Abstract

The performance of optical/wireless hybrid networks is largely limited by the wireless part. To reduce the wireless transmission, we configure virtual channels in the optical infrastructure as “shortcuts” between selected gateways. Adding virtual channels changes the network topology and affects the optimality of gateway deployment. Meanwhile, the gateway locations dictate the traffic distribution that affects the selection of gateways for virtual-channel placement. We propose to jointly optimize the gateways and virtual channels, and formulate the optimization as a mixed integer programming problem. In addition, we design an efficient heuristic algorithm based on k-means clustering to iteratively optimize these two aspects. Our schemes are evaluated using various network settings (network size, number of gateways, etc.). In particular, a random topology with Ethernet traffic is studied for delay and throughput. Numerical results show that our design and optimization effectively reduce the wireless transmission, which leads to better scalability, smaller traffic delay, and larger throughput.

© 2012 OSA

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  1. N. Ghazisaidi, M. Maier, and C. M. Assi, “Fiber–wireless (FiWi) access networks: A survey,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 47, no. 2, pp. 160–167, Feb.2009.
    [CrossRef]
  2. L. Kazovsky, S. Wong, T. Ayhan, K. Albeyoglu, M. Ribeiro, and A. Shastri, “Hybrid optical–wireless access networks,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 100, no. 5, pp. 1197–1225, May2012.
    [CrossRef]
  3. S. Sarkar, S. Dixit, and B. Mukherjee, “Hybrid wireless–optical broadband-access network (WOBAN): A review of relevant challenges,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 25, no. 11, pp. 3329–3340, Nov.2007.
    [CrossRef]
  4. G. Shen, R. S. Tucker, and C. J. Chae, “Fixed mobile convergence architectures for broadband access: Integration of EPON and WiMAX,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 45, no. 8, pp. 44–50, Aug.2007.
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. Xia and H. Harai, “New generation access network: Guideline and direction,” in Proc. IEICE Annu. Society Conf., Osaka, Japan, Sept. 2010, pp. 2356–2358.
  6. F. Li, Y. Wang, and X. Li, “Gateway placement for throughput optimization in wireless mesh networks,” in Proc. IEEE ICC, June 2007, pp. 4955–4960.
  7. S. Sarkar, H. Yen, S. Dixit, and B. Mukherjee, “Hybrid wireless–optical broadband access network (WOBAN): Network planning and setup,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 26, no. 6, pp. 12–21, Aug.2008.
    [CrossRef]
  8. Y. Liu, C. Zhou, and Y. Cheng, “Integrated BS/ONU placement in hybrid EPON-WiMAX access networks,” in Proc. IEEE Globecom, Dec. 2009, pp. 1–6.
  9. Z. Zheng, J. Wang, and X. Wang, “ONU placement in fiber-wireless (FiWi) networks considering peer-to-peer communications,” in Proc. IEEE Globecom, Dec. 2009, pp. 1–7.
  10. D. Watts, Small Worlds: The Dynamics of Networks Between Order and Randomness. Princeton University, 1999.
  11. P. Gupta and P. R. Kumar, “The capacity of wireless networks,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory, vol. 46, no. 2, pp. 388–404, Mar.2000.
    [CrossRef]
  12. P. Li, C. Zhang, and Y. Fang, “Capacity and delay of hybrid wireless broadband access networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 117–125, Feb.2009.
    [CrossRef]
  13. B. Liu, Z. Liu, and D. Towsley, “On the capacity of hybrid wireless networks,” in Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, 2003.
  14. R. Chitradurga and A. Helmy, “Analysis of wired shortcuts in wireless sensor networks,” in Proc. IEEE/ACS ICPS, 2004.
  15. G. Sharma and R. Mazumdar, “A case for hybrid sensor networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 16, no. 5, pp. 1121–1132, Oct.2008.
    [CrossRef]
  16. A. Tufail, S. Khayam, M. Raza, A. Ali, and K. Kim, “An enhanced backbone-assisted reliable framework for wireless sensor networks,” Sensors, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 1619–1651, Mar.2010.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. C. Qiao, J. Wang, and T. Wang, “Integrated optical and wireless access/metro networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC), San Diego, Mar. 2010, OWQ1.
  18. Y. Li, J. Wang, C. Qiao, A. Gumaste, Y. Xu, and Y. Xu, “Integrated fiber-wireless (FiWi) access networks supporting inter-ONU communications,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 28, no. 5, pp. 714–724, Mar.2010.
    [CrossRef]
  19. A. Bogdanov, E. Maneva, and S. Riesenfeld, “Power-aware base station positioning for sensor networks,” in Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, Mar. 2004.
  20. S. Huang, M. Xia, C. Martel, and B. Mukherjee, “Survivable multipath traffic grooming in telecom mesh networks with inverse multiplexing,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol. 2, no. 8, pp. 545–557, Aug.2010.
    [CrossRef]
  21. J. A. Hartigan, Clustering Algorithms. John Wiley, 1975.
  22. W. Willinger, M. Taqqu, R. Sherman, and D. Wilson, “Self-similarity through high-variability: Statistical analysis of Ethernet LAN traffic at the source level,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 71–86, Feb.1997.
    [CrossRef]
  23. W. Leland, M. Taqqu, W. Willinger, and D. Wilson, “On the self-similar nature of Ethernet traffic (extended version),” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 1–15, Feb.1994.
    [CrossRef]
  24. G. Kramer, B. Mukherjee, and G. Pesavento, “Ethernet PON (ePON): design and analysis of an optical access network,” Photonic Network Commun., vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 307–319, July2001.
    [CrossRef]
  25. G. Kramer, B. Mukherjee, and G. Pesavento, “IPACT: A dynamic protocol for an Ethernet PON (EPON),” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 74–80, Feb.2002.
    [CrossRef]

2012 (1)

L. Kazovsky, S. Wong, T. Ayhan, K. Albeyoglu, M. Ribeiro, and A. Shastri, “Hybrid optical–wireless access networks,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 100, no. 5, pp. 1197–1225, May2012.
[CrossRef]

2010 (3)

2009 (2)

P. Li, C. Zhang, and Y. Fang, “Capacity and delay of hybrid wireless broadband access networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 117–125, Feb.2009.
[CrossRef]

N. Ghazisaidi, M. Maier, and C. M. Assi, “Fiber–wireless (FiWi) access networks: A survey,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 47, no. 2, pp. 160–167, Feb.2009.
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

G. Sharma and R. Mazumdar, “A case for hybrid sensor networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 16, no. 5, pp. 1121–1132, Oct.2008.
[CrossRef]

S. Sarkar, H. Yen, S. Dixit, and B. Mukherjee, “Hybrid wireless–optical broadband access network (WOBAN): Network planning and setup,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 26, no. 6, pp. 12–21, Aug.2008.
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

G. Shen, R. S. Tucker, and C. J. Chae, “Fixed mobile convergence architectures for broadband access: Integration of EPON and WiMAX,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 45, no. 8, pp. 44–50, Aug.2007.
[CrossRef]

S. Sarkar, S. Dixit, and B. Mukherjee, “Hybrid wireless–optical broadband-access network (WOBAN): A review of relevant challenges,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 25, no. 11, pp. 3329–3340, Nov.2007.
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

G. Kramer, B. Mukherjee, and G. Pesavento, “IPACT: A dynamic protocol for an Ethernet PON (EPON),” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 74–80, Feb.2002.
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

G. Kramer, B. Mukherjee, and G. Pesavento, “Ethernet PON (ePON): design and analysis of an optical access network,” Photonic Network Commun., vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 307–319, July2001.
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

P. Gupta and P. R. Kumar, “The capacity of wireless networks,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory, vol. 46, no. 2, pp. 388–404, Mar.2000.
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

W. Willinger, M. Taqqu, R. Sherman, and D. Wilson, “Self-similarity through high-variability: Statistical analysis of Ethernet LAN traffic at the source level,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 71–86, Feb.1997.
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

W. Leland, M. Taqqu, W. Willinger, and D. Wilson, “On the self-similar nature of Ethernet traffic (extended version),” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 1–15, Feb.1994.
[CrossRef]

Albeyoglu, K.

L. Kazovsky, S. Wong, T. Ayhan, K. Albeyoglu, M. Ribeiro, and A. Shastri, “Hybrid optical–wireless access networks,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 100, no. 5, pp. 1197–1225, May2012.
[CrossRef]

Ali, A.

A. Tufail, S. Khayam, M. Raza, A. Ali, and K. Kim, “An enhanced backbone-assisted reliable framework for wireless sensor networks,” Sensors, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 1619–1651, Mar.2010.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Assi, C. M.

N. Ghazisaidi, M. Maier, and C. M. Assi, “Fiber–wireless (FiWi) access networks: A survey,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 47, no. 2, pp. 160–167, Feb.2009.
[CrossRef]

Ayhan, T.

L. Kazovsky, S. Wong, T. Ayhan, K. Albeyoglu, M. Ribeiro, and A. Shastri, “Hybrid optical–wireless access networks,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 100, no. 5, pp. 1197–1225, May2012.
[CrossRef]

Bogdanov, A.

A. Bogdanov, E. Maneva, and S. Riesenfeld, “Power-aware base station positioning for sensor networks,” in Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, Mar. 2004.

Chae, C. J.

G. Shen, R. S. Tucker, and C. J. Chae, “Fixed mobile convergence architectures for broadband access: Integration of EPON and WiMAX,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 45, no. 8, pp. 44–50, Aug.2007.
[CrossRef]

Cheng, Y.

Y. Liu, C. Zhou, and Y. Cheng, “Integrated BS/ONU placement in hybrid EPON-WiMAX access networks,” in Proc. IEEE Globecom, Dec. 2009, pp. 1–6.

Chitradurga, R.

R. Chitradurga and A. Helmy, “Analysis of wired shortcuts in wireless sensor networks,” in Proc. IEEE/ACS ICPS, 2004.

Dixit, S.

S. Sarkar, H. Yen, S. Dixit, and B. Mukherjee, “Hybrid wireless–optical broadband access network (WOBAN): Network planning and setup,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 26, no. 6, pp. 12–21, Aug.2008.
[CrossRef]

S. Sarkar, S. Dixit, and B. Mukherjee, “Hybrid wireless–optical broadband-access network (WOBAN): A review of relevant challenges,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 25, no. 11, pp. 3329–3340, Nov.2007.
[CrossRef]

Fang, Y.

P. Li, C. Zhang, and Y. Fang, “Capacity and delay of hybrid wireless broadband access networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 117–125, Feb.2009.
[CrossRef]

Ghazisaidi, N.

N. Ghazisaidi, M. Maier, and C. M. Assi, “Fiber–wireless (FiWi) access networks: A survey,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 47, no. 2, pp. 160–167, Feb.2009.
[CrossRef]

Gumaste, A.

Gupta, P.

P. Gupta and P. R. Kumar, “The capacity of wireless networks,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory, vol. 46, no. 2, pp. 388–404, Mar.2000.
[CrossRef]

Harai, H.

M. Xia and H. Harai, “New generation access network: Guideline and direction,” in Proc. IEICE Annu. Society Conf., Osaka, Japan, Sept. 2010, pp. 2356–2358.

Hartigan, J. A.

J. A. Hartigan, Clustering Algorithms. John Wiley, 1975.

Helmy, A.

R. Chitradurga and A. Helmy, “Analysis of wired shortcuts in wireless sensor networks,” in Proc. IEEE/ACS ICPS, 2004.

Huang, S.

Kazovsky, L.

L. Kazovsky, S. Wong, T. Ayhan, K. Albeyoglu, M. Ribeiro, and A. Shastri, “Hybrid optical–wireless access networks,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 100, no. 5, pp. 1197–1225, May2012.
[CrossRef]

Khayam, S.

A. Tufail, S. Khayam, M. Raza, A. Ali, and K. Kim, “An enhanced backbone-assisted reliable framework for wireless sensor networks,” Sensors, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 1619–1651, Mar.2010.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, K.

A. Tufail, S. Khayam, M. Raza, A. Ali, and K. Kim, “An enhanced backbone-assisted reliable framework for wireless sensor networks,” Sensors, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 1619–1651, Mar.2010.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kramer, G.

G. Kramer, B. Mukherjee, and G. Pesavento, “IPACT: A dynamic protocol for an Ethernet PON (EPON),” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 74–80, Feb.2002.
[CrossRef]

G. Kramer, B. Mukherjee, and G. Pesavento, “Ethernet PON (ePON): design and analysis of an optical access network,” Photonic Network Commun., vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 307–319, July2001.
[CrossRef]

Kumar, P. R.

P. Gupta and P. R. Kumar, “The capacity of wireless networks,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory, vol. 46, no. 2, pp. 388–404, Mar.2000.
[CrossRef]

Leland, W.

W. Leland, M. Taqqu, W. Willinger, and D. Wilson, “On the self-similar nature of Ethernet traffic (extended version),” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 1–15, Feb.1994.
[CrossRef]

Li, F.

F. Li, Y. Wang, and X. Li, “Gateway placement for throughput optimization in wireless mesh networks,” in Proc. IEEE ICC, June 2007, pp. 4955–4960.

Li, P.

P. Li, C. Zhang, and Y. Fang, “Capacity and delay of hybrid wireless broadband access networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 117–125, Feb.2009.
[CrossRef]

Li, X.

F. Li, Y. Wang, and X. Li, “Gateway placement for throughput optimization in wireless mesh networks,” in Proc. IEEE ICC, June 2007, pp. 4955–4960.

Li, Y.

Liu, B.

B. Liu, Z. Liu, and D. Towsley, “On the capacity of hybrid wireless networks,” in Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, 2003.

Liu, Y.

Y. Liu, C. Zhou, and Y. Cheng, “Integrated BS/ONU placement in hybrid EPON-WiMAX access networks,” in Proc. IEEE Globecom, Dec. 2009, pp. 1–6.

Liu, Z.

B. Liu, Z. Liu, and D. Towsley, “On the capacity of hybrid wireless networks,” in Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, 2003.

Maier, M.

N. Ghazisaidi, M. Maier, and C. M. Assi, “Fiber–wireless (FiWi) access networks: A survey,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 47, no. 2, pp. 160–167, Feb.2009.
[CrossRef]

Maneva, E.

A. Bogdanov, E. Maneva, and S. Riesenfeld, “Power-aware base station positioning for sensor networks,” in Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, Mar. 2004.

Martel, C.

Mazumdar, R.

G. Sharma and R. Mazumdar, “A case for hybrid sensor networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 16, no. 5, pp. 1121–1132, Oct.2008.
[CrossRef]

Mukherjee, B.

S. Huang, M. Xia, C. Martel, and B. Mukherjee, “Survivable multipath traffic grooming in telecom mesh networks with inverse multiplexing,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol. 2, no. 8, pp. 545–557, Aug.2010.
[CrossRef]

S. Sarkar, H. Yen, S. Dixit, and B. Mukherjee, “Hybrid wireless–optical broadband access network (WOBAN): Network planning and setup,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 26, no. 6, pp. 12–21, Aug.2008.
[CrossRef]

S. Sarkar, S. Dixit, and B. Mukherjee, “Hybrid wireless–optical broadband-access network (WOBAN): A review of relevant challenges,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 25, no. 11, pp. 3329–3340, Nov.2007.
[CrossRef]

G. Kramer, B. Mukherjee, and G. Pesavento, “IPACT: A dynamic protocol for an Ethernet PON (EPON),” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 74–80, Feb.2002.
[CrossRef]

G. Kramer, B. Mukherjee, and G. Pesavento, “Ethernet PON (ePON): design and analysis of an optical access network,” Photonic Network Commun., vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 307–319, July2001.
[CrossRef]

Pesavento, G.

G. Kramer, B. Mukherjee, and G. Pesavento, “IPACT: A dynamic protocol for an Ethernet PON (EPON),” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 74–80, Feb.2002.
[CrossRef]

G. Kramer, B. Mukherjee, and G. Pesavento, “Ethernet PON (ePON): design and analysis of an optical access network,” Photonic Network Commun., vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 307–319, July2001.
[CrossRef]

Qiao, C.

Y. Li, J. Wang, C. Qiao, A. Gumaste, Y. Xu, and Y. Xu, “Integrated fiber-wireless (FiWi) access networks supporting inter-ONU communications,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 28, no. 5, pp. 714–724, Mar.2010.
[CrossRef]

C. Qiao, J. Wang, and T. Wang, “Integrated optical and wireless access/metro networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC), San Diego, Mar. 2010, OWQ1.

Raza, M.

A. Tufail, S. Khayam, M. Raza, A. Ali, and K. Kim, “An enhanced backbone-assisted reliable framework for wireless sensor networks,” Sensors, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 1619–1651, Mar.2010.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ribeiro, M.

L. Kazovsky, S. Wong, T. Ayhan, K. Albeyoglu, M. Ribeiro, and A. Shastri, “Hybrid optical–wireless access networks,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 100, no. 5, pp. 1197–1225, May2012.
[CrossRef]

Riesenfeld, S.

A. Bogdanov, E. Maneva, and S. Riesenfeld, “Power-aware base station positioning for sensor networks,” in Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, Mar. 2004.

Sarkar, S.

S. Sarkar, H. Yen, S. Dixit, and B. Mukherjee, “Hybrid wireless–optical broadband access network (WOBAN): Network planning and setup,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 26, no. 6, pp. 12–21, Aug.2008.
[CrossRef]

S. Sarkar, S. Dixit, and B. Mukherjee, “Hybrid wireless–optical broadband-access network (WOBAN): A review of relevant challenges,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 25, no. 11, pp. 3329–3340, Nov.2007.
[CrossRef]

Sharma, G.

G. Sharma and R. Mazumdar, “A case for hybrid sensor networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 16, no. 5, pp. 1121–1132, Oct.2008.
[CrossRef]

Shastri, A.

L. Kazovsky, S. Wong, T. Ayhan, K. Albeyoglu, M. Ribeiro, and A. Shastri, “Hybrid optical–wireless access networks,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 100, no. 5, pp. 1197–1225, May2012.
[CrossRef]

Shen, G.

G. Shen, R. S. Tucker, and C. J. Chae, “Fixed mobile convergence architectures for broadband access: Integration of EPON and WiMAX,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 45, no. 8, pp. 44–50, Aug.2007.
[CrossRef]

Sherman, R.

W. Willinger, M. Taqqu, R. Sherman, and D. Wilson, “Self-similarity through high-variability: Statistical analysis of Ethernet LAN traffic at the source level,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 71–86, Feb.1997.
[CrossRef]

Taqqu, M.

W. Willinger, M. Taqqu, R. Sherman, and D. Wilson, “Self-similarity through high-variability: Statistical analysis of Ethernet LAN traffic at the source level,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 71–86, Feb.1997.
[CrossRef]

W. Leland, M. Taqqu, W. Willinger, and D. Wilson, “On the self-similar nature of Ethernet traffic (extended version),” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 1–15, Feb.1994.
[CrossRef]

Towsley, D.

B. Liu, Z. Liu, and D. Towsley, “On the capacity of hybrid wireless networks,” in Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, 2003.

Tucker, R. S.

G. Shen, R. S. Tucker, and C. J. Chae, “Fixed mobile convergence architectures for broadband access: Integration of EPON and WiMAX,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 45, no. 8, pp. 44–50, Aug.2007.
[CrossRef]

Tufail, A.

A. Tufail, S. Khayam, M. Raza, A. Ali, and K. Kim, “An enhanced backbone-assisted reliable framework for wireless sensor networks,” Sensors, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 1619–1651, Mar.2010.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, J.

Y. Li, J. Wang, C. Qiao, A. Gumaste, Y. Xu, and Y. Xu, “Integrated fiber-wireless (FiWi) access networks supporting inter-ONU communications,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 28, no. 5, pp. 714–724, Mar.2010.
[CrossRef]

Z. Zheng, J. Wang, and X. Wang, “ONU placement in fiber-wireless (FiWi) networks considering peer-to-peer communications,” in Proc. IEEE Globecom, Dec. 2009, pp. 1–7.

C. Qiao, J. Wang, and T. Wang, “Integrated optical and wireless access/metro networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC), San Diego, Mar. 2010, OWQ1.

Wang, T.

C. Qiao, J. Wang, and T. Wang, “Integrated optical and wireless access/metro networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC), San Diego, Mar. 2010, OWQ1.

Wang, X.

Z. Zheng, J. Wang, and X. Wang, “ONU placement in fiber-wireless (FiWi) networks considering peer-to-peer communications,” in Proc. IEEE Globecom, Dec. 2009, pp. 1–7.

Wang, Y.

F. Li, Y. Wang, and X. Li, “Gateway placement for throughput optimization in wireless mesh networks,” in Proc. IEEE ICC, June 2007, pp. 4955–4960.

Watts, D.

D. Watts, Small Worlds: The Dynamics of Networks Between Order and Randomness. Princeton University, 1999.

Willinger, W.

W. Willinger, M. Taqqu, R. Sherman, and D. Wilson, “Self-similarity through high-variability: Statistical analysis of Ethernet LAN traffic at the source level,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 71–86, Feb.1997.
[CrossRef]

W. Leland, M. Taqqu, W. Willinger, and D. Wilson, “On the self-similar nature of Ethernet traffic (extended version),” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 1–15, Feb.1994.
[CrossRef]

Wilson, D.

W. Willinger, M. Taqqu, R. Sherman, and D. Wilson, “Self-similarity through high-variability: Statistical analysis of Ethernet LAN traffic at the source level,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 71–86, Feb.1997.
[CrossRef]

W. Leland, M. Taqqu, W. Willinger, and D. Wilson, “On the self-similar nature of Ethernet traffic (extended version),” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 1–15, Feb.1994.
[CrossRef]

Wong, S.

L. Kazovsky, S. Wong, T. Ayhan, K. Albeyoglu, M. Ribeiro, and A. Shastri, “Hybrid optical–wireless access networks,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 100, no. 5, pp. 1197–1225, May2012.
[CrossRef]

Xia, M.

S. Huang, M. Xia, C. Martel, and B. Mukherjee, “Survivable multipath traffic grooming in telecom mesh networks with inverse multiplexing,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol. 2, no. 8, pp. 545–557, Aug.2010.
[CrossRef]

M. Xia and H. Harai, “New generation access network: Guideline and direction,” in Proc. IEICE Annu. Society Conf., Osaka, Japan, Sept. 2010, pp. 2356–2358.

Xu, Y.

Yen, H.

S. Sarkar, H. Yen, S. Dixit, and B. Mukherjee, “Hybrid wireless–optical broadband access network (WOBAN): Network planning and setup,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 26, no. 6, pp. 12–21, Aug.2008.
[CrossRef]

Zhang, C.

P. Li, C. Zhang, and Y. Fang, “Capacity and delay of hybrid wireless broadband access networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 117–125, Feb.2009.
[CrossRef]

Zheng, Z.

Z. Zheng, J. Wang, and X. Wang, “ONU placement in fiber-wireless (FiWi) networks considering peer-to-peer communications,” in Proc. IEEE Globecom, Dec. 2009, pp. 1–7.

Zhou, C.

Y. Liu, C. Zhou, and Y. Cheng, “Integrated BS/ONU placement in hybrid EPON-WiMAX access networks,” in Proc. IEEE Globecom, Dec. 2009, pp. 1–6.

IEEE Commun. Mag. (3)

G. Shen, R. S. Tucker, and C. J. Chae, “Fixed mobile convergence architectures for broadband access: Integration of EPON and WiMAX,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 45, no. 8, pp. 44–50, Aug.2007.
[CrossRef]

N. Ghazisaidi, M. Maier, and C. M. Assi, “Fiber–wireless (FiWi) access networks: A survey,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 47, no. 2, pp. 160–167, Feb.2009.
[CrossRef]

G. Kramer, B. Mukherjee, and G. Pesavento, “IPACT: A dynamic protocol for an Ethernet PON (EPON),” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 74–80, Feb.2002.
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. (2)

P. Li, C. Zhang, and Y. Fang, “Capacity and delay of hybrid wireless broadband access networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 117–125, Feb.2009.
[CrossRef]

S. Sarkar, H. Yen, S. Dixit, and B. Mukherjee, “Hybrid wireless–optical broadband access network (WOBAN): Network planning and setup,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 26, no. 6, pp. 12–21, Aug.2008.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory (1)

P. Gupta and P. R. Kumar, “The capacity of wireless networks,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory, vol. 46, no. 2, pp. 388–404, Mar.2000.
[CrossRef]

IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. (3)

G. Sharma and R. Mazumdar, “A case for hybrid sensor networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 16, no. 5, pp. 1121–1132, Oct.2008.
[CrossRef]

W. Willinger, M. Taqqu, R. Sherman, and D. Wilson, “Self-similarity through high-variability: Statistical analysis of Ethernet LAN traffic at the source level,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 71–86, Feb.1997.
[CrossRef]

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(Color online) Illustration of virtual channels in a hybrid network.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Flowchart for optimization of virtual-channel and gateway placement.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(Color online) A sample routing in a hybrid network.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(Color online) Average transmission cost versus number of GAPs (up to three virtual channels).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(Color online) Average transmission cost versus traffic ratio.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(Color online) Average transmission cost of networks with different sizes.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(Color online) A sample 31-node randomly generated network.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(Color online) Network throughput versus load per MAP.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(Color online) Average traffic delay versus load per MAP.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

(Color online) Illustration for virtual-channel configuration through dynamic bandwidth allocation in a PON.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table I Comparison With Works Closely Related to Our Work

Tables Icon

Table II Networks for Scalability Study

Equations (24)

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G I = 1 ,
G i 1 ,
i G i = K ,
G m + G n 1 , W m n = 1 .
V m n G m ,
V m n G n ,
m , n V m n = 2 W .
s , d T m I s d G m × C P ,
s , d T I n s d G n × C P ,
s , d T m n s d W m n × C W + V m n × C V .
n t m n s d 1 .
t m n s d = 1 if  T m n s d > 0 ,
t m n s d = 0 if  T m n s d = 0 .
m T m k s d = n T k n s d , k s , d , s , d , k ,
n T s n s d m T m s s d = t s d , s , d ,
m T m d s d n T d n s d = t s d , s , d .
Min s , d ( W m n = 1 T m n s d × M W + W m n = 0 , m I , n I T m n s d × M V + m = I or  n = I T m n s d × M P ) .
t m n s d × M T m n s d ,
T m n s d × M t m n s d ,
s { min g [ d ( t s d + t d s ) ] × c s g } ,
arg min S i = 1 k x j S i x j μ i 2 ,
T g h = s V g d V h t s d .
( T g h + T h g ) × c g h .
T start = T schedule + T guard .