Abstract

We observe that routing, in optical burst switching (OBS) networks, is basically motivated by reducing contention-induced loss and not by the objective of global resource optimization. Here, we propose a routing scheme for OBS networks that minimizes the burst loss probability of individual bursts and at the same time achieves the routing goal of maximization of the minimum unutilized bandwidth of links in the network. All OBS nodes periodically exchange their scheduler-state information, and hence all nodes learn the topology of the network along with the occupancy states of each link. Based on this information the end-to-end wavelength availability states of the routes are computed, and bursts are then routed through the path that is likely to give minimum loss. The scheme can be applied in both source-routing and hop-by-hop-routing modes with provision for deflection routing in each mode. We studied the performance of the proposed scheme through simulation and found that it reduces the loss rates significantly. The performance in the source-routing mode was found to be better for small and medium-sized networks, whereas the performance for the hop-by-hop-routing mode was found to be better for larger networks.

© 2012 OSA

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  1. M. Yoo, M. Jeong, and C. Qiao, “A high speed protocol for bursty traffic in optical networks,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 3230, pp. 79–90, 1997.
    [CrossRef]
  2. C. Qiao and M. Yoo, “Optical burst switching (OBS)—a new paradigm for an optical Internet,” J. High Speed Netw., vol. 8, pp. 69–84, 1999.
  3. J. Turner, “Terabit burst switching,” J. High Speed Netw., vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 3–16, 1999.
  4. X. Yu, J. Li, X. Cao, Y. Chen, and C. Qiao, “Traffic statistics and performance evaluation in optical burst switched networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 22, no. 12, pp. 2722–2738, Dec.2004.
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. Xu, C. Qiao, J. Li, and G. Xu, “Efficient burst scheduling algorithms in optical burst-switched networks using geometric techniques,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 22, no. 9, pp. 1796–1811, Nov.2004.
    [CrossRef]
  6. X. Wang, H. Morikawa, and T. Aoyama, “Deflection routing protocol for burst-switching WDM mesh networks,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 4213, pp. 242–252, 2000.
    [CrossRef]
  7. X. Gao and M. A. Bassiouni, “Improving fairness with novel adaptive routing in optical burst-switched networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 27, no. 20, pp. 4480–4492, Oct.2009.
    [CrossRef]
  8. S. Lee, K. Sriram, H. Kim, and J. Song, “Contention-based limited deflection routing in OBS networks,” in IEEE Global Telecommunications Conf. (GLOBECOM), San Francisco, CA, Dec. 2003, pp. 2633–2637.
  9. C. F. Hsu, T. L. Liu, and N. F. Huang, “Performance analysis of deflection routing in optical burst switched networks,” in 21st Annu. Joint Conf. of the IEEE Computer and Communications Societies (INFOCOM), 2002, vol. 1, pp. 66–73.
  10. A. Maach, G. Bochmann, and H. Moufta, “Robust optical burst switching,” in Proc. of Networks 2004, Vienna, Austria, June 2004, pp. 447–452.
  11. A. Agusti-Torra, G. V. Bochmann, and C. Cervello-Pastor, “Retransmission schemes for optical burst switching over star networks,” in Proc. of the 2nd IFIP Int. Conf. on Wireless and Optical Communications Networks (WOCN), Dubai, UAE, Mar. 2005, pp. 126–160.
  12. S. Lee, K. Sriram, H. Kim, and J. Song, “Contention based limited deflection routing protocol in optical burst switched networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 23, no. 8, pp. 1596–1611, Aug.2005.
    [CrossRef]
  13. L. P. Karamitsos and E. Varthis, “Routing mechanisms for IP over OBS-WDM optical networks,” in Proc. of the IEEE Mediterranean Electrotechnical Conf. (MELECON), Dubrovnik, Croatia, 2004, pp. 523–526.
  14. V. Vokkarane, K. Haridoss, and J. Jue, “Threshold based burst assembly policies for QoS support in optical burst-switched networks,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 4874, pp. 125–136, 2002.
    [CrossRef]
  15. E. Magana, D. Morato, M. Izal, and J. Aracil, “Evaluation of preemption probabilities in OBS networks with burst segmentation,” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications (ICC), 2005, pp. 1646–1650.
  16. D. Ishii, N. Yamanaka, and I. Sasase, “A self-learning route selection scheme using multi-path searching packets in an OBS network,” in Workshop on High Performance Switching and Routing (HPSR), 2005, pp. 346–350.
  17. L. Shan, L. Xie, Z. Li, and A. Xu, “Partial pre-deflection scheme with least hop first routing in optical burst switched networks under self-similar traffic,” in 1st Int. Conf. on Communications and Networking in China (ChinaCom), 2006, pp. 1–5.
  18. S. Ngo, X. Jiang, and S. Horiguchi, “Hybrid deflection and retransmission routing schemes for OBS networks,” in Workshop on High Performance Switching and Routing (HPSR), 2006, pp. 385–390.
  19. J. Lu, Y. Liu, M. Gurusamy, and K. C. Chua, “Gradient projection based multi-path traffic routing in optical burst switched networks,” in Workshop on High Performance Switching and Routing (HPSR), 2006, pp. 379–384.
  20. H. Pan, T. Abe, Y. Mori, Y. Choi, and H. Okada, “Feedback-based load balancing routing for optical burst switching networks,” in Asia-Pacific Conf. on Communications, Perth, Australia, Oct. 2005, pp. 1033–1037.
  21. A. Kumar, D. Manjunath, and J. Kuri, Communication Networking—An Analytical Approach. Elsevier, 2004.
  22. S. Choudhury, G. Chakraborty, and A. K. Mal, “Impact of burst assembly algorithms on data loss in OBS networks under time-correlated traffic input,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol. 2, no. 12, pp. 1063–1076, Dec.2010.
    [CrossRef]
  23. A. M. Kaheel, H. Alnuweiri, and F. Gabali, “A new analytical model for computing blocking probability in optical burst switched networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 24, no. 12, pp. 120–128, Dec.2006.
    [CrossRef]

2010

2009

2006

A. M. Kaheel, H. Alnuweiri, and F. Gabali, “A new analytical model for computing blocking probability in optical burst switched networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 24, no. 12, pp. 120–128, Dec.2006.
[CrossRef]

2005

S. Lee, K. Sriram, H. Kim, and J. Song, “Contention based limited deflection routing protocol in optical burst switched networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 23, no. 8, pp. 1596–1611, Aug.2005.
[CrossRef]

2004

X. Yu, J. Li, X. Cao, Y. Chen, and C. Qiao, “Traffic statistics and performance evaluation in optical burst switched networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 22, no. 12, pp. 2722–2738, Dec.2004.
[CrossRef]

J. Xu, C. Qiao, J. Li, and G. Xu, “Efficient burst scheduling algorithms in optical burst-switched networks using geometric techniques,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 22, no. 9, pp. 1796–1811, Nov.2004.
[CrossRef]

2002

V. Vokkarane, K. Haridoss, and J. Jue, “Threshold based burst assembly policies for QoS support in optical burst-switched networks,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 4874, pp. 125–136, 2002.
[CrossRef]

2000

X. Wang, H. Morikawa, and T. Aoyama, “Deflection routing protocol for burst-switching WDM mesh networks,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 4213, pp. 242–252, 2000.
[CrossRef]

1999

C. Qiao and M. Yoo, “Optical burst switching (OBS)—a new paradigm for an optical Internet,” J. High Speed Netw., vol. 8, pp. 69–84, 1999.

J. Turner, “Terabit burst switching,” J. High Speed Netw., vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 3–16, 1999.

1997

M. Yoo, M. Jeong, and C. Qiao, “A high speed protocol for bursty traffic in optical networks,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 3230, pp. 79–90, 1997.
[CrossRef]

Abe, T.

H. Pan, T. Abe, Y. Mori, Y. Choi, and H. Okada, “Feedback-based load balancing routing for optical burst switching networks,” in Asia-Pacific Conf. on Communications, Perth, Australia, Oct. 2005, pp. 1033–1037.

Agusti-Torra, A.

A. Agusti-Torra, G. V. Bochmann, and C. Cervello-Pastor, “Retransmission schemes for optical burst switching over star networks,” in Proc. of the 2nd IFIP Int. Conf. on Wireless and Optical Communications Networks (WOCN), Dubai, UAE, Mar. 2005, pp. 126–160.

Alnuweiri, H.

A. M. Kaheel, H. Alnuweiri, and F. Gabali, “A new analytical model for computing blocking probability in optical burst switched networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 24, no. 12, pp. 120–128, Dec.2006.
[CrossRef]

Aoyama, T.

X. Wang, H. Morikawa, and T. Aoyama, “Deflection routing protocol for burst-switching WDM mesh networks,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 4213, pp. 242–252, 2000.
[CrossRef]

Aracil, J.

E. Magana, D. Morato, M. Izal, and J. Aracil, “Evaluation of preemption probabilities in OBS networks with burst segmentation,” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications (ICC), 2005, pp. 1646–1650.

Bassiouni, M. A.

Bochmann, G.

A. Maach, G. Bochmann, and H. Moufta, “Robust optical burst switching,” in Proc. of Networks 2004, Vienna, Austria, June 2004, pp. 447–452.

Bochmann, G. V.

A. Agusti-Torra, G. V. Bochmann, and C. Cervello-Pastor, “Retransmission schemes for optical burst switching over star networks,” in Proc. of the 2nd IFIP Int. Conf. on Wireless and Optical Communications Networks (WOCN), Dubai, UAE, Mar. 2005, pp. 126–160.

Cao, X.

X. Yu, J. Li, X. Cao, Y. Chen, and C. Qiao, “Traffic statistics and performance evaluation in optical burst switched networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 22, no. 12, pp. 2722–2738, Dec.2004.
[CrossRef]

Cervello-Pastor, C.

A. Agusti-Torra, G. V. Bochmann, and C. Cervello-Pastor, “Retransmission schemes for optical burst switching over star networks,” in Proc. of the 2nd IFIP Int. Conf. on Wireless and Optical Communications Networks (WOCN), Dubai, UAE, Mar. 2005, pp. 126–160.

Chakraborty, G.

Chen, Y.

X. Yu, J. Li, X. Cao, Y. Chen, and C. Qiao, “Traffic statistics and performance evaluation in optical burst switched networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 22, no. 12, pp. 2722–2738, Dec.2004.
[CrossRef]

Choi, Y.

H. Pan, T. Abe, Y. Mori, Y. Choi, and H. Okada, “Feedback-based load balancing routing for optical burst switching networks,” in Asia-Pacific Conf. on Communications, Perth, Australia, Oct. 2005, pp. 1033–1037.

Choudhury, S.

Chua, K. C.

J. Lu, Y. Liu, M. Gurusamy, and K. C. Chua, “Gradient projection based multi-path traffic routing in optical burst switched networks,” in Workshop on High Performance Switching and Routing (HPSR), 2006, pp. 379–384.

Gabali, F.

A. M. Kaheel, H. Alnuweiri, and F. Gabali, “A new analytical model for computing blocking probability in optical burst switched networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 24, no. 12, pp. 120–128, Dec.2006.
[CrossRef]

Gao, X.

Gurusamy, M.

J. Lu, Y. Liu, M. Gurusamy, and K. C. Chua, “Gradient projection based multi-path traffic routing in optical burst switched networks,” in Workshop on High Performance Switching and Routing (HPSR), 2006, pp. 379–384.

Haridoss, K.

V. Vokkarane, K. Haridoss, and J. Jue, “Threshold based burst assembly policies for QoS support in optical burst-switched networks,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 4874, pp. 125–136, 2002.
[CrossRef]

Horiguchi, S.

S. Ngo, X. Jiang, and S. Horiguchi, “Hybrid deflection and retransmission routing schemes for OBS networks,” in Workshop on High Performance Switching and Routing (HPSR), 2006, pp. 385–390.

Hsu, C. F.

C. F. Hsu, T. L. Liu, and N. F. Huang, “Performance analysis of deflection routing in optical burst switched networks,” in 21st Annu. Joint Conf. of the IEEE Computer and Communications Societies (INFOCOM), 2002, vol. 1, pp. 66–73.

Huang, N. F.

C. F. Hsu, T. L. Liu, and N. F. Huang, “Performance analysis of deflection routing in optical burst switched networks,” in 21st Annu. Joint Conf. of the IEEE Computer and Communications Societies (INFOCOM), 2002, vol. 1, pp. 66–73.

Ishii, D.

D. Ishii, N. Yamanaka, and I. Sasase, “A self-learning route selection scheme using multi-path searching packets in an OBS network,” in Workshop on High Performance Switching and Routing (HPSR), 2005, pp. 346–350.

Izal, M.

E. Magana, D. Morato, M. Izal, and J. Aracil, “Evaluation of preemption probabilities in OBS networks with burst segmentation,” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications (ICC), 2005, pp. 1646–1650.

Jeong, M.

M. Yoo, M. Jeong, and C. Qiao, “A high speed protocol for bursty traffic in optical networks,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 3230, pp. 79–90, 1997.
[CrossRef]

Jiang, X.

S. Ngo, X. Jiang, and S. Horiguchi, “Hybrid deflection and retransmission routing schemes for OBS networks,” in Workshop on High Performance Switching and Routing (HPSR), 2006, pp. 385–390.

Jue, J.

V. Vokkarane, K. Haridoss, and J. Jue, “Threshold based burst assembly policies for QoS support in optical burst-switched networks,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 4874, pp. 125–136, 2002.
[CrossRef]

Kaheel, A. M.

A. M. Kaheel, H. Alnuweiri, and F. Gabali, “A new analytical model for computing blocking probability in optical burst switched networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 24, no. 12, pp. 120–128, Dec.2006.
[CrossRef]

Karamitsos, L. P.

L. P. Karamitsos and E. Varthis, “Routing mechanisms for IP over OBS-WDM optical networks,” in Proc. of the IEEE Mediterranean Electrotechnical Conf. (MELECON), Dubrovnik, Croatia, 2004, pp. 523–526.

Kim, H.

S. Lee, K. Sriram, H. Kim, and J. Song, “Contention based limited deflection routing protocol in optical burst switched networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 23, no. 8, pp. 1596–1611, Aug.2005.
[CrossRef]

S. Lee, K. Sriram, H. Kim, and J. Song, “Contention-based limited deflection routing in OBS networks,” in IEEE Global Telecommunications Conf. (GLOBECOM), San Francisco, CA, Dec. 2003, pp. 2633–2637.

Kumar, A.

A. Kumar, D. Manjunath, and J. Kuri, Communication Networking—An Analytical Approach. Elsevier, 2004.

Kuri, J.

A. Kumar, D. Manjunath, and J. Kuri, Communication Networking—An Analytical Approach. Elsevier, 2004.

Lee, S.

S. Lee, K. Sriram, H. Kim, and J. Song, “Contention based limited deflection routing protocol in optical burst switched networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 23, no. 8, pp. 1596–1611, Aug.2005.
[CrossRef]

S. Lee, K. Sriram, H. Kim, and J. Song, “Contention-based limited deflection routing in OBS networks,” in IEEE Global Telecommunications Conf. (GLOBECOM), San Francisco, CA, Dec. 2003, pp. 2633–2637.

Li, J.

X. Yu, J. Li, X. Cao, Y. Chen, and C. Qiao, “Traffic statistics and performance evaluation in optical burst switched networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 22, no. 12, pp. 2722–2738, Dec.2004.
[CrossRef]

J. Xu, C. Qiao, J. Li, and G. Xu, “Efficient burst scheduling algorithms in optical burst-switched networks using geometric techniques,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 22, no. 9, pp. 1796–1811, Nov.2004.
[CrossRef]

Li, Z.

L. Shan, L. Xie, Z. Li, and A. Xu, “Partial pre-deflection scheme with least hop first routing in optical burst switched networks under self-similar traffic,” in 1st Int. Conf. on Communications and Networking in China (ChinaCom), 2006, pp. 1–5.

Liu, T. L.

C. F. Hsu, T. L. Liu, and N. F. Huang, “Performance analysis of deflection routing in optical burst switched networks,” in 21st Annu. Joint Conf. of the IEEE Computer and Communications Societies (INFOCOM), 2002, vol. 1, pp. 66–73.

Liu, Y.

J. Lu, Y. Liu, M. Gurusamy, and K. C. Chua, “Gradient projection based multi-path traffic routing in optical burst switched networks,” in Workshop on High Performance Switching and Routing (HPSR), 2006, pp. 379–384.

Lu, J.

J. Lu, Y. Liu, M. Gurusamy, and K. C. Chua, “Gradient projection based multi-path traffic routing in optical burst switched networks,” in Workshop on High Performance Switching and Routing (HPSR), 2006, pp. 379–384.

Maach, A.

A. Maach, G. Bochmann, and H. Moufta, “Robust optical burst switching,” in Proc. of Networks 2004, Vienna, Austria, June 2004, pp. 447–452.

Magana, E.

E. Magana, D. Morato, M. Izal, and J. Aracil, “Evaluation of preemption probabilities in OBS networks with burst segmentation,” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications (ICC), 2005, pp. 1646–1650.

Mal, A. K.

Manjunath, D.

A. Kumar, D. Manjunath, and J. Kuri, Communication Networking—An Analytical Approach. Elsevier, 2004.

Morato, D.

E. Magana, D. Morato, M. Izal, and J. Aracil, “Evaluation of preemption probabilities in OBS networks with burst segmentation,” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications (ICC), 2005, pp. 1646–1650.

Mori, Y.

H. Pan, T. Abe, Y. Mori, Y. Choi, and H. Okada, “Feedback-based load balancing routing for optical burst switching networks,” in Asia-Pacific Conf. on Communications, Perth, Australia, Oct. 2005, pp. 1033–1037.

Morikawa, H.

X. Wang, H. Morikawa, and T. Aoyama, “Deflection routing protocol for burst-switching WDM mesh networks,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 4213, pp. 242–252, 2000.
[CrossRef]

Moufta, H.

A. Maach, G. Bochmann, and H. Moufta, “Robust optical burst switching,” in Proc. of Networks 2004, Vienna, Austria, June 2004, pp. 447–452.

Ngo, S.

S. Ngo, X. Jiang, and S. Horiguchi, “Hybrid deflection and retransmission routing schemes for OBS networks,” in Workshop on High Performance Switching and Routing (HPSR), 2006, pp. 385–390.

Okada, H.

H. Pan, T. Abe, Y. Mori, Y. Choi, and H. Okada, “Feedback-based load balancing routing for optical burst switching networks,” in Asia-Pacific Conf. on Communications, Perth, Australia, Oct. 2005, pp. 1033–1037.

Pan, H.

H. Pan, T. Abe, Y. Mori, Y. Choi, and H. Okada, “Feedback-based load balancing routing for optical burst switching networks,” in Asia-Pacific Conf. on Communications, Perth, Australia, Oct. 2005, pp. 1033–1037.

Qiao, C.

J. Xu, C. Qiao, J. Li, and G. Xu, “Efficient burst scheduling algorithms in optical burst-switched networks using geometric techniques,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 22, no. 9, pp. 1796–1811, Nov.2004.
[CrossRef]

X. Yu, J. Li, X. Cao, Y. Chen, and C. Qiao, “Traffic statistics and performance evaluation in optical burst switched networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 22, no. 12, pp. 2722–2738, Dec.2004.
[CrossRef]

C. Qiao and M. Yoo, “Optical burst switching (OBS)—a new paradigm for an optical Internet,” J. High Speed Netw., vol. 8, pp. 69–84, 1999.

M. Yoo, M. Jeong, and C. Qiao, “A high speed protocol for bursty traffic in optical networks,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 3230, pp. 79–90, 1997.
[CrossRef]

Sasase, I.

D. Ishii, N. Yamanaka, and I. Sasase, “A self-learning route selection scheme using multi-path searching packets in an OBS network,” in Workshop on High Performance Switching and Routing (HPSR), 2005, pp. 346–350.

Shan, L.

L. Shan, L. Xie, Z. Li, and A. Xu, “Partial pre-deflection scheme with least hop first routing in optical burst switched networks under self-similar traffic,” in 1st Int. Conf. on Communications and Networking in China (ChinaCom), 2006, pp. 1–5.

Song, J.

S. Lee, K. Sriram, H. Kim, and J. Song, “Contention based limited deflection routing protocol in optical burst switched networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 23, no. 8, pp. 1596–1611, Aug.2005.
[CrossRef]

S. Lee, K. Sriram, H. Kim, and J. Song, “Contention-based limited deflection routing in OBS networks,” in IEEE Global Telecommunications Conf. (GLOBECOM), San Francisco, CA, Dec. 2003, pp. 2633–2637.

Sriram, K.

S. Lee, K. Sriram, H. Kim, and J. Song, “Contention based limited deflection routing protocol in optical burst switched networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 23, no. 8, pp. 1596–1611, Aug.2005.
[CrossRef]

S. Lee, K. Sriram, H. Kim, and J. Song, “Contention-based limited deflection routing in OBS networks,” in IEEE Global Telecommunications Conf. (GLOBECOM), San Francisco, CA, Dec. 2003, pp. 2633–2637.

Turner, J.

J. Turner, “Terabit burst switching,” J. High Speed Netw., vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 3–16, 1999.

Varthis, E.

L. P. Karamitsos and E. Varthis, “Routing mechanisms for IP over OBS-WDM optical networks,” in Proc. of the IEEE Mediterranean Electrotechnical Conf. (MELECON), Dubrovnik, Croatia, 2004, pp. 523–526.

Vokkarane, V.

V. Vokkarane, K. Haridoss, and J. Jue, “Threshold based burst assembly policies for QoS support in optical burst-switched networks,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 4874, pp. 125–136, 2002.
[CrossRef]

Wang, X.

X. Wang, H. Morikawa, and T. Aoyama, “Deflection routing protocol for burst-switching WDM mesh networks,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 4213, pp. 242–252, 2000.
[CrossRef]

Xie, L.

L. Shan, L. Xie, Z. Li, and A. Xu, “Partial pre-deflection scheme with least hop first routing in optical burst switched networks under self-similar traffic,” in 1st Int. Conf. on Communications and Networking in China (ChinaCom), 2006, pp. 1–5.

Xu, A.

L. Shan, L. Xie, Z. Li, and A. Xu, “Partial pre-deflection scheme with least hop first routing in optical burst switched networks under self-similar traffic,” in 1st Int. Conf. on Communications and Networking in China (ChinaCom), 2006, pp. 1–5.

Xu, G.

J. Xu, C. Qiao, J. Li, and G. Xu, “Efficient burst scheduling algorithms in optical burst-switched networks using geometric techniques,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 22, no. 9, pp. 1796–1811, Nov.2004.
[CrossRef]

Xu, J.

J. Xu, C. Qiao, J. Li, and G. Xu, “Efficient burst scheduling algorithms in optical burst-switched networks using geometric techniques,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 22, no. 9, pp. 1796–1811, Nov.2004.
[CrossRef]

Yamanaka, N.

D. Ishii, N. Yamanaka, and I. Sasase, “A self-learning route selection scheme using multi-path searching packets in an OBS network,” in Workshop on High Performance Switching and Routing (HPSR), 2005, pp. 346–350.

Yoo, M.

C. Qiao and M. Yoo, “Optical burst switching (OBS)—a new paradigm for an optical Internet,” J. High Speed Netw., vol. 8, pp. 69–84, 1999.

M. Yoo, M. Jeong, and C. Qiao, “A high speed protocol for bursty traffic in optical networks,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 3230, pp. 79–90, 1997.
[CrossRef]

Yu, X.

X. Yu, J. Li, X. Cao, Y. Chen, and C. Qiao, “Traffic statistics and performance evaluation in optical burst switched networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 22, no. 12, pp. 2722–2738, Dec.2004.
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun.

J. Xu, C. Qiao, J. Li, and G. Xu, “Efficient burst scheduling algorithms in optical burst-switched networks using geometric techniques,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 22, no. 9, pp. 1796–1811, Nov.2004.
[CrossRef]

S. Lee, K. Sriram, H. Kim, and J. Song, “Contention based limited deflection routing protocol in optical burst switched networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 23, no. 8, pp. 1596–1611, Aug.2005.
[CrossRef]

A. M. Kaheel, H. Alnuweiri, and F. Gabali, “A new analytical model for computing blocking probability in optical burst switched networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 24, no. 12, pp. 120–128, Dec.2006.
[CrossRef]

J. High Speed Netw.

C. Qiao and M. Yoo, “Optical burst switching (OBS)—a new paradigm for an optical Internet,” J. High Speed Netw., vol. 8, pp. 69–84, 1999.

J. Turner, “Terabit burst switching,” J. High Speed Netw., vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 3–16, 1999.

J. Lightwave Technol.

J. Opt. Commun. Netw.

J. Lightwave Technol.

X. Yu, J. Li, X. Cao, Y. Chen, and C. Qiao, “Traffic statistics and performance evaluation in optical burst switched networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 22, no. 12, pp. 2722–2738, Dec.2004.
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

X. Wang, H. Morikawa, and T. Aoyama, “Deflection routing protocol for burst-switching WDM mesh networks,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 4213, pp. 242–252, 2000.
[CrossRef]

V. Vokkarane, K. Haridoss, and J. Jue, “Threshold based burst assembly policies for QoS support in optical burst-switched networks,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 4874, pp. 125–136, 2002.
[CrossRef]

M. Yoo, M. Jeong, and C. Qiao, “A high speed protocol for bursty traffic in optical networks,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 3230, pp. 79–90, 1997.
[CrossRef]

Other

L. P. Karamitsos and E. Varthis, “Routing mechanisms for IP over OBS-WDM optical networks,” in Proc. of the IEEE Mediterranean Electrotechnical Conf. (MELECON), Dubrovnik, Croatia, 2004, pp. 523–526.

E. Magana, D. Morato, M. Izal, and J. Aracil, “Evaluation of preemption probabilities in OBS networks with burst segmentation,” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications (ICC), 2005, pp. 1646–1650.

D. Ishii, N. Yamanaka, and I. Sasase, “A self-learning route selection scheme using multi-path searching packets in an OBS network,” in Workshop on High Performance Switching and Routing (HPSR), 2005, pp. 346–350.

L. Shan, L. Xie, Z. Li, and A. Xu, “Partial pre-deflection scheme with least hop first routing in optical burst switched networks under self-similar traffic,” in 1st Int. Conf. on Communications and Networking in China (ChinaCom), 2006, pp. 1–5.

S. Ngo, X. Jiang, and S. Horiguchi, “Hybrid deflection and retransmission routing schemes for OBS networks,” in Workshop on High Performance Switching and Routing (HPSR), 2006, pp. 385–390.

J. Lu, Y. Liu, M. Gurusamy, and K. C. Chua, “Gradient projection based multi-path traffic routing in optical burst switched networks,” in Workshop on High Performance Switching and Routing (HPSR), 2006, pp. 379–384.

H. Pan, T. Abe, Y. Mori, Y. Choi, and H. Okada, “Feedback-based load balancing routing for optical burst switching networks,” in Asia-Pacific Conf. on Communications, Perth, Australia, Oct. 2005, pp. 1033–1037.

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Figures (16)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Occupancy state sequence of a typical non-empty wavelength.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

OSS of link L comprising wavelengths w 1 and w 2 .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Example of RAS evaluation from link availability SS.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Routing scheme for the example network shown in (a). All 4-hop routes are shown in (b), and SIF computation is shown in (c).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Model 5-hop network used for simulation.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(Color online) ByLR against load for a small network with source routing.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(Color online) ByLR against load for a medium network with source routing.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(Color online) ByLR against load for a large network with source routing.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(Color online) ByLR comparison for various values of t ̄ o / T .

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

(Color online) ByLR comparison for a large network with different numbers of hops.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

(Color online) ByLR against load for a small network with per-hop routing.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

(Color online) ByLR against load for a medium network with per-hop routing.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

(Color online) ByLR against load for a large network with per-hop routing.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Heterogeneous topology with varying numbers of wavelengths per link.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

(Color online) Comparison of the proposed scheme with existing schemes.

Fig. 16
Fig. 16

(Color online) Comparison of minimum unutilized bandwidth.

Tables (5)

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Algorithm 1 Determination of S w 1 ( t ) S w 2 ( t )

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Algorithm 2 Determination of S ̄ L 1 ( t ) S ̄ L 2 ( t )

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Algorithm 3 Determination of S ̄ L ( t + d ) from S ̄ L ( t )

Tables Icon

Table I Parameters for a 5-Hop Network

Tables Icon

Table II Parameters for a 10-Hop Network

Equations (16)

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s = ( t , s t ) ,
S w ( t ) = { s 1 , s 2 , , s n } .
S w ( t ) = { ( 0 , 0 ) , ( 0 , 0 ) } .
S w ( t ) = { ( 0 , 0 ) , ( 1 , 1 ) , ( 7 , 0 ) , ( 10 , 1 ) , ( 18 , 0 ) , ( 21 , 1 ) , ( 26 , 0 ) } .
S w 1 ( t ) = { ( 0 , 0 ) , ( 1 , 1 ) , ( 7 , 0 ) , ( 10 , 1 ) , ( 18 , 0 ) , ( 21 , 1 ) , ( 26 , 0 ) } ,
S w 2 ( t ) = { ( 0 , 1 ) , ( 6 , 0 ) , ( 8 , 1 ) , ( 12 , 0 ) , ( 16 , 1 ) , ( 20 , 0 ) } .
S L ( t ) = { ( 0 , 1 ) , ( 1 , 2 ) , ( 6 , 1 ) , ( 7 , 0 ) , ( 8 , 1 ) , ( 10 , 2 ) , ( 12 , 1 ) , ( 16 , 2 ) , ( 18 , 1 ) , ( 20 , 0 ) , ( 21 , 1 ) , ( 28 , 0 ) } .
S L ( t ) = S w 1 ( t ) S w 2 ( t ) S w W ( t ) .
a ̄ L = s i S ̄ L ( t ) , s i end-slot a i l i s i S ̄ L ( t ) , s i end-slot l i ,
S R ( t ) = S ̄ L 1 ( t ) S ̄ L 2 ( t + d 1 ) S ̄ L N ( t + d N 1 ) ,
P = 1 W ! ρ W i = 0 W 1 i ! ρ i .
P B = 1 B s i S B P i l i ,
SIF R j = 1 B s i S B a i l i .
L j * ( t ) = min L i { S ̄ L i ( t ) s t a t e , L i R j } ,
L * ( t ) = max { L j * ( t ) , R j R } .
L j * ( t ) s t a t e = R j ( t ) s t a t e , for t o t t o + B .