Abstract

To address exponentially-increasing traffic demands, cross-layer optimized architectures will be required to access the optical layer and allow for packet-level control of larger optical flows. In this work, we investigate cross-layer communications that use performance monitoring parameters in a proactive packet protection switching scheme to reroute data traffic. The optical signal quality is captured by bit error ratio measurements and made available to higher-layers, which then trigger flow rerouting based on the per-flow optical signal quality. We experimentally demonstrate cross-layer communications in a test-bed supporting 8×10-Gb/s wavelength-striped optical packets. Furthermore, we compare cross-layer packet protection to a fast-reroute scheme in simulation, showing reduced packet loss rates and gains in throughput that are dependent on impairment dynamics and network size.

© 2012 OSA

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2011 (1)

C. P. Lai, D. Brunina, C. Ware, B. G. Bathula, and K. Bergman, “Demonstration of failure reconfiguration via cross-layer enabled optical switching fabrics,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 23, no. 22, pp. 1679–1681, Nov.2011.
[CrossRef]

2010 (5)

C. P. Lai, A. Shacham, and K. Bergman, “Demonstration of asynchronous operation of a multiwavelength optical packet-switched fabric,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 22, no. 16, pp. 1223–1225, Aug.2010.
[CrossRef]

R. W. Tkach, “Scaling optical communications for the next decade and beyond,” Bell Labs Tech. J., vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 3–10, Feb.2010.
[CrossRef]

P. J. Winzer, “Beyond 100G Ethernet,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 48, no. 7, pp. 26–30, July2010.
[CrossRef]

K. Gammon, “Four ways to reinvent the Internet,” Nature, vol. 46, pp. 602–604, Feb.2010.
[CrossRef]

F. Chang, K. Onohara, and T. Mizuochi, “Forward error correction for 100 G transport networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 48, no. 3, pp. S48–S55, Mar.2010.
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

J. D’Ambrosia, “40 gigabit Ethernet and 100 gigabit Ethernet: The development of a flexible architecture [Commentary],” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 47, no. 3, pp. S8–S14, Mar.2009.
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

S. Chandrasekhar and X. Liu, “Impact of channel plan and dispersion map on hybrid DWDM transmission of 42.7-Gb/s DQPSK and 10.7-Gb/s OOK on 50-GHz grid,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 19, no. 22, pp. 1801–1803, Nov.2007.
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

P. J. Winzer, M. Pfennigbauer, and R.-J. Essiambre, “Coherent crosstalk in ultradense WDM systems,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 1734–1744, Apr.2005.
[CrossRef]

A. Shacham, B. G. Lee, and K. Bergman, “A wideband, non-blocking, 2×2 switching node for a SPINet network,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 17, no. 12, pp. 2742–2744, Dec.2005.
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

1997 (1)

Y. Sun, A. K. Srivastava, J. L. Zyskind, J. W. Sulhoff, C. Wolf, and R. W. Tkach, “Fast power transients in WDM optical networks with cascaded EDFAs,” Electron. Lett., vol. 33, no. 4, pp. 313–314, Feb.1997.
[CrossRef]

Adamiecki, A.

D. Chiaroni, R. Urata, J. Gripp, J. E. Simsarian, G. Austin, S. Etienne, T. Segawa, Y. Pointurier, C. Simonneau, Y. Suzaki, T. Nakahara, M. Thottan, A. Adamiecki, D. Neilson, J. C. Antona, S. Bigo, R. Takahashi, and V. Radoaca, “Demonstration of the interconnection of two optical packet rings with a hybrid optoelectronic packet router,” in 36th European Conf. on Optical Communication, Turin, Italy, Sept. 2010, PD3.5.

Anagnostopoulos, V.

C. Politi, C. Matrakidis, A. Stavdas, V. Anagnostopoulos, and M. Gunkel, “Cross layer routing in transparent optical networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Anaheim, CA, Mar. 2007, JThA64.

Antona, J. C.

D. Chiaroni, R. Urata, J. Gripp, J. E. Simsarian, G. Austin, S. Etienne, T. Segawa, Y. Pointurier, C. Simonneau, Y. Suzaki, T. Nakahara, M. Thottan, A. Adamiecki, D. Neilson, J. C. Antona, S. Bigo, R. Takahashi, and V. Radoaca, “Demonstration of the interconnection of two optical packet rings with a hybrid optoelectronic packet router,” in 36th European Conf. on Optical Communication, Turin, Italy, Sept. 2010, PD3.5.

Austin, G.

D. Chiaroni, R. Urata, J. Gripp, J. E. Simsarian, G. Austin, S. Etienne, T. Segawa, Y. Pointurier, C. Simonneau, Y. Suzaki, T. Nakahara, M. Thottan, A. Adamiecki, D. Neilson, J. C. Antona, S. Bigo, R. Takahashi, and V. Radoaca, “Demonstration of the interconnection of two optical packet rings with a hybrid optoelectronic packet router,” in 36th European Conf. on Optical Communication, Turin, Italy, Sept. 2010, PD3.5.

Bathula, B. G.

C. P. Lai, D. Brunina, C. Ware, B. G. Bathula, and K. Bergman, “Demonstration of failure reconfiguration via cross-layer enabled optical switching fabrics,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 23, no. 22, pp. 1679–1681, Nov.2011.
[CrossRef]

Baumert, W.

H. Bulow, W. Baumert, H. Schmuck, F. Mohr, T. Schulz, F. Kuppers, and W. Weiershausen, “Measurement of the maximum speed of PMD fluctuation in installed field fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., San Diego, CA, Feb. 1999, vol. 2, pp. 83–85.

Bergman, K.

C. P. Lai, D. Brunina, C. Ware, B. G. Bathula, and K. Bergman, “Demonstration of failure reconfiguration via cross-layer enabled optical switching fabrics,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 23, no. 22, pp. 1679–1681, Nov.2011.
[CrossRef]

C. P. Lai, A. Shacham, and K. Bergman, “Demonstration of asynchronous operation of a multiwavelength optical packet-switched fabric,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 22, no. 16, pp. 1223–1225, Aug.2010.
[CrossRef]

A. Shacham, B. G. Lee, and K. Bergman, “A wideband, non-blocking, 2×2 switching node for a SPINet network,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 17, no. 12, pp. 2742–2744, Dec.2005.
[CrossRef]

F. Fidler, P. J. Winzer, C. P. Lai, M. K. Thottan, and K. Bergman, “Cross-layer simulations of fast packet protection mechanisms,” in 35th European Conf. on Optical Communication, Vienna, Austria, Sept. 2009, 2.5.2.

F. Fidler, C. P. Lai, and K. Bergman, GENI Embedded Real-Time Measurements, Technical Note 3, Discrete-Event Network Simulations, June2009 [Online]. Available: http://groups.geni.net.

C. P. Lai, H. Wang, A. Shacham, and K. Bergman, “Priority encoding scheme for contention resolution in optical packet-switched networks,” in 34th European Conf. on Optical Communication, Brussels, Belgium, Sept. 2008, P.5.7.

C. P. Lai and K. Bergman, “Demonstration of programmable broadband packet multicasting in an optical switching fabric test-bed,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., San Diego, CA, Mar. 2009, OTuA5.

C. P. Lai, F. Fidler, and K. Bergman, “Experimental demonstration of QoS-aware cross-layer packet protection switching,” in 35th European Conf. on Optical Communication, Vienna, Austria, Sept. 2009, 2.5.3.

Bernasconi, P.

Bhardwaj, A.

Bigo, S.

D. Chiaroni, R. Urata, J. Gripp, J. E. Simsarian, G. Austin, S. Etienne, T. Segawa, Y. Pointurier, C. Simonneau, Y. Suzaki, T. Nakahara, M. Thottan, A. Adamiecki, D. Neilson, J. C. Antona, S. Bigo, R. Takahashi, and V. Radoaca, “Demonstration of the interconnection of two optical packet rings with a hybrid optoelectronic packet router,” in 36th European Conf. on Optical Communication, Turin, Italy, Sept. 2010, PD3.5.

Bisplinghoff, A.

J. C. Geyer, A. Bisplinghoff, T. Duthel, C. R. S. Fludger, C. Schulien, and B. Schmauss, “Optimization of the chromatic dispersion equalizer of a 43 Gb/s realtime coherent receiver,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., San Diego, CA, Mar. 2010, OWV8.

Blumenthal, D. J.

D. J. Blumenthal and J. E. Bowers, “Technologies and systems of optical switching [Invited],” in Proc. Int. Conf. on Photonics in Switching, Pisa, Italy, Sept. 2009, ThI1.

Bowers, J. E.

D. J. Blumenthal and J. E. Bowers, “Technologies and systems of optical switching [Invited],” in Proc. Int. Conf. on Photonics in Switching, Pisa, Italy, Sept. 2009, ThI1.

Brunina, D.

C. P. Lai, D. Brunina, C. Ware, B. G. Bathula, and K. Bergman, “Demonstration of failure reconfiguration via cross-layer enabled optical switching fabrics,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 23, no. 22, pp. 1679–1681, Nov.2011.
[CrossRef]

Bulow, H.

H. Bulow, W. Baumert, H. Schmuck, F. Mohr, T. Schulz, F. Kuppers, and W. Weiershausen, “Measurement of the maximum speed of PMD fluctuation in installed field fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., San Diego, CA, Feb. 1999, vol. 2, pp. 83–85.

Chandrasekhar, S.

S. Chandrasekhar and X. Liu, “Impact of channel plan and dispersion map on hybrid DWDM transmission of 42.7-Gb/s DQPSK and 10.7-Gb/s OOK on 50-GHz grid,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 19, no. 22, pp. 1801–1803, Nov.2007.
[CrossRef]

Chang, F.

F. Chang, K. Onohara, and T. Mizuochi, “Forward error correction for 100 G transport networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 48, no. 3, pp. S48–S55, Mar.2010.
[CrossRef]

Chiaroni, D.

D. Chiaroni, R. Urata, J. Gripp, J. E. Simsarian, G. Austin, S. Etienne, T. Segawa, Y. Pointurier, C. Simonneau, Y. Suzaki, T. Nakahara, M. Thottan, A. Adamiecki, D. Neilson, J. C. Antona, S. Bigo, R. Takahashi, and V. Radoaca, “Demonstration of the interconnection of two optical packet rings with a hybrid optoelectronic packet router,” in 36th European Conf. on Optical Communication, Turin, Italy, Sept. 2010, PD3.5.

D’Ambrosia, J.

J. D’Ambrosia, “40 gigabit Ethernet and 100 gigabit Ethernet: The development of a flexible architecture [Commentary],” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 47, no. 3, pp. S8–S14, Mar.2009.
[CrossRef]

Duelk, M.

Duthel, T.

C. R. S. Fludger, J. C. Geyer, T. Duthel, and C. Schulien, “Digital signal processing—from simulation to silicon [Tutorial],” in 36th European Conf. on Optical Communication, Torino, Italy, Sept. 2010, Tu.5.A.1.

J. C. Geyer, A. Bisplinghoff, T. Duthel, C. R. S. Fludger, C. Schulien, and B. Schmauss, “Optimization of the chromatic dispersion equalizer of a 43 Gb/s realtime coherent receiver,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., San Diego, CA, Mar. 2010, OWV8.

Elby, S.

S. Elby, “The future Internet—a service provider’s long term view,” in IEEE/LEOS Summer Topical Meeting, Newport Beach, CA, July 2009, TuD1.1.

Essiambre, R.-J.

Etienne, S.

D. Chiaroni, R. Urata, J. Gripp, J. E. Simsarian, G. Austin, S. Etienne, T. Segawa, Y. Pointurier, C. Simonneau, Y. Suzaki, T. Nakahara, M. Thottan, A. Adamiecki, D. Neilson, J. C. Antona, S. Bigo, R. Takahashi, and V. Radoaca, “Demonstration of the interconnection of two optical packet rings with a hybrid optoelectronic packet router,” in 36th European Conf. on Optical Communication, Turin, Italy, Sept. 2010, PD3.5.

Fidler, F.

C. P. Lai, F. Fidler, and K. Bergman, “Experimental demonstration of QoS-aware cross-layer packet protection switching,” in 35th European Conf. on Optical Communication, Vienna, Austria, Sept. 2009, 2.5.3.

F. Fidler, C. P. Lai, and K. Bergman, GENI Embedded Real-Time Measurements, Technical Note 3, Discrete-Event Network Simulations, June2009 [Online]. Available: http://groups.geni.net.

F. Fidler, P. J. Winzer, C. P. Lai, M. K. Thottan, and K. Bergman, “Cross-layer simulations of fast packet protection mechanisms,” in 35th European Conf. on Optical Communication, Vienna, Austria, Sept. 2009, 2.5.2.

Fludger, C. R. S.

C. R. S. Fludger, J. C. Geyer, T. Duthel, and C. Schulien, “Digital signal processing—from simulation to silicon [Tutorial],” in 36th European Conf. on Optical Communication, Torino, Italy, Sept. 2010, Tu.5.A.1.

J. C. Geyer, A. Bisplinghoff, T. Duthel, C. R. S. Fludger, C. Schulien, and B. Schmauss, “Optimization of the chromatic dispersion equalizer of a 43 Gb/s realtime coherent receiver,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., San Diego, CA, Mar. 2010, OWV8.

Gammon, K.

K. Gammon, “Four ways to reinvent the Internet,” Nature, vol. 46, pp. 602–604, Feb.2010.
[CrossRef]

Gerstel, O.

O. Gerstel, I. Leung, G. Nicholl, H. Sohel, W. Wakim, and K. Wollenweber, “Near-hitless protection in IPoDWDM networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., San Diego, CA, Feb. 2008, NWD4.

Geyer, J. C.

C. R. S. Fludger, J. C. Geyer, T. Duthel, and C. Schulien, “Digital signal processing—from simulation to silicon [Tutorial],” in 36th European Conf. on Optical Communication, Torino, Italy, Sept. 2010, Tu.5.A.1.

J. C. Geyer, A. Bisplinghoff, T. Duthel, C. R. S. Fludger, C. Schulien, and B. Schmauss, “Optimization of the chromatic dispersion equalizer of a 43 Gb/s realtime coherent receiver,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., San Diego, CA, Mar. 2010, OWV8.

Gripp, J.

J. Gripp, M. Duelk, J. E. Simsarian, A. Bhardwaj, P. Bernasconi, O. Laznicka, and M. Zirngibl, “Optical switch fabrics for ultra-high-capacity IP routers,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 21, no. 11, pp. 2839–2850, Nov.2003.
[CrossRef]

D. Chiaroni, R. Urata, J. Gripp, J. E. Simsarian, G. Austin, S. Etienne, T. Segawa, Y. Pointurier, C. Simonneau, Y. Suzaki, T. Nakahara, M. Thottan, A. Adamiecki, D. Neilson, J. C. Antona, S. Bigo, R. Takahashi, and V. Radoaca, “Demonstration of the interconnection of two optical packet rings with a hybrid optoelectronic packet router,” in 36th European Conf. on Optical Communication, Turin, Italy, Sept. 2010, PD3.5.

Gunkel, M.

C. Politi, C. Matrakidis, A. Stavdas, V. Anagnostopoulos, and M. Gunkel, “Cross layer routing in transparent optical networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Anaheim, CA, Mar. 2007, JThA64.

Krummrich, P. M.

P. M. Krummrich, E.-D. Schmidt, W. Weiershausen, and A. Mattheus, “Field trial results on statistics of fast polarization changes in long haul WDM transmission systems,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Anaheim, CA, Mar. 2005, OThT6.

Kuppers, F.

H. Bulow, W. Baumert, H. Schmuck, F. Mohr, T. Schulz, F. Kuppers, and W. Weiershausen, “Measurement of the maximum speed of PMD fluctuation in installed field fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., San Diego, CA, Feb. 1999, vol. 2, pp. 83–85.

Lai, C. P.

C. P. Lai, D. Brunina, C. Ware, B. G. Bathula, and K. Bergman, “Demonstration of failure reconfiguration via cross-layer enabled optical switching fabrics,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 23, no. 22, pp. 1679–1681, Nov.2011.
[CrossRef]

C. P. Lai, A. Shacham, and K. Bergman, “Demonstration of asynchronous operation of a multiwavelength optical packet-switched fabric,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 22, no. 16, pp. 1223–1225, Aug.2010.
[CrossRef]

C. P. Lai, F. Fidler, and K. Bergman, “Experimental demonstration of QoS-aware cross-layer packet protection switching,” in 35th European Conf. on Optical Communication, Vienna, Austria, Sept. 2009, 2.5.3.

F. Fidler, P. J. Winzer, C. P. Lai, M. K. Thottan, and K. Bergman, “Cross-layer simulations of fast packet protection mechanisms,” in 35th European Conf. on Optical Communication, Vienna, Austria, Sept. 2009, 2.5.2.

F. Fidler, C. P. Lai, and K. Bergman, GENI Embedded Real-Time Measurements, Technical Note 3, Discrete-Event Network Simulations, June2009 [Online]. Available: http://groups.geni.net.

C. P. Lai, H. Wang, A. Shacham, and K. Bergman, “Priority encoding scheme for contention resolution in optical packet-switched networks,” in 34th European Conf. on Optical Communication, Brussels, Belgium, Sept. 2008, P.5.7.

C. P. Lai and K. Bergman, “Demonstration of programmable broadband packet multicasting in an optical switching fabric test-bed,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., San Diego, CA, Mar. 2009, OTuA5.

Laznicka, O.

Lee, B. G.

A. Shacham, B. G. Lee, and K. Bergman, “A wideband, non-blocking, 2×2 switching node for a SPINet network,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 17, no. 12, pp. 2742–2744, Dec.2005.
[CrossRef]

Leung, I.

O. Gerstel, I. Leung, G. Nicholl, H. Sohel, W. Wakim, and K. Wollenweber, “Near-hitless protection in IPoDWDM networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., San Diego, CA, Feb. 2008, NWD4.

Liu, X.

S. Chandrasekhar and X. Liu, “Impact of channel plan and dispersion map on hybrid DWDM transmission of 42.7-Gb/s DQPSK and 10.7-Gb/s OOK on 50-GHz grid,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 19, no. 22, pp. 1801–1803, Nov.2007.
[CrossRef]

Matrakidis, C.

C. Politi, C. Matrakidis, A. Stavdas, V. Anagnostopoulos, and M. Gunkel, “Cross layer routing in transparent optical networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Anaheim, CA, Mar. 2007, JThA64.

Mattheus, A.

P. M. Krummrich, E.-D. Schmidt, W. Weiershausen, and A. Mattheus, “Field trial results on statistics of fast polarization changes in long haul WDM transmission systems,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Anaheim, CA, Mar. 2005, OThT6.

Mizuochi, T.

F. Chang, K. Onohara, and T. Mizuochi, “Forward error correction for 100 G transport networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 48, no. 3, pp. S48–S55, Mar.2010.
[CrossRef]

T. Mizuochi, “Next generation FEC for optical communication [Tutorial],” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., San Diego, CA, Feb. 2008, OTuE5.

Mohr, F.

H. Bulow, W. Baumert, H. Schmuck, F. Mohr, T. Schulz, F. Kuppers, and W. Weiershausen, “Measurement of the maximum speed of PMD fluctuation in installed field fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., San Diego, CA, Feb. 1999, vol. 2, pp. 83–85.

Nakahara, T.

D. Chiaroni, R. Urata, J. Gripp, J. E. Simsarian, G. Austin, S. Etienne, T. Segawa, Y. Pointurier, C. Simonneau, Y. Suzaki, T. Nakahara, M. Thottan, A. Adamiecki, D. Neilson, J. C. Antona, S. Bigo, R. Takahashi, and V. Radoaca, “Demonstration of the interconnection of two optical packet rings with a hybrid optoelectronic packet router,” in 36th European Conf. on Optical Communication, Turin, Italy, Sept. 2010, PD3.5.

Neilson, D.

D. Chiaroni, R. Urata, J. Gripp, J. E. Simsarian, G. Austin, S. Etienne, T. Segawa, Y. Pointurier, C. Simonneau, Y. Suzaki, T. Nakahara, M. Thottan, A. Adamiecki, D. Neilson, J. C. Antona, S. Bigo, R. Takahashi, and V. Radoaca, “Demonstration of the interconnection of two optical packet rings with a hybrid optoelectronic packet router,” in 36th European Conf. on Optical Communication, Turin, Italy, Sept. 2010, PD3.5.

Nicholl, G.

O. Gerstel, I. Leung, G. Nicholl, H. Sohel, W. Wakim, and K. Wollenweber, “Near-hitless protection in IPoDWDM networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., San Diego, CA, Feb. 2008, NWD4.

Onohara, K.

F. Chang, K. Onohara, and T. Mizuochi, “Forward error correction for 100 G transport networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 48, no. 3, pp. S48–S55, Mar.2010.
[CrossRef]

Pfennigbauer, M.

Pointurier, Y.

D. Chiaroni, R. Urata, J. Gripp, J. E. Simsarian, G. Austin, S. Etienne, T. Segawa, Y. Pointurier, C. Simonneau, Y. Suzaki, T. Nakahara, M. Thottan, A. Adamiecki, D. Neilson, J. C. Antona, S. Bigo, R. Takahashi, and V. Radoaca, “Demonstration of the interconnection of two optical packet rings with a hybrid optoelectronic packet router,” in 36th European Conf. on Optical Communication, Turin, Italy, Sept. 2010, PD3.5.

Politi, C.

C. Politi, C. Matrakidis, A. Stavdas, V. Anagnostopoulos, and M. Gunkel, “Cross layer routing in transparent optical networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Anaheim, CA, Mar. 2007, JThA64.

Radoaca, V.

D. Chiaroni, R. Urata, J. Gripp, J. E. Simsarian, G. Austin, S. Etienne, T. Segawa, Y. Pointurier, C. Simonneau, Y. Suzaki, T. Nakahara, M. Thottan, A. Adamiecki, D. Neilson, J. C. Antona, S. Bigo, R. Takahashi, and V. Radoaca, “Demonstration of the interconnection of two optical packet rings with a hybrid optoelectronic packet router,” in 36th European Conf. on Optical Communication, Turin, Italy, Sept. 2010, PD3.5.

Ramaswami, R.

R. Ramaswami and K. N. Sivarajan, Optical Networks: A Practical Perspective. 2nd ed.Morgan Kaufmann, San Francisco, CA, 2002.

Schmauss, B.

J. C. Geyer, A. Bisplinghoff, T. Duthel, C. R. S. Fludger, C. Schulien, and B. Schmauss, “Optimization of the chromatic dispersion equalizer of a 43 Gb/s realtime coherent receiver,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., San Diego, CA, Mar. 2010, OWV8.

Schmidt, E.-D.

P. M. Krummrich, E.-D. Schmidt, W. Weiershausen, and A. Mattheus, “Field trial results on statistics of fast polarization changes in long haul WDM transmission systems,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Anaheim, CA, Mar. 2005, OThT6.

Schmuck, H.

H. Bulow, W. Baumert, H. Schmuck, F. Mohr, T. Schulz, F. Kuppers, and W. Weiershausen, “Measurement of the maximum speed of PMD fluctuation in installed field fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., San Diego, CA, Feb. 1999, vol. 2, pp. 83–85.

Schulien, C.

J. C. Geyer, A. Bisplinghoff, T. Duthel, C. R. S. Fludger, C. Schulien, and B. Schmauss, “Optimization of the chromatic dispersion equalizer of a 43 Gb/s realtime coherent receiver,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., San Diego, CA, Mar. 2010, OWV8.

C. R. S. Fludger, J. C. Geyer, T. Duthel, and C. Schulien, “Digital signal processing—from simulation to silicon [Tutorial],” in 36th European Conf. on Optical Communication, Torino, Italy, Sept. 2010, Tu.5.A.1.

Schulz, T.

H. Bulow, W. Baumert, H. Schmuck, F. Mohr, T. Schulz, F. Kuppers, and W. Weiershausen, “Measurement of the maximum speed of PMD fluctuation in installed field fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., San Diego, CA, Feb. 1999, vol. 2, pp. 83–85.

Segawa, T.

D. Chiaroni, R. Urata, J. Gripp, J. E. Simsarian, G. Austin, S. Etienne, T. Segawa, Y. Pointurier, C. Simonneau, Y. Suzaki, T. Nakahara, M. Thottan, A. Adamiecki, D. Neilson, J. C. Antona, S. Bigo, R. Takahashi, and V. Radoaca, “Demonstration of the interconnection of two optical packet rings with a hybrid optoelectronic packet router,” in 36th European Conf. on Optical Communication, Turin, Italy, Sept. 2010, PD3.5.

Shacham, A.

C. P. Lai, A. Shacham, and K. Bergman, “Demonstration of asynchronous operation of a multiwavelength optical packet-switched fabric,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 22, no. 16, pp. 1223–1225, Aug.2010.
[CrossRef]

A. Shacham, B. G. Lee, and K. Bergman, “A wideband, non-blocking, 2×2 switching node for a SPINet network,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 17, no. 12, pp. 2742–2744, Dec.2005.
[CrossRef]

C. P. Lai, H. Wang, A. Shacham, and K. Bergman, “Priority encoding scheme for contention resolution in optical packet-switched networks,” in 34th European Conf. on Optical Communication, Brussels, Belgium, Sept. 2008, P.5.7.

Shapiro, R. J.

R. J. Shapiro, “The Internet’s capacity to handle fast-rising demand for bandwidth,” US Internet Industry Association White Paper, Sept.2007 [Online]. Available: http://usiia-net.org/.

Simonneau, C.

D. Chiaroni, R. Urata, J. Gripp, J. E. Simsarian, G. Austin, S. Etienne, T. Segawa, Y. Pointurier, C. Simonneau, Y. Suzaki, T. Nakahara, M. Thottan, A. Adamiecki, D. Neilson, J. C. Antona, S. Bigo, R. Takahashi, and V. Radoaca, “Demonstration of the interconnection of two optical packet rings with a hybrid optoelectronic packet router,” in 36th European Conf. on Optical Communication, Turin, Italy, Sept. 2010, PD3.5.

Simsarian, J. E.

J. Gripp, M. Duelk, J. E. Simsarian, A. Bhardwaj, P. Bernasconi, O. Laznicka, and M. Zirngibl, “Optical switch fabrics for ultra-high-capacity IP routers,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 21, no. 11, pp. 2839–2850, Nov.2003.
[CrossRef]

D. Chiaroni, R. Urata, J. Gripp, J. E. Simsarian, G. Austin, S. Etienne, T. Segawa, Y. Pointurier, C. Simonneau, Y. Suzaki, T. Nakahara, M. Thottan, A. Adamiecki, D. Neilson, J. C. Antona, S. Bigo, R. Takahashi, and V. Radoaca, “Demonstration of the interconnection of two optical packet rings with a hybrid optoelectronic packet router,” in 36th European Conf. on Optical Communication, Turin, Italy, Sept. 2010, PD3.5.

Sivarajan, K. N.

R. Ramaswami and K. N. Sivarajan, Optical Networks: A Practical Perspective. 2nd ed.Morgan Kaufmann, San Francisco, CA, 2002.

Sohel, H.

O. Gerstel, I. Leung, G. Nicholl, H. Sohel, W. Wakim, and K. Wollenweber, “Near-hitless protection in IPoDWDM networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., San Diego, CA, Feb. 2008, NWD4.

Srivastava, A. K.

Y. Sun, A. K. Srivastava, J. L. Zyskind, J. W. Sulhoff, C. Wolf, and R. W. Tkach, “Fast power transients in WDM optical networks with cascaded EDFAs,” Electron. Lett., vol. 33, no. 4, pp. 313–314, Feb.1997.
[CrossRef]

Stavdas, A.

C. Politi, C. Matrakidis, A. Stavdas, V. Anagnostopoulos, and M. Gunkel, “Cross layer routing in transparent optical networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Anaheim, CA, Mar. 2007, JThA64.

Sulhoff, J. W.

Y. Sun, A. K. Srivastava, J. L. Zyskind, J. W. Sulhoff, C. Wolf, and R. W. Tkach, “Fast power transients in WDM optical networks with cascaded EDFAs,” Electron. Lett., vol. 33, no. 4, pp. 313–314, Feb.1997.
[CrossRef]

Sun, Y.

Y. Sun, A. K. Srivastava, J. L. Zyskind, J. W. Sulhoff, C. Wolf, and R. W. Tkach, “Fast power transients in WDM optical networks with cascaded EDFAs,” Electron. Lett., vol. 33, no. 4, pp. 313–314, Feb.1997.
[CrossRef]

Suzaki, Y.

D. Chiaroni, R. Urata, J. Gripp, J. E. Simsarian, G. Austin, S. Etienne, T. Segawa, Y. Pointurier, C. Simonneau, Y. Suzaki, T. Nakahara, M. Thottan, A. Adamiecki, D. Neilson, J. C. Antona, S. Bigo, R. Takahashi, and V. Radoaca, “Demonstration of the interconnection of two optical packet rings with a hybrid optoelectronic packet router,” in 36th European Conf. on Optical Communication, Turin, Italy, Sept. 2010, PD3.5.

Takahashi, R.

D. Chiaroni, R. Urata, J. Gripp, J. E. Simsarian, G. Austin, S. Etienne, T. Segawa, Y. Pointurier, C. Simonneau, Y. Suzaki, T. Nakahara, M. Thottan, A. Adamiecki, D. Neilson, J. C. Antona, S. Bigo, R. Takahashi, and V. Radoaca, “Demonstration of the interconnection of two optical packet rings with a hybrid optoelectronic packet router,” in 36th European Conf. on Optical Communication, Turin, Italy, Sept. 2010, PD3.5.

Thottan, M.

D. Chiaroni, R. Urata, J. Gripp, J. E. Simsarian, G. Austin, S. Etienne, T. Segawa, Y. Pointurier, C. Simonneau, Y. Suzaki, T. Nakahara, M. Thottan, A. Adamiecki, D. Neilson, J. C. Antona, S. Bigo, R. Takahashi, and V. Radoaca, “Demonstration of the interconnection of two optical packet rings with a hybrid optoelectronic packet router,” in 36th European Conf. on Optical Communication, Turin, Italy, Sept. 2010, PD3.5.

Thottan, M. K.

F. Fidler, P. J. Winzer, C. P. Lai, M. K. Thottan, and K. Bergman, “Cross-layer simulations of fast packet protection mechanisms,” in 35th European Conf. on Optical Communication, Vienna, Austria, Sept. 2009, 2.5.2.

Tkach, R. W.

R. W. Tkach, “Scaling optical communications for the next decade and beyond,” Bell Labs Tech. J., vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 3–10, Feb.2010.
[CrossRef]

Y. Sun, A. K. Srivastava, J. L. Zyskind, J. W. Sulhoff, C. Wolf, and R. W. Tkach, “Fast power transients in WDM optical networks with cascaded EDFAs,” Electron. Lett., vol. 33, no. 4, pp. 313–314, Feb.1997.
[CrossRef]

Urata, R.

D. Chiaroni, R. Urata, J. Gripp, J. E. Simsarian, G. Austin, S. Etienne, T. Segawa, Y. Pointurier, C. Simonneau, Y. Suzaki, T. Nakahara, M. Thottan, A. Adamiecki, D. Neilson, J. C. Antona, S. Bigo, R. Takahashi, and V. Radoaca, “Demonstration of the interconnection of two optical packet rings with a hybrid optoelectronic packet router,” in 36th European Conf. on Optical Communication, Turin, Italy, Sept. 2010, PD3.5.

Wakim, W.

O. Gerstel, I. Leung, G. Nicholl, H. Sohel, W. Wakim, and K. Wollenweber, “Near-hitless protection in IPoDWDM networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., San Diego, CA, Feb. 2008, NWD4.

Wang, H.

C. P. Lai, H. Wang, A. Shacham, and K. Bergman, “Priority encoding scheme for contention resolution in optical packet-switched networks,” in 34th European Conf. on Optical Communication, Brussels, Belgium, Sept. 2008, P.5.7.

Ware, C.

C. P. Lai, D. Brunina, C. Ware, B. G. Bathula, and K. Bergman, “Demonstration of failure reconfiguration via cross-layer enabled optical switching fabrics,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 23, no. 22, pp. 1679–1681, Nov.2011.
[CrossRef]

Weiershausen, W.

H. Bulow, W. Baumert, H. Schmuck, F. Mohr, T. Schulz, F. Kuppers, and W. Weiershausen, “Measurement of the maximum speed of PMD fluctuation in installed field fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., San Diego, CA, Feb. 1999, vol. 2, pp. 83–85.

P. M. Krummrich, E.-D. Schmidt, W. Weiershausen, and A. Mattheus, “Field trial results on statistics of fast polarization changes in long haul WDM transmission systems,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Anaheim, CA, Mar. 2005, OThT6.

Winzer, P. J.

P. J. Winzer, “Beyond 100G Ethernet,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 48, no. 7, pp. 26–30, July2010.
[CrossRef]

P. J. Winzer, M. Pfennigbauer, and R.-J. Essiambre, “Coherent crosstalk in ultradense WDM systems,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 1734–1744, Apr.2005.
[CrossRef]

F. Fidler, P. J. Winzer, C. P. Lai, M. K. Thottan, and K. Bergman, “Cross-layer simulations of fast packet protection mechanisms,” in 35th European Conf. on Optical Communication, Vienna, Austria, Sept. 2009, 2.5.2.

Wolf, C.

Y. Sun, A. K. Srivastava, J. L. Zyskind, J. W. Sulhoff, C. Wolf, and R. W. Tkach, “Fast power transients in WDM optical networks with cascaded EDFAs,” Electron. Lett., vol. 33, no. 4, pp. 313–314, Feb.1997.
[CrossRef]

Wollenweber, K.

O. Gerstel, I. Leung, G. Nicholl, H. Sohel, W. Wakim, and K. Wollenweber, “Near-hitless protection in IPoDWDM networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., San Diego, CA, Feb. 2008, NWD4.

Zirngibl, M.

Zyskind, J. L.

Y. Sun, A. K. Srivastava, J. L. Zyskind, J. W. Sulhoff, C. Wolf, and R. W. Tkach, “Fast power transients in WDM optical networks with cascaded EDFAs,” Electron. Lett., vol. 33, no. 4, pp. 313–314, Feb.1997.
[CrossRef]

Bell Labs Tech. J. (1)

R. W. Tkach, “Scaling optical communications for the next decade and beyond,” Bell Labs Tech. J., vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 3–10, Feb.2010.
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

Y. Sun, A. K. Srivastava, J. L. Zyskind, J. W. Sulhoff, C. Wolf, and R. W. Tkach, “Fast power transients in WDM optical networks with cascaded EDFAs,” Electron. Lett., vol. 33, no. 4, pp. 313–314, Feb.1997.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Commun. Mag. (3)

J. D’Ambrosia, “40 gigabit Ethernet and 100 gigabit Ethernet: The development of a flexible architecture [Commentary],” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 47, no. 3, pp. S8–S14, Mar.2009.
[CrossRef]

P. J. Winzer, “Beyond 100G Ethernet,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 48, no. 7, pp. 26–30, July2010.
[CrossRef]

F. Chang, K. Onohara, and T. Mizuochi, “Forward error correction for 100 G transport networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 48, no. 3, pp. S48–S55, Mar.2010.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (4)

C. P. Lai, D. Brunina, C. Ware, B. G. Bathula, and K. Bergman, “Demonstration of failure reconfiguration via cross-layer enabled optical switching fabrics,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 23, no. 22, pp. 1679–1681, Nov.2011.
[CrossRef]

S. Chandrasekhar and X. Liu, “Impact of channel plan and dispersion map on hybrid DWDM transmission of 42.7-Gb/s DQPSK and 10.7-Gb/s OOK on 50-GHz grid,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 19, no. 22, pp. 1801–1803, Nov.2007.
[CrossRef]

A. Shacham, B. G. Lee, and K. Bergman, “A wideband, non-blocking, 2×2 switching node for a SPINet network,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 17, no. 12, pp. 2742–2744, Dec.2005.
[CrossRef]

C. P. Lai, A. Shacham, and K. Bergman, “Demonstration of asynchronous operation of a multiwavelength optical packet-switched fabric,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 22, no. 16, pp. 1223–1225, Aug.2010.
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

Nature (1)

K. Gammon, “Four ways to reinvent the Internet,” Nature, vol. 46, pp. 602–604, Feb.2010.
[CrossRef]

Other (18)

O. Gerstel, I. Leung, G. Nicholl, H. Sohel, W. Wakim, and K. Wollenweber, “Near-hitless protection in IPoDWDM networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., San Diego, CA, Feb. 2008, NWD4.

T. Mizuochi, “Next generation FEC for optical communication [Tutorial],” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., San Diego, CA, Feb. 2008, OTuE5.

D. Chiaroni, R. Urata, J. Gripp, J. E. Simsarian, G. Austin, S. Etienne, T. Segawa, Y. Pointurier, C. Simonneau, Y. Suzaki, T. Nakahara, M. Thottan, A. Adamiecki, D. Neilson, J. C. Antona, S. Bigo, R. Takahashi, and V. Radoaca, “Demonstration of the interconnection of two optical packet rings with a hybrid optoelectronic packet router,” in 36th European Conf. on Optical Communication, Turin, Italy, Sept. 2010, PD3.5.

S. Elby, “The future Internet—a service provider’s long term view,” in IEEE/LEOS Summer Topical Meeting, Newport Beach, CA, July 2009, TuD1.1.

C. Politi, C. Matrakidis, A. Stavdas, V. Anagnostopoulos, and M. Gunkel, “Cross layer routing in transparent optical networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Anaheim, CA, Mar. 2007, JThA64.

R. J. Shapiro, “The Internet’s capacity to handle fast-rising demand for bandwidth,” US Internet Industry Association White Paper, Sept.2007 [Online]. Available: http://usiia-net.org/.

C. R. S. Fludger, J. C. Geyer, T. Duthel, and C. Schulien, “Digital signal processing—from simulation to silicon [Tutorial],” in 36th European Conf. on Optical Communication, Torino, Italy, Sept. 2010, Tu.5.A.1.

J. C. Geyer, A. Bisplinghoff, T. Duthel, C. R. S. Fludger, C. Schulien, and B. Schmauss, “Optimization of the chromatic dispersion equalizer of a 43 Gb/s realtime coherent receiver,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., San Diego, CA, Mar. 2010, OWV8.

C. P. Lai, F. Fidler, and K. Bergman, “Experimental demonstration of QoS-aware cross-layer packet protection switching,” in 35th European Conf. on Optical Communication, Vienna, Austria, Sept. 2009, 2.5.3.

R. Ramaswami and K. N. Sivarajan, Optical Networks: A Practical Perspective. 2nd ed.Morgan Kaufmann, San Francisco, CA, 2002.

C. P. Lai and K. Bergman, “Demonstration of programmable broadband packet multicasting in an optical switching fabric test-bed,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., San Diego, CA, Mar. 2009, OTuA5.

The Network Simulator—ns-2, ns-2 Wiki, June2012 [Online]. Available: http://nsnam.isi.edu/nsnam/index.php/.

F. Fidler, P. J. Winzer, C. P. Lai, M. K. Thottan, and K. Bergman, “Cross-layer simulations of fast packet protection mechanisms,” in 35th European Conf. on Optical Communication, Vienna, Austria, Sept. 2009, 2.5.2.

F. Fidler, C. P. Lai, and K. Bergman, GENI Embedded Real-Time Measurements, Technical Note 3, Discrete-Event Network Simulations, June2009 [Online]. Available: http://groups.geni.net.

D. J. Blumenthal and J. E. Bowers, “Technologies and systems of optical switching [Invited],” in Proc. Int. Conf. on Photonics in Switching, Pisa, Italy, Sept. 2009, ThI1.

C. P. Lai, H. Wang, A. Shacham, and K. Bergman, “Priority encoding scheme for contention resolution in optical packet-switched networks,” in 34th European Conf. on Optical Communication, Brussels, Belgium, Sept. 2008, P.5.7.

H. Bulow, W. Baumert, H. Schmuck, F. Mohr, T. Schulz, F. Kuppers, and W. Weiershausen, “Measurement of the maximum speed of PMD fluctuation in installed field fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., San Diego, CA, Feb. 1999, vol. 2, pp. 83–85.

P. M. Krummrich, E.-D. Schmidt, W. Weiershausen, and A. Mattheus, “Field trial results on statistics of fast polarization changes in long haul WDM transmission systems,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Anaheim, CA, Mar. 2005, OThT6.

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(Color online) Envisioned cross-layer optimized network stack, supporting a bidirectional signal exchange between the layers; the QoS-aware physical layer uses performance monitoring devices.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(Color online) (a) Diagram of the PPT and FRR switching schemes, showing packets constituting a flow with respect to BER variations. As the BER increases above BER T , the PPT scheme is triggered and packet loss is avoided. Similarly, FRR is triggered when the BER rises above BER E . (b) Network architecture depicting the rerouting scheme for a flow of data packets. (c) High-level block diagram outlining the timeline and sequence of events associated with both protection mechanisms and comparing the relative lengths of each step for both PPT (red) and FRR (blue). The letters correspond to specific occurrences in BER fluctuations as indicated in (a), and the relative timestamps of each step are also shown in (a).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(Color online) (a) Block diagram of a possible network node architecture: the red region corresponds to the focus of this experimental demonstration. (b) Supported wavelength-striped optical packet format. (c) Schematic of a 2 × 2 photonic switching element. (d) Example of how a two-stage 4 × 4 banyan topology may be realized using four 2 × 2 PSEs. (e) Diagram of the experimental setup and cross-layer enabled receiver design, with photographs of the optical network test-bed and cross-layer receiver; a detailed implementation of the receiver is given, showing how the routing decision can incorporate the packet’s QoS in addition to measurement data feedback from a PM device.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(Color online) Input and output optical waveform traces corresponding to the experimental packet sequence; colors refer to the different TDM packet streams.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(Color online) Representative 10 Gb/s BER curves recorded for the back-to-back (depicted by dashed line, ) and through (depicted by solid line, •) cases for the experimental system (for λ = 1558 . 6 nm ).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(Color online) Overview of the newly realized ns-2 modules, showing the connections between the sources, receivers, network nodes, and links using typical ns-2 notation. The new modules (a) model the intra-packet BER variations (implemented in the ns-2 links), and (b) allow for bit error correction/error detection at the receiving/sink nodes (implemented in the ns-2 network nodes).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(Color online) Diagram indicating the mapping of BER variations onto bit errors. In (a), the BER experienced by a packet on a packet-switched link corresponds to the physical-layer BER. In (b), packets are segmented into multiple TDM frames on a circuit-switched link; this leads to a time compression effect of BER variations on the resulting packets.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(Color online) (a) Packet-switched and (b) circuit-switched network architectures showing the difference between packets and frames.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(Color online) Logical structure of an ns-2 transmission link, including the pre-existing simulation blocks as well as the new modules for intra-packet BER variation (errmodel_) and error correction/error detection (errcorr_).

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

(Color online) (a) Number of lost packets with respect to the slope of the BER step (as depicted in inset (i)); the dotted line refers to the FRR case, while the dashed line refers to the PPT case. (b) The retransmission savings versus the gradient of BER step for varying latencies LT.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

(Color online) (a) Number of lost packets versus the BER variation speed 1 / ( Δ ) t for sinusoidal BER variations (as shown in inset (i)); the dotted line refers to the FRR case, while the dashed line refers to the PPT case. (b) The region for which PPT outperforms FRR with respect to LT and the BER variation speed.