Abstract

In this paper, we compare the performance of three different digital-signal-processing-based directly detected 100 Gb/s transmission schemes, namely, optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing, optical single-carrier frequency domain equalization, and optical discrete Fourier transform spread orthogonal frequency division multiplexing. The performances of these systems are characterized with different link parameters, including laser linewidth, modulation formats, RF frequency, modulator drive power, and so on. Simulation results suggest that at optimum operating conditions, receivers’ sensitivities of these systems may not exhibit any significant difference with respect to each other, confirming their suitability for next-generation 100 Gb/s short-reach optical links.

© 2012 OSA

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2012 (1)

2011 (1)

2010 (7)

B. Schmidt, Z. Zan, L. B. Du, and A. J. Lowery, “120 Gbit/s over 500-km using single-band polarization-multiplexed self-coherent optical OFDM,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 28, no. 4, pp. 328–335, Feb.2010.
[CrossRef]

W.-R. Peng, “Analysis of laser phase noise effect in direct-detection optical OFDM transmission,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 28, no. 17, pp. 2526–2536, Sept.2010.
[CrossRef]

A. Barbieri, G. Colavolpe, T. Foggi, E. Forestieri, and G. Prati, “OFDM versus single-carrier transmission for 100 Gbps optical communication,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 28, no. 17, pp. 2537–2551, Sept.2010.
[CrossRef]

J. Li, C. Zhao, S. Zhang, F. Zhang, and Z. Chen, “Experimental demonstration of 120-Gb/s PDM CO-SCFDE transmission over 317-km SSMF,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 22, no. 24, pp. 1814–1816, Dec.2010.
[CrossRef]

J. Li, S. Zhang, F. Zhang, and Z. Chen, “Comparison of transmission performances for CO-SCFDE and CO-OFDM systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 22, no. 14, pp. 1054–1056, July2010.
[CrossRef]

Y. Tang, W. Shieh, and B. S. Krongold, “DFT-spread OFDM for fiber nonlinearity mitigation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 22, no. 16, pp. 1250–1252, Aug.2010.
[CrossRef]

A. Al Amin, H. Takahashi, I. Morita, and H. Tanaka, “100-Gb/s direct-detection OFDM transmission on independent polarization tributaries,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 22, no. 7, pp. 468–470, 2010.
[CrossRef]

2009 (7)

S. L. Jansen, B. Spinnler, I. Morita, S. Randel, and H. Tanaka, “100 GbE: QPSK versus OFDM,” Opt. Fiber Technol., vol. 15, pp. 407–413, Oct.–Dec.2009.
[CrossRef]

J. D’Ambrosia, “40 gigabit Ethernet and 100 gigabit Ethernet: The development of a flexible architecture [Commentary],” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 47, no. 3, pp. S8–S14, Mar.2009.
[CrossRef]

Q. Yang, Y. Tang, Y. Ma, and W. Shieh, “Experimental demonstration and numerical simulation of 107-Gb/s high spectral efficiency coherent optical OFDM,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 168–176, Feb.2009.
[CrossRef]

S. L. Jansen, I. Morita, T. C. W. Schenk, and H. Tanaka, “121.9-Gb/s PDM-OFDM transmission with 2-b/s/Hz spectral efficiency over 1000 km of SSMF,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 27, pp. 177–188, 2009.
[CrossRef]

J. Armstrong, “OFDM for optical communications,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 189–204, Feb.2009.
[CrossRef]

W.-R. Peng, X. Wu, V. R. Arbab, K.-M. Feng, B. Shamee, L. C. Christen, J.-Y. Yang, A. E. Willner, and S. Chi, “Theoretical and experimental investigations of direct-detected RF-tone-assisted optical OFDM systems,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 27, no. 10, pp. 1332–1339, May2009.
[CrossRef]

R. Kudo, T. Kobayashi, K. Ishihara, Y. Takatori, A. Sano, and Y. Miyamoto, “Coherent optical single carrier transmission using overlap frequency domain equalization for long-haul optical systems,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 27, no. 16, pp. 3721–3728, 2009.
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

2004 (1)

Z. Wang, X. Ma, and G. B. Giannakis, “OFDM or single-carrier block transmissions?” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 52, no. 3, pp. 380–394, Mar.2004.
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

D. Falconer, S. L. Ariyavisitakul, A. Benyamin-Seeyar, and B. Eidson, “Frequency domain equalization for single-carrier broadband wireless systems,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 40, no. 4, pp. 58–66, Apr.2002.
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

D. Chu, “Polyphase codes with good periodic correlation properties (Corresp.),” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory, vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 531–532, July1972.
[CrossRef]

Adamiecki, A.

Al Amin, A.

A. Al Amin, H. Takahashi, I. Morita, and H. Tanaka, “100-Gb/s direct-detection OFDM transmission on independent polarization tributaries,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 22, no. 7, pp. 468–470, 2010.
[CrossRef]

Ali, A.

J. Leibrich, A. Ali, and W. Rosenkranz, “Single polarization direct detection optical OFDM with 100 Gb/s throughput: A concept taking into account higher order modulation formats,” in Signal Processing in Photonic Communications, 2010, SPThC4.

Arbab, V. R.

Ariyavisitakul, S. L.

D. Falconer, S. L. Ariyavisitakul, A. Benyamin-Seeyar, and B. Eidson, “Frequency domain equalization for single-carrier broadband wireless systems,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 40, no. 4, pp. 58–66, Apr.2002.
[CrossRef]

Armstrong, J.

Augé, J.

J. Renaudier, O. Bertran-Pardo, H. Mardoyan, P. Tran, G. Charlet, S. Bigo, M. Lefrançois, B. Lavigne, J. Augé, L. Piriou, and O. Courtois, “Performance comparison of 40G and 100G coherent PDM-QPSK for upgrading dispersion managed legacy systems,” in Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (NFOEC), 2009, NWD5.

Bakaul, M.

Barbieri, A.

Basch, B.

Benyamin-Seeyar, A.

D. Falconer, S. L. Ariyavisitakul, A. Benyamin-Seeyar, and B. Eidson, “Frequency domain equalization for single-carrier broadband wireless systems,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 40, no. 4, pp. 58–66, Apr.2002.
[CrossRef]

Bertran-Pardo, O.

J.-P. Faure, B. Lavigne, C. Bresson, O. Bertran-Pardo, A. C. Colomer, and R. Cantó, “40G and 100G deployment on 10G infrastructure: Market overview and trends, coherent versus conventional technology,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC), 2010, OThE3.

J. Renaudier, O. Bertran-Pardo, H. Mardoyan, P. Tran, G. Charlet, S. Bigo, M. Lefrançois, B. Lavigne, J. Augé, L. Piriou, and O. Courtois, “Performance comparison of 40G and 100G coherent PDM-QPSK for upgrading dispersion managed legacy systems,” in Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (NFOEC), 2009, NWD5.

Bigo, S.

J. Renaudier, O. Bertran-Pardo, H. Mardoyan, P. Tran, G. Charlet, S. Bigo, M. Lefrançois, B. Lavigne, J. Augé, L. Piriou, and O. Courtois, “Performance comparison of 40G and 100G coherent PDM-QPSK for upgrading dispersion managed legacy systems,” in Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (NFOEC), 2009, NWD5.

Bresson, C.

J.-P. Faure, B. Lavigne, C. Bresson, O. Bertran-Pardo, A. C. Colomer, and R. Cantó, “40G and 100G deployment on 10G infrastructure: Market overview and trends, coherent versus conventional technology,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC), 2010, OThE3.

Buhl, L. L.

Cantó, R.

J.-P. Faure, B. Lavigne, C. Bresson, O. Bertran-Pardo, A. C. Colomer, and R. Cantó, “40G and 100G deployment on 10G infrastructure: Market overview and trends, coherent versus conventional technology,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC), 2010, OThE3.

Chandrasekhar, S.

Charlet, G.

J. Renaudier, O. Bertran-Pardo, H. Mardoyan, P. Tran, G. Charlet, S. Bigo, M. Lefrançois, B. Lavigne, J. Augé, L. Piriou, and O. Courtois, “Performance comparison of 40G and 100G coherent PDM-QPSK for upgrading dispersion managed legacy systems,” in Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (NFOEC), 2009, NWD5.

Chen, Z.

J. Li, C. Zhao, S. Zhang, F. Zhang, and Z. Chen, “Experimental demonstration of 120-Gb/s PDM CO-SCFDE transmission over 317-km SSMF,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 22, no. 24, pp. 1814–1816, Dec.2010.
[CrossRef]

J. Li, S. Zhang, F. Zhang, and Z. Chen, “Comparison of transmission performances for CO-SCFDE and CO-OFDM systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 22, no. 14, pp. 1054–1056, July2010.
[CrossRef]

Chi, S.

Christen, L. C.

Chu, D.

D. Chu, “Polyphase codes with good periodic correlation properties (Corresp.),” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory, vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 531–532, July1972.
[CrossRef]

Colavolpe, G.

Cole, C.

C. Cole, “100-Gb/s and beyond Ethernet optical interfaces,” in 15th OptoElectronics and Communications Conf. (OECC), July 2010.

Colomer, A. C.

J.-P. Faure, B. Lavigne, C. Bresson, O. Bertran-Pardo, A. C. Colomer, and R. Cantó, “40G and 100G deployment on 10G infrastructure: Market overview and trends, coherent versus conventional technology,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC), 2010, OThE3.

Corteselli, S.

Courtois, O.

J. Renaudier, O. Bertran-Pardo, H. Mardoyan, P. Tran, G. Charlet, S. Bigo, M. Lefrançois, B. Lavigne, J. Augé, L. Piriou, and O. Courtois, “Performance comparison of 40G and 100G coherent PDM-QPSK for upgrading dispersion managed legacy systems,” in Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (NFOEC), 2009, NWD5.

Cvijetic, N.

N. Cvijetic, “OFDM for next-generation optical access networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 384–398, Feb.2012.
[CrossRef]

D. Qian, N. Cvijetic, J. Hu, and T. Wang, “108 Gb/s OFDMA-PON with polarization multiplexing and direct-detection,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC), Mar. 2009, PDPD5.

D’Ambrosia, J.

J. D’Ambrosia, “40 gigabit Ethernet and 100 gigabit Ethernet: The development of a flexible architecture [Commentary],” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 47, no. 3, pp. S8–S14, Mar.2009.
[CrossRef]

Doerr, C. R.

Du, L. B.

Eidson, B.

D. Falconer, S. L. Ariyavisitakul, A. Benyamin-Seeyar, and B. Eidson, “Frequency domain equalization for single-carrier broadband wireless systems,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 40, no. 4, pp. 58–66, Apr.2002.
[CrossRef]

Falconer, D.

D. Falconer, S. L. Ariyavisitakul, A. Benyamin-Seeyar, and B. Eidson, “Frequency domain equalization for single-carrier broadband wireless systems,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 40, no. 4, pp. 58–66, Apr.2002.
[CrossRef]

Faure, J.-P.

J.-P. Faure, B. Lavigne, C. Bresson, O. Bertran-Pardo, A. C. Colomer, and R. Cantó, “40G and 100G deployment on 10G infrastructure: Market overview and trends, coherent versus conventional technology,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC), 2010, OThE3.

Feng, K.-M.

Fishman, D. A.

Foggi, T.

Forestieri, E.

Giannakis, G. B.

Z. Wang, X. Ma, and G. B. Giannakis, “OFDM or single-carrier block transmissions?” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 52, no. 3, pp. 380–394, Mar.2004.
[CrossRef]

Gill, V.

B. Koley, V. Vusirikala, C. Lam, and V. Gill, “100 GbE and beyond for warehouse scale computing,” in 15th OptoElectronics and Communications Conf. (OECC), July 2010.

Gnauck, A. H.

Goodman, D. J.

H. G. Myung, J. Lim, and D. J. Goodman, “Peak-to-average power ratio of single carrier FDMA signals with pulse shaping,” in IEEE 17th Int. Symp. Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications, Sept. 11–14, 2006, pp. 1–5.

Hara, S.

S. Hara and R. Prasad, Multicarrier Techniques for 4G Mobile Communications. Artech House, Boston, MA, 2003.

Higuma, K.

Hu, J.

D. Qian, N. Cvijetic, J. Hu, and T. Wang, “108 Gb/s OFDMA-PON with polarization multiplexing and direct-detection,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC), Mar. 2009, PDPD5.

Ishihara, K.

Jansen, S. L.

S. L. Jansen, I. Morita, T. C. W. Schenk, and H. Tanaka, “121.9-Gb/s PDM-OFDM transmission with 2-b/s/Hz spectral efficiency over 1000 km of SSMF,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 27, pp. 177–188, 2009.
[CrossRef]

S. L. Jansen, B. Spinnler, I. Morita, S. Randel, and H. Tanaka, “100 GbE: QPSK versus OFDM,” Opt. Fiber Technol., vol. 15, pp. 407–413, Oct.–Dec.2009.
[CrossRef]

Kawanishi, T.

Kobayashi, T.

Koley, B.

B. Koley, V. Vusirikala, C. Lam, and V. Gill, “100 GbE and beyond for warehouse scale computing,” in 15th OptoElectronics and Communications Conf. (OECC), July 2010.

Krongold, B. S.

Y. Tang, W. Shieh, and B. S. Krongold, “DFT-spread OFDM for fiber nonlinearity mitigation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 22, no. 16, pp. 1250–1252, Aug.2010.
[CrossRef]

Kudo, R.

Lam, C.

B. Koley, V. Vusirikala, C. Lam, and V. Gill, “100 GbE and beyond for warehouse scale computing,” in 15th OptoElectronics and Communications Conf. (OECC), July 2010.

Lavigne, B.

J. Renaudier, O. Bertran-Pardo, H. Mardoyan, P. Tran, G. Charlet, S. Bigo, M. Lefrançois, B. Lavigne, J. Augé, L. Piriou, and O. Courtois, “Performance comparison of 40G and 100G coherent PDM-QPSK for upgrading dispersion managed legacy systems,” in Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (NFOEC), 2009, NWD5.

J.-P. Faure, B. Lavigne, C. Bresson, O. Bertran-Pardo, A. C. Colomer, and R. Cantó, “40G and 100G deployment on 10G infrastructure: Market overview and trends, coherent versus conventional technology,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC), 2010, OThE3.

Lee, W.

Lefrançois, M.

J. Renaudier, O. Bertran-Pardo, H. Mardoyan, P. Tran, G. Charlet, S. Bigo, M. Lefrançois, B. Lavigne, J. Augé, L. Piriou, and O. Courtois, “Performance comparison of 40G and 100G coherent PDM-QPSK for upgrading dispersion managed legacy systems,” in Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (NFOEC), 2009, NWD5.

Leibrich, J.

J. Leibrich, A. Ali, and W. Rosenkranz, “Single polarization direct detection optical OFDM with 100 Gb/s throughput: A concept taking into account higher order modulation formats,” in Signal Processing in Photonic Communications, 2010, SPThC4.

Li, J.

J. Li, S. Zhang, F. Zhang, and Z. Chen, “Comparison of transmission performances for CO-SCFDE and CO-OFDM systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 22, no. 14, pp. 1054–1056, July2010.
[CrossRef]

J. Li, C. Zhao, S. Zhang, F. Zhang, and Z. Chen, “Experimental demonstration of 120-Gb/s PDM CO-SCFDE transmission over 317-km SSMF,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 22, no. 24, pp. 1814–1816, Dec.2010.
[CrossRef]

Lim, J.

H. G. Myung, J. Lim, and D. J. Goodman, “Peak-to-average power ratio of single carrier FDMA signals with pulse shaping,” in IEEE 17th Int. Symp. Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications, Sept. 11–14, 2006, pp. 1–5.

Lowery, A. J.

Ma, X.

Z. Wang, X. Ma, and G. B. Giannakis, “OFDM or single-carrier block transmissions?” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 52, no. 3, pp. 380–394, Mar.2004.
[CrossRef]

Ma, Y.

Mardoyan, H.

J. Renaudier, O. Bertran-Pardo, H. Mardoyan, P. Tran, G. Charlet, S. Bigo, M. Lefrançois, B. Lavigne, J. Augé, L. Piriou, and O. Courtois, “Performance comparison of 40G and 100G coherent PDM-QPSK for upgrading dispersion managed legacy systems,” in Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (NFOEC), 2009, NWD5.

Mehedy, L.

Miyamoto, Y.

Morita, I.

A. Al Amin, H. Takahashi, I. Morita, and H. Tanaka, “100-Gb/s direct-detection OFDM transmission on independent polarization tributaries,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 22, no. 7, pp. 468–470, 2010.
[CrossRef]

S. L. Jansen, I. Morita, T. C. W. Schenk, and H. Tanaka, “121.9-Gb/s PDM-OFDM transmission with 2-b/s/Hz spectral efficiency over 1000 km of SSMF,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 27, pp. 177–188, 2009.
[CrossRef]

S. L. Jansen, B. Spinnler, I. Morita, S. Randel, and H. Tanaka, “100 GbE: QPSK versus OFDM,” Opt. Fiber Technol., vol. 15, pp. 407–413, Oct.–Dec.2009.
[CrossRef]

Myung, H. G.

H. G. Myung, J. Lim, and D. J. Goodman, “Peak-to-average power ratio of single carrier FDMA signals with pulse shaping,” in IEEE 17th Int. Symp. Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications, Sept. 11–14, 2006, pp. 1–5.

Nirmalathas, A.

Painchaud, Y.

Peng, W.-R.

Piriou, L.

J. Renaudier, O. Bertran-Pardo, H. Mardoyan, P. Tran, G. Charlet, S. Bigo, M. Lefrançois, B. Lavigne, J. Augé, L. Piriou, and O. Courtois, “Performance comparison of 40G and 100G coherent PDM-QPSK for upgrading dispersion managed legacy systems,” in Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (NFOEC), 2009, NWD5.

Prasad, R.

S. Hara and R. Prasad, Multicarrier Techniques for 4G Mobile Communications. Artech House, Boston, MA, 2003.

Prati, G.

Qian, D.

D. Qian, N. Cvijetic, J. Hu, and T. Wang, “108 Gb/s OFDMA-PON with polarization multiplexing and direct-detection,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC), Mar. 2009, PDPD5.

Randel, S.

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Rosenkranz, W.

J. Leibrich, A. Ali, and W. Rosenkranz, “Single polarization direct detection optical OFDM with 100 Gb/s throughput: A concept taking into account higher order modulation formats,” in Signal Processing in Photonic Communications, 2010, SPThC4.

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Shieh, W.

Y. Tang, W. Shieh, and B. S. Krongold, “DFT-spread OFDM for fiber nonlinearity mitigation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 22, no. 16, pp. 1250–1252, Aug.2010.
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Y. Tang, W. Shieh, and B. S. Krongold, “DFT-spread OFDM for fiber nonlinearity mitigation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 22, no. 16, pp. 1250–1252, Aug.2010.
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J. Renaudier, O. Bertran-Pardo, H. Mardoyan, P. Tran, G. Charlet, S. Bigo, M. Lefrançois, B. Lavigne, J. Augé, L. Piriou, and O. Courtois, “Performance comparison of 40G and 100G coherent PDM-QPSK for upgrading dispersion managed legacy systems,” in Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (NFOEC), 2009, NWD5.

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B. Koley, V. Vusirikala, C. Lam, and V. Gill, “100 GbE and beyond for warehouse scale computing,” in 15th OptoElectronics and Communications Conf. (OECC), July 2010.

Wang, T.

D. Qian, N. Cvijetic, J. Hu, and T. Wang, “108 Gb/s OFDMA-PON with polarization multiplexing and direct-detection,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC), Mar. 2009, PDPD5.

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J. Li, S. Zhang, F. Zhang, and Z. Chen, “Comparison of transmission performances for CO-SCFDE and CO-OFDM systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 22, no. 14, pp. 1054–1056, July2010.
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Figures (20)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(Color online) Schematic block diagrams of the (a) DDO-OFDM system, (b) DDO-SCFDE system, and (c) DDO-DFTS system (where M = v N and v is an integer). Up-converted RF spectra of the (d) DDO-OFDM, (e) DDO-SCFDE, and (f) DDO-DFTS systems with a 7th-order Butterworth filter keeping the other system parameters the same and in normalized scales.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(Color online) Simulation setup.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(Color online) Subcarrier mapping in DDO-OFDM and DDO-DFTS systems. Time slot mapping in one DDO-SCFDE symbol block. “Pilot” denotes a BPSK symbol, whereas “Data” denotes an M modu -QAM symbol in that frequency or time slot.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(Color online) Time domain block structure containing 80 complex-valued digital samples. (a) DDO-SCFDE block, (b) DDO-OFDM or DDO-DFTS block.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(Color online) Sequence of 502 blocks in the simulations where the length of each block is 80 complex-valued numbers including the CP.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(Color online) RF spectra with MZM bias 2.5 V (left) and 4.5 V (right).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(Color online) Performance with different MZM biases.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(Color online) Optical spectra after the MZM (left) and RF spectra after the photodiode (right) with different MZM drive powers.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(Color online) Performance with different MZM drive powers.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

(Color online) Optical spectra of DDO-SCFDE after the MZM with different MZM drive powers.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

(Color online) Performance with different RFs over 10 km of SMF.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

(Color online) RF spectra of DDO-OFDM and DDO-SCFDE after direct detection when (a) a 40 GHz RF is used and (b) a 50 GHz RF is used.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

(Color online) Performance with different RFs over 40 km of SMF.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

(Color online) EVM versus different launch powers over 40 km of SMF.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

(Color online) Performance of DDO-OFDM with different modulation orders over 40 km of SMF. Insets are the recovered constellations.

Fig. 16
Fig. 16

(Color online) Performance with different modulation orders over 40 km of SMF. Insets are the constellations of different QAMs recovered in the DDO-SCFDE system.

Fig. 17
Fig. 17

(Color online) BER versus received optical power plots for the DDO-OFDM (symbols) and DDO-SCFDE systems (solid curves).

Fig. 18
Fig. 18

(Color online) Receivers’ sensitivity of the systems with different modulation formats.

Fig. 19
Fig. 19

(Color online) Performance of the DDO-DFTS system with different laser linewidths and modulation formats.

Fig. 20
Fig. 20

(Color online) Receivers’ sensitivities of different systems with different QAMs over 40 km of SMF. Insets are the constellations of different QAMs recovered in the DDO-DFTS system.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

a k = { exp i M Chu π k 2 N Chu , when  N Chu  is even exp i M Chu π k ( k + 1 ) N Chu , when  N Chu  is odd ,
BER = 2 ( 1 1 L ) log 2 L × Q ( ( 3 log 2 L L 2 1 ) ( 2 EVM RMS 2 × log 2 M modu ) ) .
EVM RMS = i = 1 L p [ k = 1 N S | x i k ˜ x i k ¯ | 2 ] N S × L p × P avg = 1 SNR ,