Y. Ma, “Bit and power loading for coherent optical OFDM,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 20, no. 15, pp. 1305–1307, 2008.
[CrossRef]

W. Shieh, “High spectral efficiency coherent optical OFDM for 1 Tb/s Ethernet transport,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2009, OWW1.

W. Shieh and I. Djordjevic, OFDM for Optical Communications. Elsevier, 2010.

Simeonidou, D.

N. Amaya, G. S. Zervas, B. Rahimzadeh Rofoee, M. Irfan, Y. Qin, and D. Simeonidou, “Field trial of a 1.5 Tb/s adaptive and gridless OXC supporting elastic 1000-fold bandwidth granularity,” in 37th European Conf. and Expo. on Optical Communications, 2011, We.9.K.2.

Sone, Y.

M. Jinno, B. Kozicki, H. Takara, A. Watanabe, Y. Sone, T. Tanaka, and A. Hirano, “Distance adaptive spectrum resource allocation in spectrum sliced elastic optical path network,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 48, no. 8, pp. 138–145, 2010.
[CrossRef]

T. Takagi, H. Hasegawa, K. Sato, Y. Sone, B. Kozicki, A. Hirano, and M. Jinno, “Dynamic routing and frequency slot assignment for elastic optical path networks that adopt distance adaptive modulation,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2011, OTuI7.

M. Jinno, Y. Sone, and A. Hirano, “Management and control aspects of spectrum sliced elastic optical path network (SLICE),” in ECOC Workshop on Operationalizing Dynamic Transport Networks, 2010.

Spinnler, B.

S. L. Jansen, B. Spinnler, I. Morita, S. Randel, and H. Tanaka, “100 GbE: QPSK versus OFDM,” Opt. Fiber Technol., vol. 15, pp. 407–413, 2009.
[CrossRef]

Stern, T. E.

Svaluto Moreolo, M.

M. Svaluto Moreolo, J. M. Fàbrega, L. Nadal, and F. J. Vílchez, “Software-defined optical OFDM transmission systems: Enabling elasticity in the data plane,” in Proc. ICTON, 2012.

Svaluto-Moreolo, M.

R. Casellas, R. Munoz, J. M. Fàbrega, M. Svaluto-Moreolo, R. Martinez, L. Liu, T. Tsuritani, and I. Morita, “Experimental assessment of a combined PCE-RMA and distributed spectrum allocation mechanism for GMPLS elastic CO-OFDM optical networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2012, OM3G.1.

Takagi, T.

T. Takagi, H. Hasegawa, K. Sato, Y. Sone, B. Kozicki, A. Hirano, and M. Jinno, “Dynamic routing and frequency slot assignment for elastic optical path networks that adopt distance adaptive modulation,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2011, OTuI7.

Takara, H.

M. Jinno, B. Kozicki, H. Takara, A. Watanabe, Y. Sone, T. Tanaka, and A. Hirano, “Distance adaptive spectrum resource allocation in spectrum sliced elastic optical path network,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 48, no. 8, pp. 138–145, 2010.
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, H.

Tanaka, T.

M. Jinno, B. Kozicki, H. Takara, A. Watanabe, Y. Sone, T. Tanaka, and A. Hirano, “Distance adaptive spectrum resource allocation in spectrum sliced elastic optical path network,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 48, no. 8, pp. 138–145, 2010.
[CrossRef]

Tomkos, I.

K. Christodoulopoulos, I. Tomkos, and E. Varvarigos, “Elastic bandwidth allocation in flexible OFDM-based optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 29, no. 9, pp. 1354–1366, 2011.
[CrossRef]

K. Christodoulopoulos, I. Tomkos, and E. Varvarigos, “Dynamic bandwidth allocation in flexible OFDM based networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2011, OTuI5.

K. Christodoulopoulos, I. Tomkos, and E. Varvarigos, “Spectrally/bitrate flexible optical network planning,” in 36th European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2010.

Tsuritani, T.

R. Casellas, R. Munoz, J. M. Fàbrega, M. Svaluto-Moreolo, R. Martinez, L. Liu, T. Tsuritani, and I. Morita, “Experimental assessment of a combined PCE-RMA and distributed spectrum allocation mechanism for GMPLS elastic CO-OFDM optical networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2012, OM3G.1.

Varvarigos, E.

K. Christodoulopoulos, I. Tomkos, and E. Varvarigos, “Elastic bandwidth allocation in flexible OFDM-based optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 29, no. 9, pp. 1354–1366, 2011.
[CrossRef]

K. Christodoulopoulos, I. Tomkos, and E. Varvarigos, “Dynamic bandwidth allocation in flexible OFDM based networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2011, OTuI5.

K. Christodoulopoulos, I. Tomkos, and E. Varvarigos, “Spectrally/bitrate flexible optical network planning,” in 36th European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2010.

Velasco, L.

L. Velasco, M. Klinkowski, M. Ruiz, V. López, and G. Junyent, “Elastic spectrum allocation for variable traffic in flexible-grid optical networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2012, JTh2A.39.

Vílchez, F. J.

M. Svaluto Moreolo, J. M. Fàbrega, L. Nadal, and F. J. Vílchez, “Software-defined optical OFDM transmission systems: Enabling elasticity in the data plane,” in Proc. ICTON, 2012.

Wagner, R. E.

Walkowiak, K.

M. Klinkowski and K. Walkowiak, “Routing and spectrum assignment in spectrum sliced elastic optical path network,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol. 15, no. 8, pp. 884–886, Aug.2011.
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y.

Y. Wang, X. Cao, and Q. Hu, “Routing and spectrum allocation in spectrum-sliced elastic optical path networks,” in 2011 IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications (ICC), 2011.

Watanabe, A.

M. Jinno, B. Kozicki, H. Takara, A. Watanabe, Y. Sone, T. Tanaka, and A. Hirano, “Distance adaptive spectrum resource allocation in spectrum sliced elastic optical path network,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 48, no. 8, pp. 138–145, 2010.
[CrossRef]

Yang, Q.

Q. Yang, W. Shieh, and Y. Ma, “Bit and power loading for coherent optical OFDM,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 20, no. 15, pp. 1305–1307, 2008.
[CrossRef]

Zervas, G. S.

N. Amaya, G. S. Zervas, B. Rahimzadeh Rofoee, M. Irfan, Y. Qin, and D. Simeonidou, “Field trial of a 1.5 Tb/s adaptive and gridless OXC supporting elastic 1000-fold bandwidth granularity,” in 37th European Conf. and Expo. on Optical Communications, 2011, We.9.K.2.

Zhang, F.

C. Margaria, O. González, and F. Zhang, PCEP Extensions for GMPLS, internet draft, work in progress.

IEEE Commun. Lett. (1)

M. Klinkowski and K. Walkowiak, “Routing and spectrum assignment in spectrum sliced elastic optical path network,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol. 15, no. 8, pp. 884–886, Aug.2011.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Commun. Mag. (1)

M. Jinno, B. Kozicki, H. Takara, A. Watanabe, Y. Sone, T. Tanaka, and A. Hirano, “Distance adaptive spectrum resource allocation in spectrum sliced elastic optical path network,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 48, no. 8, pp. 138–145, 2010.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

Q. Yang, W. Shieh, and Y. Ma, “Bit and power loading for coherent optical OFDM,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 20, no. 15, pp. 1305–1307, 2008.
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (3)

Opt. Fiber Technol. (1)

S. L. Jansen, B. Spinnler, I. Morita, S. Randel, and H. Tanaka, “100 GbE: QPSK versus OFDM,” Opt. Fiber Technol., vol. 15, pp. 407–413, 2009.
[CrossRef]

Other (24)

M. Seimetz, High Order Modulation for Optical Fiber Transmission. Springer, 2009.

L. Velasco, M. Klinkowski, M. Ruiz, V. López, and G. Junyent, “Elastic spectrum allocation for variable traffic in flexible-grid optical networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2012, JTh2A.39.

W. Shieh, “High spectral efficiency coherent optical OFDM for 1 Tb/s Ethernet transport,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2009, OWW1.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Block diagram of a CO-OFDM: (a) transmitter and (b) receiver.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(Color online) Wireshark capture showing the OSPF-TE extensions to disseminate nominal central frequencies. The figure shows the bitmap encoding of 128 nominal central frequencies between nodes 5 and 3 (selection).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Wireshark capture of the PCEP/RSVP-TE ERO extensions, showing the RMSA object, which allocates the modulation, FEC, and required optical spectrum.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(Color online) Japanese topology network (14 node) used in the control plane test bed.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a, c) Sample spectra and (b, d) constellations for the two proposed modulation formats: (a, b) 4-QAM and (c, d) 16-QAM.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Required OSNR of the receiver preamplifier for a target SER of 104 for different distances and hop count corresponding to different modulation formats (4/16-QAM) at (a) 10 Gb/s, (b) 40 Gb/s, and (c) 100 Gb/s.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(Color online) 3D representation of the required OSNR at a target SER of 104 for OFDM 4-QAM and 16-QAM based on the path distance and hop count. Obtained numerical results for to a net data rate of 40 Gb/s.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(Color online) Blocking probability (%) for different path computation algorithms using the 14-node Japanese topology network for varying offered traffic values. The plot on the left shows the blocking probability at low offered traffic (logarithmic scale), and the plot on the right shows the blocking probability at high offered traffic (linear).

Tables (1)

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Table I Connection Provisioning Numerical Results

Equations (2)

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sk=1Nn=0N1xnexpj2πknN,k=0,1,,N1.
yn=1Nk=0N1rkexpj2πknN,n=0,1,,N1.