Abstract

Several protection schemes have been proposed for wavelength division multiplexed passive optical networks (WDM-PONs). However, these existing schemes only work under the assumption that all the optical network units (ONUs) and the optical light terminal (OLT) continuously transmit optical signals. In practice, some ONUs may be in sleep mode to save power consumption or may be shut down whenever users are offline. Under such scenarios, the existing schemes would not work. To deal with more practical operation scenarios, we propose a centrally controlled intelligent protection scheme for survivable WDM-PONs, whereby the optical power on both the working and protection paths is monitored simultaneously, and the monitored results are fed to a novel logical decision unit which performs the protection switching. It provides 1:1 downstream protection and 1+1 upstream protection capabilities. The logic decision unit in conjunction with a power monitoring unit is implemented in the OLT to enable intelligent protection switching in more practical operation scenarios. Moreover, our proposed protection scheme can tell the connection status of every fiber path (working and protection), thus facilitating a faster failure recovery. The scheme feasibility is experimentally verified with 10 Gb/s downstream and 1.25 Gb/s upstream transmissions. The network performances in terms of complexity and availability are also evaluated.

© 2012 OSA

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References

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  1. C.-H. Lee, W. V. Sorin, and B. Y. Kim, “Fiber to the home using a PON infrastructure,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 24, no. 12, pp. 4568–4583, Dec.2006.
    [CrossRef]
  2. S.-J. Park, C.-H. Lee, K.-T. Jeong, H.-J. Park, J.-G. Ahn, and K.-H. Song, “Fiber-to-the-home services based on wavelength- division-multiplexing passive optical network,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 22, no. 11, pp. 2582–2591, Nov.2004.
    [CrossRef]
  3. S. G. Mum, J. H. Moon, H.-K. Lee, J.-Y. Kim, and C.-H. Lee, “A WDM-PON with a 40 Gb/s (32×1.25 Gb/s) capacity based on wavelength-locked Fabry–Perot laser diodes,” Opt. Express, vol. 16, no. 15, pp. 11361–11368, July2008.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. T. J. Chan, C. K. Chan, L. K. Chen, and F. Tong, “A self-protected architecture for wavelength division multiplexed passive optical networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 11, pp. 1660–1662, Nov.2003.
    [CrossRef]
  5. X. F. Sun, Z. X. Wang, C. K. Chan, and L. K. Chen, “A novel star-ring protection architecture scheme for WDM passive optical access networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf.(OFC/NFOEC), 2004, JWA5.
  6. K. Lee, S.-G. Mun, C.-H. Lee, and S. B. Lee, “Reliable wavelength-division-multiplexed passive optical network using novel protection scheme,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 20, no. 9, pp. 679–681, May2008.
    [CrossRef]
  7. X. F. Sun, C. K. Chan, and L. K. Chen, “A survivable WDM-PON architecture with centralized alternate-path protection switching for traffic restoration,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 631–633, Feb.2006.
    [CrossRef]
  8. Y. Qiu, Z. X. Liu, and C. K. Chan, “A centrally controlled survivable WDM-PON based on optical suppression technique,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 23, no. 6, pp. 386–388, Mar.2011.
    [CrossRef]
  9. Z. X. Wang, X. F. Sun, C. L. Lin, C. K. Chan, and L. K. Chen, “A novel centrally controlled protection scheme for traffic restoration in WDM passive optical networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 717–719, Mar.2005.
    [CrossRef]
  10. K. Lee, S. B. Lee, J. H. Lee, Y.-G. Han, S.-G. Mun, S.-M. Lee, and C.-H. Lee, “A self-restorable architecture for bidirectional wavelength-division-multiplexed passive optical network with colorless ONUs,” Opt. Express, vol. 15, no. 8, pp. 4863–4868, Apr.2007.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. K. H. Tse, W. Jia, and C. K. Chan, “A cost-effective pilot-tone- based monitoring technique for power-saving in RSOA-based WDM-PON,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), 2011, OThB6.
  12. S. W. Wong, L. Valcarenghi, S.-H. Yen, D. R. Campelo, S. Yamashita, and L. Kazovsky, “Sleep mode for energy saving PONs: Advantages and drawbacks,” in IEEE Global Communications Conf. Workshops, Dec. 2009.
  13. G. I. Papadimitriou, C. Papazoglou, and A. S. Pomports, “Optical switching: Switch fabrics, techniques, and architectures,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 384–405, Feb.2003.
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. M. Rabaey, A. Chandrakasan, and B. Nikolic, Digital Integrated Circuits, 2 ed.Prentice Hall, 2003.
  15. W. D. Grover, Mesh-Based Survivable Networks: Options for Optical, MPLS, SONET and ATM Networking. Prentice Hall PTR, Upper Saddle River, NJ, Aug.2003.
  16. W. Lee, M. Y. Park, S. H. Cho, J. Lee, C. Kim, G. Jeong, and B. W. Kim, “Bidirectional WDM-PON based on gain-saturated reflective semiconductor optical amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 17, no. 11, pp. 2460–2462, Nov.2005.
    [CrossRef]
  17. J. Chen and L. Wosinska, “Analysis of protection schemes in PON compatible with smooth migration from TDM-PON to hybrid WDM/TDMPON,” J. Opt. Netw., vol. 6, no. 5, pp. 514–526, May2007.
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2011 (1)

Y. Qiu, Z. X. Liu, and C. K. Chan, “A centrally controlled survivable WDM-PON based on optical suppression technique,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 23, no. 6, pp. 386–388, Mar.2011.
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

2008 (2)

S. G. Mum, J. H. Moon, H.-K. Lee, J.-Y. Kim, and C.-H. Lee, “A WDM-PON with a 40 Gb/s (32×1.25 Gb/s) capacity based on wavelength-locked Fabry–Perot laser diodes,” Opt. Express, vol. 16, no. 15, pp. 11361–11368, July2008.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Lee, S.-G. Mun, C.-H. Lee, and S. B. Lee, “Reliable wavelength-division-multiplexed passive optical network using novel protection scheme,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 20, no. 9, pp. 679–681, May2008.
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

2006 (2)

X. F. Sun, C. K. Chan, and L. K. Chen, “A survivable WDM-PON architecture with centralized alternate-path protection switching for traffic restoration,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 631–633, Feb.2006.
[CrossRef]

C.-H. Lee, W. V. Sorin, and B. Y. Kim, “Fiber to the home using a PON infrastructure,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 24, no. 12, pp. 4568–4583, Dec.2006.
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

W. Lee, M. Y. Park, S. H. Cho, J. Lee, C. Kim, G. Jeong, and B. W. Kim, “Bidirectional WDM-PON based on gain-saturated reflective semiconductor optical amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 17, no. 11, pp. 2460–2462, Nov.2005.
[CrossRef]

Z. X. Wang, X. F. Sun, C. L. Lin, C. K. Chan, and L. K. Chen, “A novel centrally controlled protection scheme for traffic restoration in WDM passive optical networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 717–719, Mar.2005.
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

2003 (2)

T. J. Chan, C. K. Chan, L. K. Chen, and F. Tong, “A self-protected architecture for wavelength division multiplexed passive optical networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 11, pp. 1660–1662, Nov.2003.
[CrossRef]

G. I. Papadimitriou, C. Papazoglou, and A. S. Pomports, “Optical switching: Switch fabrics, techniques, and architectures,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 384–405, Feb.2003.
[CrossRef]

Ahn, J.-G.

Campelo, D. R.

S. W. Wong, L. Valcarenghi, S.-H. Yen, D. R. Campelo, S. Yamashita, and L. Kazovsky, “Sleep mode for energy saving PONs: Advantages and drawbacks,” in IEEE Global Communications Conf. Workshops, Dec. 2009.

Chan, C. K.

Y. Qiu, Z. X. Liu, and C. K. Chan, “A centrally controlled survivable WDM-PON based on optical suppression technique,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 23, no. 6, pp. 386–388, Mar.2011.
[CrossRef]

X. F. Sun, C. K. Chan, and L. K. Chen, “A survivable WDM-PON architecture with centralized alternate-path protection switching for traffic restoration,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 631–633, Feb.2006.
[CrossRef]

Z. X. Wang, X. F. Sun, C. L. Lin, C. K. Chan, and L. K. Chen, “A novel centrally controlled protection scheme for traffic restoration in WDM passive optical networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 717–719, Mar.2005.
[CrossRef]

T. J. Chan, C. K. Chan, L. K. Chen, and F. Tong, “A self-protected architecture for wavelength division multiplexed passive optical networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 11, pp. 1660–1662, Nov.2003.
[CrossRef]

X. F. Sun, Z. X. Wang, C. K. Chan, and L. K. Chen, “A novel star-ring protection architecture scheme for WDM passive optical access networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf.(OFC/NFOEC), 2004, JWA5.

K. H. Tse, W. Jia, and C. K. Chan, “A cost-effective pilot-tone- based monitoring technique for power-saving in RSOA-based WDM-PON,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), 2011, OThB6.

Chan, T. J.

T. J. Chan, C. K. Chan, L. K. Chen, and F. Tong, “A self-protected architecture for wavelength division multiplexed passive optical networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 11, pp. 1660–1662, Nov.2003.
[CrossRef]

Chandrakasan, A.

J. M. Rabaey, A. Chandrakasan, and B. Nikolic, Digital Integrated Circuits, 2 ed.Prentice Hall, 2003.

Chen, J.

Chen, L. K.

X. F. Sun, C. K. Chan, and L. K. Chen, “A survivable WDM-PON architecture with centralized alternate-path protection switching for traffic restoration,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 631–633, Feb.2006.
[CrossRef]

Z. X. Wang, X. F. Sun, C. L. Lin, C. K. Chan, and L. K. Chen, “A novel centrally controlled protection scheme for traffic restoration in WDM passive optical networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 717–719, Mar.2005.
[CrossRef]

T. J. Chan, C. K. Chan, L. K. Chen, and F. Tong, “A self-protected architecture for wavelength division multiplexed passive optical networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 11, pp. 1660–1662, Nov.2003.
[CrossRef]

X. F. Sun, Z. X. Wang, C. K. Chan, and L. K. Chen, “A novel star-ring protection architecture scheme for WDM passive optical access networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf.(OFC/NFOEC), 2004, JWA5.

Cho, S. H.

W. Lee, M. Y. Park, S. H. Cho, J. Lee, C. Kim, G. Jeong, and B. W. Kim, “Bidirectional WDM-PON based on gain-saturated reflective semiconductor optical amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 17, no. 11, pp. 2460–2462, Nov.2005.
[CrossRef]

Grover, W. D.

W. D. Grover, Mesh-Based Survivable Networks: Options for Optical, MPLS, SONET and ATM Networking. Prentice Hall PTR, Upper Saddle River, NJ, Aug.2003.

Han, Y.-G.

Jeong, G.

W. Lee, M. Y. Park, S. H. Cho, J. Lee, C. Kim, G. Jeong, and B. W. Kim, “Bidirectional WDM-PON based on gain-saturated reflective semiconductor optical amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 17, no. 11, pp. 2460–2462, Nov.2005.
[CrossRef]

Jeong, K.-T.

Jia, W.

K. H. Tse, W. Jia, and C. K. Chan, “A cost-effective pilot-tone- based monitoring technique for power-saving in RSOA-based WDM-PON,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), 2011, OThB6.

Kazovsky, L.

S. W. Wong, L. Valcarenghi, S.-H. Yen, D. R. Campelo, S. Yamashita, and L. Kazovsky, “Sleep mode for energy saving PONs: Advantages and drawbacks,” in IEEE Global Communications Conf. Workshops, Dec. 2009.

Kim, B. W.

W. Lee, M. Y. Park, S. H. Cho, J. Lee, C. Kim, G. Jeong, and B. W. Kim, “Bidirectional WDM-PON based on gain-saturated reflective semiconductor optical amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 17, no. 11, pp. 2460–2462, Nov.2005.
[CrossRef]

Kim, B. Y.

Kim, C.

W. Lee, M. Y. Park, S. H. Cho, J. Lee, C. Kim, G. Jeong, and B. W. Kim, “Bidirectional WDM-PON based on gain-saturated reflective semiconductor optical amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 17, no. 11, pp. 2460–2462, Nov.2005.
[CrossRef]

Kim, J.-Y.

Lee, C.-H.

Lee, H.-K.

Lee, J.

W. Lee, M. Y. Park, S. H. Cho, J. Lee, C. Kim, G. Jeong, and B. W. Kim, “Bidirectional WDM-PON based on gain-saturated reflective semiconductor optical amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 17, no. 11, pp. 2460–2462, Nov.2005.
[CrossRef]

Lee, J. H.

Lee, K.

K. Lee, S.-G. Mun, C.-H. Lee, and S. B. Lee, “Reliable wavelength-division-multiplexed passive optical network using novel protection scheme,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 20, no. 9, pp. 679–681, May2008.
[CrossRef]

K. Lee, S. B. Lee, J. H. Lee, Y.-G. Han, S.-G. Mun, S.-M. Lee, and C.-H. Lee, “A self-restorable architecture for bidirectional wavelength-division-multiplexed passive optical network with colorless ONUs,” Opt. Express, vol. 15, no. 8, pp. 4863–4868, Apr.2007.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, S. B.

K. Lee, S.-G. Mun, C.-H. Lee, and S. B. Lee, “Reliable wavelength-division-multiplexed passive optical network using novel protection scheme,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 20, no. 9, pp. 679–681, May2008.
[CrossRef]

K. Lee, S. B. Lee, J. H. Lee, Y.-G. Han, S.-G. Mun, S.-M. Lee, and C.-H. Lee, “A self-restorable architecture for bidirectional wavelength-division-multiplexed passive optical network with colorless ONUs,” Opt. Express, vol. 15, no. 8, pp. 4863–4868, Apr.2007.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, S.-M.

Lee, W.

W. Lee, M. Y. Park, S. H. Cho, J. Lee, C. Kim, G. Jeong, and B. W. Kim, “Bidirectional WDM-PON based on gain-saturated reflective semiconductor optical amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 17, no. 11, pp. 2460–2462, Nov.2005.
[CrossRef]

Lin, C. L.

Z. X. Wang, X. F. Sun, C. L. Lin, C. K. Chan, and L. K. Chen, “A novel centrally controlled protection scheme for traffic restoration in WDM passive optical networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 717–719, Mar.2005.
[CrossRef]

Liu, Z. X.

Y. Qiu, Z. X. Liu, and C. K. Chan, “A centrally controlled survivable WDM-PON based on optical suppression technique,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 23, no. 6, pp. 386–388, Mar.2011.
[CrossRef]

Moon, J. H.

Mum, S. G.

Mun, S.-G.

Nikolic, B.

J. M. Rabaey, A. Chandrakasan, and B. Nikolic, Digital Integrated Circuits, 2 ed.Prentice Hall, 2003.

Papadimitriou, G. I.

G. I. Papadimitriou, C. Papazoglou, and A. S. Pomports, “Optical switching: Switch fabrics, techniques, and architectures,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 384–405, Feb.2003.
[CrossRef]

Papazoglou, C.

G. I. Papadimitriou, C. Papazoglou, and A. S. Pomports, “Optical switching: Switch fabrics, techniques, and architectures,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 384–405, Feb.2003.
[CrossRef]

Park, H.-J.

Park, M. Y.

W. Lee, M. Y. Park, S. H. Cho, J. Lee, C. Kim, G. Jeong, and B. W. Kim, “Bidirectional WDM-PON based on gain-saturated reflective semiconductor optical amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 17, no. 11, pp. 2460–2462, Nov.2005.
[CrossRef]

Park, S.-J.

Pomports, A. S.

G. I. Papadimitriou, C. Papazoglou, and A. S. Pomports, “Optical switching: Switch fabrics, techniques, and architectures,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 384–405, Feb.2003.
[CrossRef]

Qiu, Y.

Y. Qiu, Z. X. Liu, and C. K. Chan, “A centrally controlled survivable WDM-PON based on optical suppression technique,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 23, no. 6, pp. 386–388, Mar.2011.
[CrossRef]

Rabaey, J. M.

J. M. Rabaey, A. Chandrakasan, and B. Nikolic, Digital Integrated Circuits, 2 ed.Prentice Hall, 2003.

Song, K.-H.

Sorin, W. V.

Sun, X. F.

X. F. Sun, C. K. Chan, and L. K. Chen, “A survivable WDM-PON architecture with centralized alternate-path protection switching for traffic restoration,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 631–633, Feb.2006.
[CrossRef]

Z. X. Wang, X. F. Sun, C. L. Lin, C. K. Chan, and L. K. Chen, “A novel centrally controlled protection scheme for traffic restoration in WDM passive optical networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 717–719, Mar.2005.
[CrossRef]

X. F. Sun, Z. X. Wang, C. K. Chan, and L. K. Chen, “A novel star-ring protection architecture scheme for WDM passive optical access networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf.(OFC/NFOEC), 2004, JWA5.

Tong, F.

T. J. Chan, C. K. Chan, L. K. Chen, and F. Tong, “A self-protected architecture for wavelength division multiplexed passive optical networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 11, pp. 1660–1662, Nov.2003.
[CrossRef]

Tse, K. H.

K. H. Tse, W. Jia, and C. K. Chan, “A cost-effective pilot-tone- based monitoring technique for power-saving in RSOA-based WDM-PON,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), 2011, OThB6.

Valcarenghi, L.

S. W. Wong, L. Valcarenghi, S.-H. Yen, D. R. Campelo, S. Yamashita, and L. Kazovsky, “Sleep mode for energy saving PONs: Advantages and drawbacks,” in IEEE Global Communications Conf. Workshops, Dec. 2009.

Wang, Z. X.

Z. X. Wang, X. F. Sun, C. L. Lin, C. K. Chan, and L. K. Chen, “A novel centrally controlled protection scheme for traffic restoration in WDM passive optical networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 717–719, Mar.2005.
[CrossRef]

X. F. Sun, Z. X. Wang, C. K. Chan, and L. K. Chen, “A novel star-ring protection architecture scheme for WDM passive optical access networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf.(OFC/NFOEC), 2004, JWA5.

Wong, S. W.

S. W. Wong, L. Valcarenghi, S.-H. Yen, D. R. Campelo, S. Yamashita, and L. Kazovsky, “Sleep mode for energy saving PONs: Advantages and drawbacks,” in IEEE Global Communications Conf. Workshops, Dec. 2009.

Wosinska, L.

Yamashita, S.

S. W. Wong, L. Valcarenghi, S.-H. Yen, D. R. Campelo, S. Yamashita, and L. Kazovsky, “Sleep mode for energy saving PONs: Advantages and drawbacks,” in IEEE Global Communications Conf. Workshops, Dec. 2009.

Yen, S.-H.

S. W. Wong, L. Valcarenghi, S.-H. Yen, D. R. Campelo, S. Yamashita, and L. Kazovsky, “Sleep mode for energy saving PONs: Advantages and drawbacks,” in IEEE Global Communications Conf. Workshops, Dec. 2009.

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (6)

K. Lee, S.-G. Mun, C.-H. Lee, and S. B. Lee, “Reliable wavelength-division-multiplexed passive optical network using novel protection scheme,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 20, no. 9, pp. 679–681, May2008.
[CrossRef]

X. F. Sun, C. K. Chan, and L. K. Chen, “A survivable WDM-PON architecture with centralized alternate-path protection switching for traffic restoration,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 631–633, Feb.2006.
[CrossRef]

Y. Qiu, Z. X. Liu, and C. K. Chan, “A centrally controlled survivable WDM-PON based on optical suppression technique,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 23, no. 6, pp. 386–388, Mar.2011.
[CrossRef]

Z. X. Wang, X. F. Sun, C. L. Lin, C. K. Chan, and L. K. Chen, “A novel centrally controlled protection scheme for traffic restoration in WDM passive optical networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 717–719, Mar.2005.
[CrossRef]

W. Lee, M. Y. Park, S. H. Cho, J. Lee, C. Kim, G. Jeong, and B. W. Kim, “Bidirectional WDM-PON based on gain-saturated reflective semiconductor optical amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 17, no. 11, pp. 2460–2462, Nov.2005.
[CrossRef]

T. J. Chan, C. K. Chan, L. K. Chen, and F. Tong, “A self-protected architecture for wavelength division multiplexed passive optical networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 11, pp. 1660–1662, Nov.2003.
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

J. Opt. Commun. Netw. (1)

J. Opt. Netw. (1)

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

G. I. Papadimitriou, C. Papazoglou, and A. S. Pomports, “Optical switching: Switch fabrics, techniques, and architectures,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 384–405, Feb.2003.
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Other (5)

X. F. Sun, Z. X. Wang, C. K. Chan, and L. K. Chen, “A novel star-ring protection architecture scheme for WDM passive optical access networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf.(OFC/NFOEC), 2004, JWA5.

J. M. Rabaey, A. Chandrakasan, and B. Nikolic, Digital Integrated Circuits, 2 ed.Prentice Hall, 2003.

W. D. Grover, Mesh-Based Survivable Networks: Options for Optical, MPLS, SONET and ATM Networking. Prentice Hall PTR, Upper Saddle River, NJ, Aug.2003.

K. H. Tse, W. Jia, and C. K. Chan, “A cost-effective pilot-tone- based monitoring technique for power-saving in RSOA-based WDM-PON,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), 2011, OThB6.

S. W. Wong, L. Valcarenghi, S.-H. Yen, D. R. Campelo, S. Yamashita, and L. Kazovsky, “Sleep mode for energy saving PONs: Advantages and drawbacks,” in IEEE Global Communications Conf. Workshops, Dec. 2009.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(Color online) Schematic diagram of the proposed centrally controlled intelligent self-protected WDM-PON architecture.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(Color online) Experimental setup for the centrally controlled self-protection operation in the proposed WDM-PON architecture.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(Color online) Measured BER of the DS and US signals at 1545.5 nm for different DS ERs. Insets show the eye patterns of DS and US signals when the DS ER is 5 dB.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(Color online) Measured BER of the 10 Gbit/s DS and 1.25 Gbit/s US signals in both the working and protection modes at 1545.5 nm. The inset shows the switching time during traffic restoration.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(Color online) Block diagrams for calculating the unavailability of different protection schemes: (a) scheme in [4], (b) scheme in [6], (c) scheme in [9], (d) scheme in [10] and (e) our proposed protection scheme.

Tables (4)

Tables Icon

Table I Truth Table for the Detection States of the Upstream Light on Both Working and Protection Paths of Each Channel

Tables Icon

Table II Power Margin Calculation for Downstream and Upstream Data

Tables Icon

Table III Comparison of the Number of Elements and the Network Availabilities for Different Protection Schemes

Tables Icon

Table IV Unavailability of Different Elements

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

[ ( w 1 ¯ p 1 ) + ( w 2 ¯ p 2 ) + + ( w N ¯ p N ) ] .
U [ 4 ] = ( U TRX OLT + U OC + U WDM + U AWG + U OS ) + ( U FF 1 × U FF 2 ) + U OC + U AWG + U OC + ( U DF 1 + U WDM + U OS ) × ( U DF 2 + U WDM + U IF + 3 × U OS ) + U TRX ONU + U WDM ,
U [ 6 ] = U TRX OLT + U WDM + U AWG + 2 × U BLS + 2 × U WDM + U Circulator + U OC + ( U FF 1 + U AWG + U DF 1 ) × ( U FF 2 + U AWG + U DF 2 ) + U OS + U TRX ONU + U WDM ,
U [ 9 ] = ( U TRX OLT + U WDM + U AWG + U OS ) + ( U FF 1 + U FF 2 ) + U AWG + ( U DF 1 + U WDM ) × ( U DF 2 + U IF + U WDM ) + U OC + U TRX ONU + U WDM ,
U [ 10 ] = ( U TRX OLT + U WDM + U AWG + U OS + 2 × U BLS + U OC + U OS ) + ( U FF 1 × U FF 2 ) + U AWG + U DF + U TRX ONU + U WDM ,
U proposed = ( U TRX OLT + U Circulator + U AWG + U OS ) + ( U FF 1 + U AWG + U DF 1 ) × ( U FF 2 + U AWG + U DF 2 ) + U OC + U TRX ONU .