Abstract

We investigate the consolidation of two optical networks, which overlap in some geographical areas, by installing interconnection links at strategic locations to reduce system operational costs. We focus on the operational costs of fiber links in the networks. The minimum number of operational fiber links required to provide bi-directional connectivity for any two nodes of the merged network is examined. Analytical results show that it is at least the number of nodes or at least twice the number of bridges when all the co-located nodes are interconnected. The optimal locations of interconnection links are derived when the interconnection cost is very high, which results in a minimum of two interconnections. They should be installed at the nodes which are one hop away from two certain cut nodes if there are cut nodes in the networks. To take into account more practical considerations, single link failure protection schemes for the merged network are also studied.

© 2012 OSA

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2009 (1)

R. H. M. Leung, Z. C. Xie, and L. K. Chen, “Optimization of operational fiber links and interconnections for the merger of two networks,” Opt. Fiber Technol., vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 57–64, Jan.2009.
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

2007 (1)

S. Cherry, “Noting but net,” IEEE Spectrum, vol. 44, no. 1, pp. 22–26, Jan.2007.
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

S. Ortiz, “Phone companies get into the TV business,” Computer, vol. 39, no. 10, pp. 12–15, Oct.2006.
[CrossRef]

C. Xin, B. Wang, X. Cao, and J. Li, “Logical topology design for dynamic traffic grooming in WDM optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 24, no. 6, pp. 2267–2275, June2006.
[CrossRef]

A. Minagar and M. Premaratne, “Cost optimal configuration of optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 24, no. 9, pp. 3295–3302, Sept.2006.
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

2003 (2)

2002 (2)

R. Dutta and G. N. Rouskas, “Traffic grooming in WDM networks: Past and future,” IEEE Netw., vol. 16, no. 6, pp. 46–56, Dec.2002.
[CrossRef]

K. Zhu and B. Mukherjee, “Traffic grooming in an optical WDM mesh network,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 122–133, Jan.2002.
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

2000 (1)

D. Stamatelakis and W. D. Grover, “IP layer restoration and network planning based on virtual protection cycles,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 18, no. 10, pp. 1938–1949, Oct.2000.
[CrossRef]

Ali, M.

Alicherry, M.

Assi, C.

Bandyopadhyay, S.

Berthold, J.

Bickham, S.

J. D. Downie, J. Hurley, J. Cartledge, S. Ten, S. Bickham, S. Mishra, X. Zhu, and A. Kobyakov, “40 × 112 Gbps transmission over an unrepeated 365 km effective area-managed span comprised of ultra-low loss optical fiber,” in European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication, 2010, We.7.C.5.

Birk, M.

X. Zhou, J. Yu, M. F. Huang, Y. Shao, T. Wang, L. Nelson, P. D. Magill, M. Birk, P. I. Borel, D. W. Peckham, and R. Lingle, “64 Tbps (640 × 107 Gbps) PDM 36-QAM transmission over 320 km using both pre- and post-digital equalization,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2010, PDPB9.

Blair, L.

Borel, P. I.

X. Zhou, J. Yu, M. F. Huang, Y. Shao, T. Wang, L. Nelson, P. D. Magill, M. Birk, P. I. Borel, D. W. Peckham, and R. Lingle, “64 Tbps (640 × 107 Gbps) PDM 36-QAM transmission over 320 km using both pre- and post-digital equalization,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2010, PDPB9.

Cao, X.

C. Xin, B. Wang, X. Cao, and J. Li, “Logical topology design for dynamic traffic grooming in WDM optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 24, no. 6, pp. 2267–2275, June2006.
[CrossRef]

Cartledge, J.

J. D. Downie, J. Hurley, J. Cartledge, S. Ten, S. Bickham, S. Mishra, X. Zhu, and A. Kobyakov, “40 × 112 Gbps transmission over an unrepeated 365 km effective area-managed span comprised of ultra-low loss optical fiber,” in European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication, 2010, We.7.C.5.

Chan, C. K.

Z. C. Xie, R. H. M. Leung, L. K. Chen, and C. K. Chan, “Optimal location analysis of two interconnections for the consolidation of two networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2008, JThA85.

Z. C. Xie, L. K. Chen, R. H. M. Leung, and C. K. Chan, “An algorithm for resource optimization of consolidating two coexisting networks,” in OECC/IOOC2007 Technical Digest, 2007, 13A2-6.

Chen, L. K.

R. H. M. Leung, Z. C. Xie, and L. K. Chen, “Optimization of operational fiber links and interconnections for the merger of two networks,” Opt. Fiber Technol., vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 57–64, Jan.2009.
[CrossRef]

Z. C. Xie, L. K. Chen, R. H. M. Leung, and C. K. Chan, “An algorithm for resource optimization of consolidating two coexisting networks,” in OECC/IOOC2007 Technical Digest, 2007, 13A2-6.

R. H. M. Leung and L. K. Chen, “Resources optimization of integration of separate optical networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2006, NThE5.

Z. C. Xie, R. H. M. Leung, L. K. Chen, and C. K. Chan, “Optimal location analysis of two interconnections for the consolidation of two networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2008, JThA85.

Z. C. Xie and L. K. Chen, “Consolidation of optical networks with 1:1 protection,” in 14th Opto Electronics and Communications Conf., 2009, ThN6.

Cherry, S.

S. Cherry, “Noting but net,” IEEE Spectrum, vol. 44, no. 1, pp. 22–26, Jan.2007.
[CrossRef]

Diestel, R.

R. Diestel, Graph Theory, 3rd ed.Springer, 2005.

Ding, Q. L.

R. H. M. Leung, Q. L. Ding, and V. Hung, “Designing and planning of national optical networks in China,” in Pacific Telecommunications Conf., 2001.

Dixit, S.

Downie, J. D.

J. D. Downie, J. Hurley, J. Cartledge, S. Ten, S. Bickham, S. Mishra, X. Zhu, and A. Kobyakov, “40 × 112 Gbps transmission over an unrepeated 365 km effective area-managed span comprised of ultra-low loss optical fiber,” in European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication, 2010, We.7.C.5.

Dutta, R.

R. Dutta and G. N. Rouskas, “Traffic grooming in WDM networks: Past and future,” IEEE Netw., vol. 16, no. 6, pp. 46–56, Dec.2002.
[CrossRef]

Gallant, D.

D. Gallant, “Optical network foundation for triple play services roll-out,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2006, NW3.

Grover, W. D.

D. Stamatelakis and W. D. Grover, “IP layer restoration and network planning based on virtual protection cycles,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 18, no. 10, pp. 1938–1949, Oct.2000.
[CrossRef]

W. D. Grover, Mesh-based Survivable Networks: Options and Strategies for Optical, MPLS, SONET and ATM Networking. Prentice Hall, 2004.

Gumaste, A.

A. Somani and A. Gumaste, “Light-trails: Distributed optical grooming for emerging data-center, cloud computing, and enterprise applications,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2011, OTuR4.

Huang, M. F.

X. Zhou, J. Yu, M. F. Huang, Y. Shao, T. Wang, L. Nelson, P. D. Magill, M. Birk, P. I. Borel, D. W. Peckham, and R. Lingle, “64 Tbps (640 × 107 Gbps) PDM 36-QAM transmission over 320 km using both pre- and post-digital equalization,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2010, PDPB9.

Hung, V.

R. H. M. Leung, Q. L. Ding, and V. Hung, “Designing and planning of national optical networks in China,” in Pacific Telecommunications Conf., 2001.

Hurley, J.

J. D. Downie, J. Hurley, J. Cartledge, S. Ten, S. Bickham, S. Mishra, X. Zhu, and A. Kobyakov, “40 × 112 Gbps transmission over an unrepeated 365 km effective area-managed span comprised of ultra-low loss optical fiber,” in European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication, 2010, We.7.C.5.

Imajuku, W.

Jiang, K.

Y. Peng and K. Jiang, “On user-participated and service-oriented optical networks,” in 9th Int. Conf. on Optical Communications and Networks, Oct. 2010, pp. 134–138.

Kobyakov, A.

J. D. Downie, J. Hurley, J. Cartledge, S. Ten, S. Bickham, S. Mishra, X. Zhu, and A. Kobyakov, “40 × 112 Gbps transmission over an unrepeated 365 km effective area-managed span comprised of ultra-low loss optical fiber,” in European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication, 2010, We.7.C.5.

Leung, R. H. M.

R. H. M. Leung, Z. C. Xie, and L. K. Chen, “Optimization of operational fiber links and interconnections for the merger of two networks,” Opt. Fiber Technol., vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 57–64, Jan.2009.
[CrossRef]

Z. C. Xie, L. K. Chen, R. H. M. Leung, and C. K. Chan, “An algorithm for resource optimization of consolidating two coexisting networks,” in OECC/IOOC2007 Technical Digest, 2007, 13A2-6.

Z. C. Xie, R. H. M. Leung, L. K. Chen, and C. K. Chan, “Optimal location analysis of two interconnections for the consolidation of two networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2008, JThA85.

R. H. M. Leung and L. K. Chen, “Resources optimization of integration of separate optical networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2006, NThE5.

R. H. M. Leung, Q. L. Ding, and V. Hung, “Designing and planning of national optical networks in China,” in Pacific Telecommunications Conf., 2001.

Li, J.

C. Xin, B. Wang, X. Cao, and J. Li, “Logical topology design for dynamic traffic grooming in WDM optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 24, no. 6, pp. 2267–2275, June2006.
[CrossRef]

Lin, P.

E. Modiano and P. Lin, “Traffic grooming in WDM networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 39, no. 7, pp. 124–129, July2001.
[CrossRef]

Lingle, R.

X. Zhou, J. Yu, M. F. Huang, Y. Shao, T. Wang, L. Nelson, P. D. Magill, M. Birk, P. I. Borel, D. W. Peckham, and R. Lingle, “64 Tbps (640 × 107 Gbps) PDM 36-QAM transmission over 320 km using both pre- and post-digital equalization,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2010, PDPB9.

Magill, P. D.

X. Zhou, J. Yu, M. F. Huang, Y. Shao, T. Wang, L. Nelson, P. D. Magill, M. Birk, P. I. Borel, D. W. Peckham, and R. Lingle, “64 Tbps (640 × 107 Gbps) PDM 36-QAM transmission over 320 km using both pre- and post-digital equalization,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2010, PDPB9.

Minagar, A.

Mishra, S.

J. D. Downie, J. Hurley, J. Cartledge, S. Ten, S. Bickham, S. Mishra, X. Zhu, and A. Kobyakov, “40 × 112 Gbps transmission over an unrepeated 365 km effective area-managed span comprised of ultra-low loss optical fiber,” in European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication, 2010, We.7.C.5.

Modiano, E.

E. Modiano and P. Lin, “Traffic grooming in WDM networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 39, no. 7, pp. 124–129, July2001.
[CrossRef]

Morioka, T.

Mukherjee, B.

K. Zhu and B. Mukherjee, “Traffic grooming in an optical WDM mesh network,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 122–133, Jan.2002.
[CrossRef]

Nagesh, H.

Nelson, L.

X. Zhou, J. Yu, M. F. Huang, Y. Shao, T. Wang, L. Nelson, P. D. Magill, M. Birk, P. I. Borel, D. W. Peckham, and R. Lingle, “64 Tbps (640 × 107 Gbps) PDM 36-QAM transmission over 320 km using both pre- and post-digital equalization,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2010, PDPB9.

Ortiz, S.

S. Ortiz, “Phone companies get into the TV business,” Computer, vol. 39, no. 10, pp. 12–15, Oct.2006.
[CrossRef]

Peckham, D. W.

X. Zhou, J. Yu, M. F. Huang, Y. Shao, T. Wang, L. Nelson, P. D. Magill, M. Birk, P. I. Borel, D. W. Peckham, and R. Lingle, “64 Tbps (640 × 107 Gbps) PDM 36-QAM transmission over 320 km using both pre- and post-digital equalization,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2010, PDPB9.

Peng, Y.

Y. Peng and K. Jiang, “On user-participated and service-oriented optical networks,” in 9th Int. Conf. on Optical Communications and Networks, Oct. 2010, pp. 134–138.

Poosala, V.

Premaratne, M.

Ramamurthy, B.

Rouskas, G. N.

R. Dutta and G. N. Rouskas, “Traffic grooming in WDM networks: Past and future,” IEEE Netw., vol. 16, no. 6, pp. 46–56, Dec.2002.
[CrossRef]

Saleh, A. A. M.

Sen, A.

Shao, Y.

X. Zhou, J. Yu, M. F. Huang, Y. Shao, T. Wang, L. Nelson, P. D. Magill, M. Birk, P. I. Borel, D. W. Peckham, and R. Lingle, “64 Tbps (640 × 107 Gbps) PDM 36-QAM transmission over 320 km using both pre- and post-digital equalization,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2010, PDPB9.

Shen, L.

Simmons, J. M.

Sinha, B. P.

Somani, A.

A. Somani and A. Gumaste, “Light-trails: Distributed optical grooming for emerging data-center, cloud computing, and enterprise applications,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2011, OTuR4.

Stamatelakis, D.

D. Stamatelakis and W. D. Grover, “IP layer restoration and network planning based on virtual protection cycles,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 18, no. 10, pp. 1938–1949, Oct.2000.
[CrossRef]

Takada, A.

Ten, S.

J. D. Downie, J. Hurley, J. Cartledge, S. Ten, S. Bickham, S. Mishra, X. Zhu, and A. Kobyakov, “40 × 112 Gbps transmission over an unrepeated 365 km effective area-managed span comprised of ultra-low loss optical fiber,” in European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication, 2010, We.7.C.5.

Wang, B.

C. Xin, B. Wang, X. Cao, and J. Li, “Logical topology design for dynamic traffic grooming in WDM optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 24, no. 6, pp. 2267–2275, June2006.
[CrossRef]

Wang, T.

X. Zhou, J. Yu, M. F. Huang, Y. Shao, T. Wang, L. Nelson, P. D. Magill, M. Birk, P. I. Borel, D. W. Peckham, and R. Lingle, “64 Tbps (640 × 107 Gbps) PDM 36-QAM transmission over 320 km using both pre- and post-digital equalization,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2010, PDPB9.

Xie, Z. C.

R. H. M. Leung, Z. C. Xie, and L. K. Chen, “Optimization of operational fiber links and interconnections for the merger of two networks,” Opt. Fiber Technol., vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 57–64, Jan.2009.
[CrossRef]

Z. C. Xie, L. K. Chen, R. H. M. Leung, and C. K. Chan, “An algorithm for resource optimization of consolidating two coexisting networks,” in OECC/IOOC2007 Technical Digest, 2007, 13A2-6.

Z. C. Xie and L. K. Chen, “Consolidation of optical networks with 1:1 protection,” in 14th Opto Electronics and Communications Conf., 2009, ThN6.

Z. C. Xie, R. H. M. Leung, L. K. Chen, and C. K. Chan, “Optimal location analysis of two interconnections for the consolidation of two networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2008, JThA85.

Xin, C.

C. Xin, B. Wang, X. Cao, and J. Li, “Logical topology design for dynamic traffic grooming in WDM optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 24, no. 6, pp. 2267–2275, June2006.
[CrossRef]

Yamawaku, J.

Yang, X.

Ye, Y.

Yu, J.

X. Zhou, J. Yu, M. F. Huang, Y. Shao, T. Wang, L. Nelson, P. D. Magill, M. Birk, P. I. Borel, D. W. Peckham, and R. Lingle, “64 Tbps (640 × 107 Gbps) PDM 36-QAM transmission over 320 km using both pre- and post-digital equalization,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2010, PDPB9.

Zhou, X.

X. Zhou, J. Yu, M. F. Huang, Y. Shao, T. Wang, L. Nelson, P. D. Magill, M. Birk, P. I. Borel, D. W. Peckham, and R. Lingle, “64 Tbps (640 × 107 Gbps) PDM 36-QAM transmission over 320 km using both pre- and post-digital equalization,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2010, PDPB9.

Zhu, K.

K. Zhu and B. Mukherjee, “Traffic grooming in an optical WDM mesh network,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 122–133, Jan.2002.
[CrossRef]

Zhu, X.

J. D. Downie, J. Hurley, J. Cartledge, S. Ten, S. Bickham, S. Mishra, X. Zhu, and A. Kobyakov, “40 × 112 Gbps transmission over an unrepeated 365 km effective area-managed span comprised of ultra-low loss optical fiber,” in European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication, 2010, We.7.C.5.

Computer (1)

S. Ortiz, “Phone companies get into the TV business,” Computer, vol. 39, no. 10, pp. 12–15, Oct.2006.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Commun. Mag. (1)

E. Modiano and P. Lin, “Traffic grooming in WDM networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 39, no. 7, pp. 124–129, July2001.
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. (2)

K. Zhu and B. Mukherjee, “Traffic grooming in an optical WDM mesh network,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 122–133, Jan.2002.
[CrossRef]

D. Stamatelakis and W. D. Grover, “IP layer restoration and network planning based on virtual protection cycles,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 18, no. 10, pp. 1938–1949, Oct.2000.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Netw. (1)

R. Dutta and G. N. Rouskas, “Traffic grooming in WDM networks: Past and future,” IEEE Netw., vol. 16, no. 6, pp. 46–56, Dec.2002.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Spectrum (1)

S. Cherry, “Noting but net,” IEEE Spectrum, vol. 44, no. 1, pp. 22–26, Jan.2007.
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (7)

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

C. Xin, B. Wang, X. Cao, and J. Li, “Logical topology design for dynamic traffic grooming in WDM optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 24, no. 6, pp. 2267–2275, June2006.
[CrossRef]

Opt. Fiber Technol. (1)

R. H. M. Leung, Z. C. Xie, and L. K. Chen, “Optimization of operational fiber links and interconnections for the merger of two networks,” Opt. Fiber Technol., vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 57–64, Jan.2009.
[CrossRef]

Other (13)

R. Diestel, Graph Theory, 3rd ed.Springer, 2005.

Z. C. Xie, R. H. M. Leung, L. K. Chen, and C. K. Chan, “Optimal location analysis of two interconnections for the consolidation of two networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2008, JThA85.

R. H. M. Leung and L. K. Chen, “Resources optimization of integration of separate optical networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2006, NThE5.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(Color online) A non-Hamiltonian graph with three arms.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(Color online) Two coexisting identical networks with interconnections between all the co-located nodes.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Two interconnection links installed at neighboring nodes m and n.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

A dual-ring topology.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

A hypothetical topology with four groups of directly connected cut nodes.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Two NSFNET networks. Node (a, b ) is node a in network A and node b in network B.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(Color online) Two NSFNET networks after merger. Interconnection links installed at node (3, 6) and node (10, 23).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(Color online) Protection scheme for the full-interconnection case when the interconnection build cost is negligible.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(Color online) The consolidation of two identical tree networks with two interconnection links. (a) Two identical networks: network A in blue color and network B in black; double line means two operational fiber links with reverse direction. (b) The merged network with two interconnection links installed at two most apart cut nodes.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table I Connectivity Efficiency Ratio of Different Network Topologies

Equations (7)

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L min = 2 B + V + i = 2 A i ( i 1 ) .
L min = 2 B + [ V H + j = 1 M j ( j + 1 ) ] + i = 2 A i ( i 1 ) .
L min < 2 B + 2 V + i = 2 A i ( i 1 ) .
L min = 2 B + [ V H + M j ( j + 1 ) ] + i = 2 A i ( i 1 ) = 30 .
N i A ( ) N m A l m A B N m B l m B A N m A ( ) N j A .
N i A ( ) N m A ( ) N j A .
N m A l m A B N m B ( ) N n B l n B A N n A .