Abstract

For the first time to our knowledge, power transient control in hybrid amplifier (HA) cascades is analyzed by means of numerical simulation. Four hybrid configurations are investigated, considering distributed fiber Raman amplifiers (DFRAs) in both backward and forward pumping schemes, in front of and behind an erbium doped fiber amplifier (EDFA). The link control technique was applied to the best and the worst configurations in terms of power excursion. When 17 out of 20 channels were dropped/added, the steady-state power excursions of the surviving channels were reduced from 4.21 dB and 6.25 dB to 0.01 dB and 0 dB, for a single HA under configurations EDFA + backward DFRA and forward DFRA + EDFA, respectively. For a cascade of 12 HAs (1800 km), the steady-state output power excursions were mitigated from 8.66 dB to 0.07 dB and 0.60 dB, for the same hybrid configurations, respectively.

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2005 (2)

J. H. Lee, Y. M. Chang, Y. G. Han, H. Chung, S. H. Kim, and S. B. Lee, “A detailed experimental study on single-pump Raman/EDFA hybrid amplifiers: static, dynamic and system performance comparison,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 23, pp. 3484–3493, 2005.

S. H. Chang, H. S. Chung, H. J. Lee, and K. Kim, “Suppression of transient phenomena in hybrid Raman/EDFA hybrid amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 17, pp. 1004–1006, 2005.

2004 (1)

2002 (3)

1998 (1)

1991 (1)

C. R. Giles and E. Desurvire, “Modeling erbium doped fiber amplifiers,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 9, pp. 271–283, 1991.

1990 (1)

J. L. Zyskind, A. K. Srivastava, Y. Sun, J. C. Ellson, G. W. Newsome, R. W. Tkach, A. R. Chraplyvy, J. W. Sulhoff, T. A. Strasser, J. R. Pedrazzani, and C. Wolf, “Fast-link control protection of surviving channels in multi-wavelength optical networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 9, pp. 1667–1669, 1990.

Chang, S. H.

S. H. Chang, H. S. Chung, H. J. Lee, and K. Kim, “Suppression of transient phenomena in hybrid Raman/EDFA hybrid amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 17, pp. 1004–1006, 2005.

Chang, Y. M.

Chinn, S. R.

Chraplyvy, A. R.

J. L. Zyskind, A. K. Srivastava, Y. Sun, J. C. Ellson, G. W. Newsome, R. W. Tkach, A. R. Chraplyvy, J. W. Sulhoff, T. A. Strasser, J. R. Pedrazzani, and C. Wolf, “Fast-link control protection of surviving channels in multi-wavelength optical networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 9, pp. 1667–1669, 1990.

Chung, H.

Chung, H. S.

S. H. Chang, H. S. Chung, H. J. Lee, and K. Kim, “Suppression of transient phenomena in hybrid Raman/EDFA hybrid amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 17, pp. 1004–1006, 2005.

Crisóstomo Weyl Costa, J. O.

C. Rivera, R. Olivares, M. T. M. Rocco Giraldi, A. P. López Barbero, M. J. Pontes, M. E. S. Segatto, M. A. G. Martinez, and J. O. Crisóstomo Weyl Costa, “Numerical simulations and experimental results of a hybrid EDFA-Raman amplifier,” in Int. Microwave and Optoelectronics Conf. (IMOC), Brazil, 2009.

Desurvire, E.

C. R. Giles and E. Desurvire, “Modeling erbium doped fiber amplifiers,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 9, pp. 271–283, 1991.

Ellson, J. C.

J. L. Zyskind, A. K. Srivastava, Y. Sun, J. C. Ellson, G. W. Newsome, R. W. Tkach, A. R. Chraplyvy, J. W. Sulhoff, T. A. Strasser, J. R. Pedrazzani, and C. Wolf, “Fast-link control protection of surviving channels in multi-wavelength optical networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 9, pp. 1667–1669, 1990.

Giles, C. R.

C. R. Giles and E. Desurvire, “Modeling erbium doped fiber amplifiers,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 9, pp. 271–283, 1991.

Goodwin, G. C.

G. C. Goodwin, S. F. Graebe, and M. Salgado, Control System Design. 2000, pp. 160–164.

Graebe, S. F.

G. C. Goodwin, S. F. Graebe, and M. Salgado, Control System Design. 2000, pp. 160–164.

Han, Y. G.

Islam, M. N.

M. N. Islam, “Raman amplifiers for telecommunications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol. 8, pp. 548–559, 2002.

Karásek, M.

Kim, K.

S. H. Chang, H. S. Chung, H. J. Lee, and K. Kim, “Suppression of transient phenomena in hybrid Raman/EDFA hybrid amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 17, pp. 1004–1006, 2005.

Kim, S. H.

Lee, H. J.

S. H. Chang, H. S. Chung, H. J. Lee, and K. Kim, “Suppression of transient phenomena in hybrid Raman/EDFA hybrid amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 17, pp. 1004–1006, 2005.

Lee, J. H.

Lee, S. B.

López Barbero, A. P.

C. Rivera, R. Olivares, M. T. M. Rocco Giraldi, A. P. López Barbero, M. J. Pontes, M. E. S. Segatto, M. A. G. Martinez, and J. O. Crisóstomo Weyl Costa, “Numerical simulations and experimental results of a hybrid EDFA-Raman amplifier,” in Int. Microwave and Optoelectronics Conf. (IMOC), Brazil, 2009.

Martinez, M. A. G.

C. Rivera, R. Olivares, M. T. M. Rocco Giraldi, A. P. López Barbero, M. J. Pontes, M. E. S. Segatto, M. A. G. Martinez, and J. O. Crisóstomo Weyl Costa, “Numerical simulations and experimental results of a hybrid EDFA-Raman amplifier,” in Int. Microwave and Optoelectronics Conf. (IMOC), Brazil, 2009.

Menif, M.

Newsome, G. W.

J. L. Zyskind, A. K. Srivastava, Y. Sun, J. C. Ellson, G. W. Newsome, R. W. Tkach, A. R. Chraplyvy, J. W. Sulhoff, T. A. Strasser, J. R. Pedrazzani, and C. Wolf, “Fast-link control protection of surviving channels in multi-wavelength optical networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 9, pp. 1667–1669, 1990.

Olivares, R.

V. Pincheira, M. Soto, and R. Olivares, “Per-band link control transients protection in distributed fiber Raman amplifier cascades,” in Int. Microwave and Optoelectronics Conf. (IMOC), Brazil, 2009.

R. Olivares, “A comparative study of techniques to control power transients in optical WDM networks,” in 10th European Conf. on Networks & Optical Communications, England, 2005.

C. Rivera, R. Olivares, M. T. M. Rocco Giraldi, A. P. López Barbero, M. J. Pontes, M. E. S. Segatto, M. A. G. Martinez, and J. O. Crisóstomo Weyl Costa, “Numerical simulations and experimental results of a hybrid EDFA-Raman amplifier,” in Int. Microwave and Optoelectronics Conf. (IMOC), Brazil, 2009.

Pedrazzani, J. R.

J. L. Zyskind, A. K. Srivastava, Y. Sun, J. C. Ellson, G. W. Newsome, R. W. Tkach, A. R. Chraplyvy, J. W. Sulhoff, T. A. Strasser, J. R. Pedrazzani, and C. Wolf, “Fast-link control protection of surviving channels in multi-wavelength optical networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 9, pp. 1667–1669, 1990.

Perlin, V. E.

Pincheira, V.

V. Pincheira, M. Soto, and R. Olivares, “Per-band link control transients protection in distributed fiber Raman amplifier cascades,” in Int. Microwave and Optoelectronics Conf. (IMOC), Brazil, 2009.

Pontes, M. J.

C. Rivera, R. Olivares, M. T. M. Rocco Giraldi, A. P. López Barbero, M. J. Pontes, M. E. S. Segatto, M. A. G. Martinez, and J. O. Crisóstomo Weyl Costa, “Numerical simulations and experimental results of a hybrid EDFA-Raman amplifier,” in Int. Microwave and Optoelectronics Conf. (IMOC), Brazil, 2009.

Rivera, C.

C. Rivera, R. Olivares, M. T. M. Rocco Giraldi, A. P. López Barbero, M. J. Pontes, M. E. S. Segatto, M. A. G. Martinez, and J. O. Crisóstomo Weyl Costa, “Numerical simulations and experimental results of a hybrid EDFA-Raman amplifier,” in Int. Microwave and Optoelectronics Conf. (IMOC), Brazil, 2009.

Rocco Giraldi, M. T. M.

C. Rivera, R. Olivares, M. T. M. Rocco Giraldi, A. P. López Barbero, M. J. Pontes, M. E. S. Segatto, M. A. G. Martinez, and J. O. Crisóstomo Weyl Costa, “Numerical simulations and experimental results of a hybrid EDFA-Raman amplifier,” in Int. Microwave and Optoelectronics Conf. (IMOC), Brazil, 2009.

Salgado, M.

G. C. Goodwin, S. F. Graebe, and M. Salgado, Control System Design. 2000, pp. 160–164.

Segatto, M. E. S.

C. Rivera, R. Olivares, M. T. M. Rocco Giraldi, A. P. López Barbero, M. J. Pontes, M. E. S. Segatto, M. A. G. Martinez, and J. O. Crisóstomo Weyl Costa, “Numerical simulations and experimental results of a hybrid EDFA-Raman amplifier,” in Int. Microwave and Optoelectronics Conf. (IMOC), Brazil, 2009.

Soto, M.

V. Pincheira, M. Soto, and R. Olivares, “Per-band link control transients protection in distributed fiber Raman amplifier cascades,” in Int. Microwave and Optoelectronics Conf. (IMOC), Brazil, 2009.

Srivastava, A. K.

J. L. Zyskind, A. K. Srivastava, Y. Sun, J. C. Ellson, G. W. Newsome, R. W. Tkach, A. R. Chraplyvy, J. W. Sulhoff, T. A. Strasser, J. R. Pedrazzani, and C. Wolf, “Fast-link control protection of surviving channels in multi-wavelength optical networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 9, pp. 1667–1669, 1990.

Strasser, T. A.

J. L. Zyskind, A. K. Srivastava, Y. Sun, J. C. Ellson, G. W. Newsome, R. W. Tkach, A. R. Chraplyvy, J. W. Sulhoff, T. A. Strasser, J. R. Pedrazzani, and C. Wolf, “Fast-link control protection of surviving channels in multi-wavelength optical networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 9, pp. 1667–1669, 1990.

Sulhoff, J. W.

J. L. Zyskind, A. K. Srivastava, Y. Sun, J. C. Ellson, G. W. Newsome, R. W. Tkach, A. R. Chraplyvy, J. W. Sulhoff, T. A. Strasser, J. R. Pedrazzani, and C. Wolf, “Fast-link control protection of surviving channels in multi-wavelength optical networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 9, pp. 1667–1669, 1990.

Sun, Y.

J. L. Zyskind, A. K. Srivastava, Y. Sun, J. C. Ellson, G. W. Newsome, R. W. Tkach, A. R. Chraplyvy, J. W. Sulhoff, T. A. Strasser, J. R. Pedrazzani, and C. Wolf, “Fast-link control protection of surviving channels in multi-wavelength optical networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 9, pp. 1667–1669, 1990.

Tkach, R. W.

J. L. Zyskind, A. K. Srivastava, Y. Sun, J. C. Ellson, G. W. Newsome, R. W. Tkach, A. R. Chraplyvy, J. W. Sulhoff, T. A. Strasser, J. R. Pedrazzani, and C. Wolf, “Fast-link control protection of surviving channels in multi-wavelength optical networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 9, pp. 1667–1669, 1990.

Winful, H.

Wolf, C.

J. L. Zyskind, A. K. Srivastava, Y. Sun, J. C. Ellson, G. W. Newsome, R. W. Tkach, A. R. Chraplyvy, J. W. Sulhoff, T. A. Strasser, J. R. Pedrazzani, and C. Wolf, “Fast-link control protection of surviving channels in multi-wavelength optical networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 9, pp. 1667–1669, 1990.

Zyskind, J. L.

J. L. Zyskind, A. K. Srivastava, Y. Sun, J. C. Ellson, G. W. Newsome, R. W. Tkach, A. R. Chraplyvy, J. W. Sulhoff, T. A. Strasser, J. R. Pedrazzani, and C. Wolf, “Fast-link control protection of surviving channels in multi-wavelength optical networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 9, pp. 1667–1669, 1990.

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. N. Islam, “Raman amplifiers for telecommunications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol. 8, pp. 548–559, 2002.

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

S. H. Chang, H. S. Chung, H. J. Lee, and K. Kim, “Suppression of transient phenomena in hybrid Raman/EDFA hybrid amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 17, pp. 1004–1006, 2005.

J. L. Zyskind, A. K. Srivastava, Y. Sun, J. C. Ellson, G. W. Newsome, R. W. Tkach, A. R. Chraplyvy, J. W. Sulhoff, T. A. Strasser, J. R. Pedrazzani, and C. Wolf, “Fast-link control protection of surviving channels in multi-wavelength optical networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 9, pp. 1667–1669, 1990.

J. Lightwave Technol. (5)

Opt. Express (1)

Other (4)

C. Rivera, R. Olivares, M. T. M. Rocco Giraldi, A. P. López Barbero, M. J. Pontes, M. E. S. Segatto, M. A. G. Martinez, and J. O. Crisóstomo Weyl Costa, “Numerical simulations and experimental results of a hybrid EDFA-Raman amplifier,” in Int. Microwave and Optoelectronics Conf. (IMOC), Brazil, 2009.

R. Olivares, “A comparative study of techniques to control power transients in optical WDM networks,” in 10th European Conf. on Networks & Optical Communications, England, 2005.

V. Pincheira, M. Soto, and R. Olivares, “Per-band link control transients protection in distributed fiber Raman amplifier cascades,” in Int. Microwave and Optoelectronics Conf. (IMOC), Brazil, 2009.

G. C. Goodwin, S. F. Graebe, and M. Salgado, Control System Design. 2000, pp. 160–164.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Hybrid amplifier configurations. (a) EDFA + DFRA b , (b) EDFA + DFRA f , (c) DFRA b + EDFA and (d) DFRA f + EDFA.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(Color online) Power excursion of the surviving channel 7 along the HA cascades. (a) EDFA + DFRA b , f configurations and (b) DFRA b , f  + EDFA configurations.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Link control module schematic in a cascade of 12 HAs.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(Color online) Total power excursion with and without link control protection and control channel power excursion at the first HA output, for EDFA + DFRA b and DFRA f  + EDFA configurations.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(Color online) Power excursion of the surviving channels ( λ 7 and λ 15 ) and the control channel ( λ 11 ), at the first HA output with and without link control protection for the EDFA + DFRA b (top) and the DFRA f  + EDFA (bottom) configurations.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(Color online) Power excursion of channel 7 along cascades of 12 HAs with link control protection, for the EDFA + DFRA b (top) and the DFRA f  + EDFA (bottom) configurations.

Equations (3)

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d P c c ( t ) d t = k p τ i R ( t ) + k p τ i d R ( t ) d t ,
R ( t ) = | P T ( t = 0 ) P T ( t ) | ,
P T ( t ) = i P i ( t )