Abstract

The use of relays is one of the most promising methods for mitigating impairments of the performance of free-space optical (FSO) systems and extending their limited transmission range. However, several factors contribute to significant link performance degradation. Most severe is the influence of the adverse atmospheric conditions that frequently appear, thus making the design of strongly connected networks a demanding issue. In this paper, we consider a multiple-hop FSO network, where the nodes are distributed at fixed positions on a given path-link. We take account of the most critical weather phenomena, i.e., fog, rain, and snow, and derive analytical expressions for the node isolation probability, assuming a suitable path loss model. Next, we find the number of transceivers for a given path-link in order to achieve reliable performance. We also examine the reverse case; i.e., we find the total service length for a known number of FSO transceivers. The effect of the prime FSO modulation formats is also considered. The addressed analytical framework offers significant insights into the main factors that degrade the performance of FSO networks. It constitutes a valuable tool for telecom researchers to design such networks in practice.

© 2012 OSA

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  6. G. K. Karagiannidis, T. A. Tsiftsis, and H. G. Sandalidis, “Outage probability of relayed free space optical communication systems,” Electron. Lett., vol. 42, no. 17, pp. 994–995, Aug.2006.
    [CrossRef]
  7. B. Bollobas, Random Graphs, 2nd ed.Cambridge University, 2001.
  8. C. Bettstetter, J. Klinglmayr, and S. Lettner, “On the degree distribution of k-connected random networks,” in Proc. of ICC, May 2010, pp. 1–6.
  9. G. Mao and B. Anderson, “On the asymptotic connectivity of random networks under the random connection model,” in IEEE Proc. of INFOCOM, Apr. 2011, pp. 631–639.
  10. W. Ao and K. Chen, “Bounds and exact mean node degree and node isolation probability in interference-limited wireless ad hoc networks with general fading,” IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol., vol. 61, no. 5, pp. 2342–2348, June2012.
    [CrossRef]
  11. A. Vavoulas, H. G. Sandalidis, and D. Varoutas, “Connectivity issues for ultraviolet UV-C networks,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 199–205, Mar.2011.
    [CrossRef]
  12. A. Vavoulas, H. G. Sandalidis, and D. Varoutas, “Node isolation probability for serial ultraviolet UV-C multi-hop networks,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol. 3, no. 9, pp. 750–757, Sept.2011.
    [CrossRef]
  13. D. Stoyan, W. S. Kendall, and J. Mecke, Stochastic Geometry and Its Applications, 2nd ed.Wiley, 2008.
  14. S. Srinivasa and M. Haenggi, “Distance distributions in finite uniformly random networks: theory and applications,” IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol., vol. 59, no. 2, pp. 940–949, Feb.2010.
    [CrossRef]
  15. S. S. Muhammad, P. Kohldorfer, and E. Leitgeb, “Channel modeling for terrestrial free space optical links,” in Proc. of ICTON, July 2005, pp. 407–410.
  16. T. Kamalakis, I. Neokosmidis, A. Tsipouras, S. Pantazis, and I. Andrikopoulos, “Hybrid free space optical/millimeter wave outdoor links for broadband wireless access networks,” in Proc. of PIMRC, Sept. 2007, pp. 1–5.
  17. F. Nadeem, V. Kvicera, M. S. Awan, E. Leitgeb, S. Muhammad, and G. Kandus, “Weather effects on hybrid FSO/RF communication link,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 27, no. 9, pp. 1687–1697, Dec.2009.
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  20. ITU recommendation ITU-R P.1814, “Prediction methods required for the design fo terrestrial free-space optical links.”
  21. M. S. Awan, P. Brandl, E. Leitgeb, F. Nadeem, T. Plank, and C. Capsoni, “Results of an optical wireless ground link experiment in continental fog and dry snow conditions,” in Proc. of ConTEL, June 2009, pp. 45–49.
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  24. B. S. Naimullah, M. Othman, A. K. Rahman, S. I. Sulaiman, S. Ishak, S. Hitam, and S. A. Aljunid, “Comparison of wavelength propagation for free space optical communications,” in Proc. of ICED, Dec. 2008, pp. 1–5.
  25. Z. Ghassemlooy, W. O. Popoola, S. Rajbhandari, M. Amiri, and S. Hashemi, “A synopsis of modulation techniques for wireless infrared communication,” in Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks—Mediterranean Winter (ICTON-MW), Sousse, Tunisia, Dec. 2007, pp. 6–8.
  26. H. Park and J. R. Barry, “Modulation analysis for wireless infrared communications,” in Proc. of ICC, June 1995, pp. 1182–1186.

2012

W. Ao and K. Chen, “Bounds and exact mean node degree and node isolation probability in interference-limited wireless ad hoc networks with general fading,” IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol., vol. 61, no. 5, pp. 2342–2348, June2012.
[CrossRef]

2011

A. Vavoulas, H. G. Sandalidis, and D. Varoutas, “Node isolation probability for serial ultraviolet UV-C multi-hop networks,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol. 3, no. 9, pp. 750–757, Sept.2011.
[CrossRef]

A. Vavoulas, H. G. Sandalidis, and D. Varoutas, “Connectivity issues for ultraviolet UV-C networks,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 199–205, Mar.2011.
[CrossRef]

2010

S. Srinivasa and M. Haenggi, “Distance distributions in finite uniformly random networks: theory and applications,” IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol., vol. 59, no. 2, pp. 940–949, Feb.2010.
[CrossRef]

2009

F. Nadeem, V. Kvicera, M. S. Awan, E. Leitgeb, S. Muhammad, and G. Kandus, “Weather effects on hybrid FSO/RF communication link,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 27, no. 9, pp. 1687–1697, Dec.2009.
[CrossRef]

2006

G. K. Karagiannidis, T. A. Tsiftsis, and H. G. Sandalidis, “Outage probability of relayed free space optical communication systems,” Electron. Lett., vol. 42, no. 17, pp. 994–995, Aug.2006.
[CrossRef]

2003

2001

I. Kim, B. McArthur, and E. Korevaar, “Comparison of laser beam propagation at 785 and 1550 nm in fog and haze for optical wireless communications,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 4214, pp. 26–37, July2001.
[CrossRef]

1999

Aljunid, S. A.

B. S. Naimullah, M. Othman, A. K. Rahman, S. I. Sulaiman, S. Ishak, S. Hitam, and S. A. Aljunid, “Comparison of wavelength propagation for free space optical communications,” in Proc. of ICED, Dec. 2008, pp. 1–5.

Amiri, M.

Z. Ghassemlooy, W. O. Popoola, S. Rajbhandari, M. Amiri, and S. Hashemi, “A synopsis of modulation techniques for wireless infrared communication,” in Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks—Mediterranean Winter (ICTON-MW), Sousse, Tunisia, Dec. 2007, pp. 6–8.

Anderson, B.

G. Mao and B. Anderson, “On the asymptotic connectivity of random networks under the random connection model,” in IEEE Proc. of INFOCOM, Apr. 2011, pp. 631–639.

Andrikopoulos, I.

T. Kamalakis, I. Neokosmidis, A. Tsipouras, S. Pantazis, and I. Andrikopoulos, “Hybrid free space optical/millimeter wave outdoor links for broadband wireless access networks,” in Proc. of PIMRC, Sept. 2007, pp. 1–5.

Ao, W.

W. Ao and K. Chen, “Bounds and exact mean node degree and node isolation probability in interference-limited wireless ad hoc networks with general fading,” IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol., vol. 61, no. 5, pp. 2342–2348, June2012.
[CrossRef]

Arnon, S.

N. Blaunstein, S. Arnon, N. Kopeika, and A. Zilberman, Applied Aspects of Optical Communication and LIDAR. Taylor & Francis–CRC, 2010.

Awan, M. S.

F. Nadeem, V. Kvicera, M. S. Awan, E. Leitgeb, S. Muhammad, and G. Kandus, “Weather effects on hybrid FSO/RF communication link,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 27, no. 9, pp. 1687–1697, Dec.2009.
[CrossRef]

M. S. Awan, P. Brandl, E. Leitgeb, F. Nadeem, T. Plank, and C. Capsoni, “Results of an optical wireless ground link experiment in continental fog and dry snow conditions,” in Proc. of ConTEL, June 2009, pp. 45–49.

F. Nadeem, E. Leitgeb, M. S. Awan, and G. Kandus, “Optical wavelengths comparison for different weather conditions,” in Proc. of IWSSC, Sept. 2009, pp. 279–283.

Barry, J. R.

H. Park and J. R. Barry, “Modulation analysis for wireless infrared communications,” in Proc. of ICC, June 1995, pp. 1182–1186.

Bettstetter, C.

C. Bettstetter, J. Klinglmayr, and S. Lettner, “On the degree distribution of k-connected random networks,” in Proc. of ICC, May 2010, pp. 1–6.

Blaunstein, N.

N. Blaunstein, S. Arnon, N. Kopeika, and A. Zilberman, Applied Aspects of Optical Communication and LIDAR. Taylor & Francis–CRC, 2010.

Bloom, S.

Bollobas, B.

B. Bollobas, Random Graphs, 2nd ed.Cambridge University, 2001.

Brandl, P.

M. S. Awan, P. Brandl, E. Leitgeb, F. Nadeem, T. Plank, and C. Capsoni, “Results of an optical wireless ground link experiment in continental fog and dry snow conditions,” in Proc. of ConTEL, June 2009, pp. 45–49.

Capsoni, C.

M. S. Awan, P. Brandl, E. Leitgeb, F. Nadeem, T. Plank, and C. Capsoni, “Results of an optical wireless ground link experiment in continental fog and dry snow conditions,” in Proc. of ConTEL, June 2009, pp. 45–49.

Chan, V.

Chen, K.

W. Ao and K. Chen, “Bounds and exact mean node degree and node isolation probability in interference-limited wireless ad hoc networks with general fading,” IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol., vol. 61, no. 5, pp. 2342–2348, June2012.
[CrossRef]

Ghassemlooy, Z.

Z. Ghassemlooy, W. O. Popoola, S. Rajbhandari, M. Amiri, and S. Hashemi, “A synopsis of modulation techniques for wireless infrared communication,” in Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks—Mediterranean Winter (ICTON-MW), Sousse, Tunisia, Dec. 2007, pp. 6–8.

Ghuman, B. S.

H. Willebrand and B. S. Ghuman, Free Space Optics: Enabling Optical Connectivity in Today’s Networks. Sams Publishing, 2002.

Haenggi, M.

S. Srinivasa and M. Haenggi, “Distance distributions in finite uniformly random networks: theory and applications,” IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol., vol. 59, no. 2, pp. 940–949, Feb.2010.
[CrossRef]

Hashemi, S.

Z. Ghassemlooy, W. O. Popoola, S. Rajbhandari, M. Amiri, and S. Hashemi, “A synopsis of modulation techniques for wireless infrared communication,” in Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks—Mediterranean Winter (ICTON-MW), Sousse, Tunisia, Dec. 2007, pp. 6–8.

Hitam, S.

B. S. Naimullah, M. Othman, A. K. Rahman, S. I. Sulaiman, S. Ishak, S. Hitam, and S. A. Aljunid, “Comparison of wavelength propagation for free space optical communications,” in Proc. of ICED, Dec. 2008, pp. 1–5.

Ishak, S.

B. S. Naimullah, M. Othman, A. K. Rahman, S. I. Sulaiman, S. Ishak, S. Hitam, and S. A. Aljunid, “Comparison of wavelength propagation for free space optical communications,” in Proc. of ICED, Dec. 2008, pp. 1–5.

Kamalakis, T.

T. Kamalakis, I. Neokosmidis, A. Tsipouras, S. Pantazis, and I. Andrikopoulos, “Hybrid free space optical/millimeter wave outdoor links for broadband wireless access networks,” in Proc. of PIMRC, Sept. 2007, pp. 1–5.

Kandus, G.

F. Nadeem, V. Kvicera, M. S. Awan, E. Leitgeb, S. Muhammad, and G. Kandus, “Weather effects on hybrid FSO/RF communication link,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 27, no. 9, pp. 1687–1697, Dec.2009.
[CrossRef]

F. Nadeem, E. Leitgeb, M. S. Awan, and G. Kandus, “Optical wavelengths comparison for different weather conditions,” in Proc. of IWSSC, Sept. 2009, pp. 279–283.

Karagiannidis, G. K.

G. K. Karagiannidis, T. A. Tsiftsis, and H. G. Sandalidis, “Outage probability of relayed free space optical communication systems,” Electron. Lett., vol. 42, no. 17, pp. 994–995, Aug.2006.
[CrossRef]

Kendall, W. S.

D. Stoyan, W. S. Kendall, and J. Mecke, Stochastic Geometry and Its Applications, 2nd ed.Wiley, 2008.

Kim, I.

I. Kim, B. McArthur, and E. Korevaar, “Comparison of laser beam propagation at 785 and 1550 nm in fog and haze for optical wireless communications,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 4214, pp. 26–37, July2001.
[CrossRef]

Klinglmayr, J.

C. Bettstetter, J. Klinglmayr, and S. Lettner, “On the degree distribution of k-connected random networks,” in Proc. of ICC, May 2010, pp. 1–6.

Kohldorfer, P.

S. S. Muhammad, P. Kohldorfer, and E. Leitgeb, “Channel modeling for terrestrial free space optical links,” in Proc. of ICTON, July 2005, pp. 407–410.

Kopeika, N.

N. Blaunstein, S. Arnon, N. Kopeika, and A. Zilberman, Applied Aspects of Optical Communication and LIDAR. Taylor & Francis–CRC, 2010.

Korevaar, E.

S. Bloom, E. Korevaar, J. Schuster, and H. Willebrand, “Understanding the performance of free-space optics [Invited],” J. Opt. Netw., vol. 2, no. 6, pp. 178–200, June2003.

I. Kim, B. McArthur, and E. Korevaar, “Comparison of laser beam propagation at 785 and 1550 nm in fog and haze for optical wireless communications,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 4214, pp. 26–37, July2001.
[CrossRef]

Kruse, P. W.

P. W. Kruse, L. D. McGlauchlin, and R. B. McQuistan, Elements of Infrared Technology: Generation, Transmission and Detection. Wiley, 1962.

Kvicera, V.

F. Nadeem, V. Kvicera, M. S. Awan, E. Leitgeb, S. Muhammad, and G. Kandus, “Weather effects on hybrid FSO/RF communication link,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 27, no. 9, pp. 1687–1697, Dec.2009.
[CrossRef]

Lavan, M. J.

Leitgeb, E.

F. Nadeem, V. Kvicera, M. S. Awan, E. Leitgeb, S. Muhammad, and G. Kandus, “Weather effects on hybrid FSO/RF communication link,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 27, no. 9, pp. 1687–1697, Dec.2009.
[CrossRef]

S. S. Muhammad, P. Kohldorfer, and E. Leitgeb, “Channel modeling for terrestrial free space optical links,” in Proc. of ICTON, July 2005, pp. 407–410.

M. S. Awan, P. Brandl, E. Leitgeb, F. Nadeem, T. Plank, and C. Capsoni, “Results of an optical wireless ground link experiment in continental fog and dry snow conditions,” in Proc. of ConTEL, June 2009, pp. 45–49.

F. Nadeem, E. Leitgeb, M. S. Awan, and G. Kandus, “Optical wavelengths comparison for different weather conditions,” in Proc. of IWSSC, Sept. 2009, pp. 279–283.

Lettner, S.

C. Bettstetter, J. Klinglmayr, and S. Lettner, “On the degree distribution of k-connected random networks,” in Proc. of ICC, May 2010, pp. 1–6.

Mao, G.

G. Mao and B. Anderson, “On the asymptotic connectivity of random networks under the random connection model,” in IEEE Proc. of INFOCOM, Apr. 2011, pp. 631–639.

McArthur, B.

I. Kim, B. McArthur, and E. Korevaar, “Comparison of laser beam propagation at 785 and 1550 nm in fog and haze for optical wireless communications,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 4214, pp. 26–37, July2001.
[CrossRef]

McGlauchlin, L. D.

P. W. Kruse, L. D. McGlauchlin, and R. B. McQuistan, Elements of Infrared Technology: Generation, Transmission and Detection. Wiley, 1962.

McQuistan, R. B.

P. W. Kruse, L. D. McGlauchlin, and R. B. McQuistan, Elements of Infrared Technology: Generation, Transmission and Detection. Wiley, 1962.

Mecke, J.

D. Stoyan, W. S. Kendall, and J. Mecke, Stochastic Geometry and Its Applications, 2nd ed.Wiley, 2008.

Muhammad, S.

F. Nadeem, V. Kvicera, M. S. Awan, E. Leitgeb, S. Muhammad, and G. Kandus, “Weather effects on hybrid FSO/RF communication link,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 27, no. 9, pp. 1687–1697, Dec.2009.
[CrossRef]

Muhammad, S. S.

S. S. Muhammad, P. Kohldorfer, and E. Leitgeb, “Channel modeling for terrestrial free space optical links,” in Proc. of ICTON, July 2005, pp. 407–410.

Nadeem, F.

F. Nadeem, V. Kvicera, M. S. Awan, E. Leitgeb, S. Muhammad, and G. Kandus, “Weather effects on hybrid FSO/RF communication link,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 27, no. 9, pp. 1687–1697, Dec.2009.
[CrossRef]

M. S. Awan, P. Brandl, E. Leitgeb, F. Nadeem, T. Plank, and C. Capsoni, “Results of an optical wireless ground link experiment in continental fog and dry snow conditions,” in Proc. of ConTEL, June 2009, pp. 45–49.

F. Nadeem, E. Leitgeb, M. S. Awan, and G. Kandus, “Optical wavelengths comparison for different weather conditions,” in Proc. of IWSSC, Sept. 2009, pp. 279–283.

Naimullah, B. S.

B. S. Naimullah, M. Othman, A. K. Rahman, S. I. Sulaiman, S. Ishak, S. Hitam, and S. A. Aljunid, “Comparison of wavelength propagation for free space optical communications,” in Proc. of ICED, Dec. 2008, pp. 1–5.

Neokosmidis, I.

T. Kamalakis, I. Neokosmidis, A. Tsipouras, S. Pantazis, and I. Andrikopoulos, “Hybrid free space optical/millimeter wave outdoor links for broadband wireless access networks,” in Proc. of PIMRC, Sept. 2007, pp. 1–5.

Othman, M.

B. S. Naimullah, M. Othman, A. K. Rahman, S. I. Sulaiman, S. Ishak, S. Hitam, and S. A. Aljunid, “Comparison of wavelength propagation for free space optical communications,” in Proc. of ICED, Dec. 2008, pp. 1–5.

Pantazis, S.

T. Kamalakis, I. Neokosmidis, A. Tsipouras, S. Pantazis, and I. Andrikopoulos, “Hybrid free space optical/millimeter wave outdoor links for broadband wireless access networks,” in Proc. of PIMRC, Sept. 2007, pp. 1–5.

Park, H.

H. Park and J. R. Barry, “Modulation analysis for wireless infrared communications,” in Proc. of ICC, June 1995, pp. 1182–1186.

Plank, T.

M. S. Awan, P. Brandl, E. Leitgeb, F. Nadeem, T. Plank, and C. Capsoni, “Results of an optical wireless ground link experiment in continental fog and dry snow conditions,” in Proc. of ConTEL, June 2009, pp. 45–49.

Popoola, W. O.

Z. Ghassemlooy, W. O. Popoola, S. Rajbhandari, M. Amiri, and S. Hashemi, “A synopsis of modulation techniques for wireless infrared communication,” in Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks—Mediterranean Winter (ICTON-MW), Sousse, Tunisia, Dec. 2007, pp. 6–8.

Rahman, A. K.

B. S. Naimullah, M. Othman, A. K. Rahman, S. I. Sulaiman, S. Ishak, S. Hitam, and S. A. Aljunid, “Comparison of wavelength propagation for free space optical communications,” in Proc. of ICED, Dec. 2008, pp. 1–5.

Rajbhandari, S.

Z. Ghassemlooy, W. O. Popoola, S. Rajbhandari, M. Amiri, and S. Hashemi, “A synopsis of modulation techniques for wireless infrared communication,” in Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks—Mediterranean Winter (ICTON-MW), Sousse, Tunisia, Dec. 2007, pp. 6–8.

Sandalidis, H. G.

A. Vavoulas, H. G. Sandalidis, and D. Varoutas, “Connectivity issues for ultraviolet UV-C networks,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 199–205, Mar.2011.
[CrossRef]

A. Vavoulas, H. G. Sandalidis, and D. Varoutas, “Node isolation probability for serial ultraviolet UV-C multi-hop networks,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol. 3, no. 9, pp. 750–757, Sept.2011.
[CrossRef]

G. K. Karagiannidis, T. A. Tsiftsis, and H. G. Sandalidis, “Outage probability of relayed free space optical communication systems,” Electron. Lett., vol. 42, no. 17, pp. 994–995, Aug.2006.
[CrossRef]

Schuster, J.

Srinivasa, S.

S. Srinivasa and M. Haenggi, “Distance distributions in finite uniformly random networks: theory and applications,” IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol., vol. 59, no. 2, pp. 940–949, Feb.2010.
[CrossRef]

Stoyan, D.

D. Stoyan, W. S. Kendall, and J. Mecke, Stochastic Geometry and Its Applications, 2nd ed.Wiley, 2008.

Strickland, B. R.

Sulaiman, S. I.

B. S. Naimullah, M. Othman, A. K. Rahman, S. I. Sulaiman, S. Ishak, S. Hitam, and S. A. Aljunid, “Comparison of wavelength propagation for free space optical communications,” in Proc. of ICED, Dec. 2008, pp. 1–5.

Tsiftsis, T. A.

G. K. Karagiannidis, T. A. Tsiftsis, and H. G. Sandalidis, “Outage probability of relayed free space optical communication systems,” Electron. Lett., vol. 42, no. 17, pp. 994–995, Aug.2006.
[CrossRef]

Tsipouras, A.

T. Kamalakis, I. Neokosmidis, A. Tsipouras, S. Pantazis, and I. Andrikopoulos, “Hybrid free space optical/millimeter wave outdoor links for broadband wireless access networks,” in Proc. of PIMRC, Sept. 2007, pp. 1–5.

Varoutas, D.

A. Vavoulas, H. G. Sandalidis, and D. Varoutas, “Node isolation probability for serial ultraviolet UV-C multi-hop networks,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol. 3, no. 9, pp. 750–757, Sept.2011.
[CrossRef]

A. Vavoulas, H. G. Sandalidis, and D. Varoutas, “Connectivity issues for ultraviolet UV-C networks,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 199–205, Mar.2011.
[CrossRef]

Vavoulas, A.

A. Vavoulas, H. G. Sandalidis, and D. Varoutas, “Connectivity issues for ultraviolet UV-C networks,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 199–205, Mar.2011.
[CrossRef]

A. Vavoulas, H. G. Sandalidis, and D. Varoutas, “Node isolation probability for serial ultraviolet UV-C multi-hop networks,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol. 3, no. 9, pp. 750–757, Sept.2011.
[CrossRef]

Willebrand, H.

S. Bloom, E. Korevaar, J. Schuster, and H. Willebrand, “Understanding the performance of free-space optics [Invited],” J. Opt. Netw., vol. 2, no. 6, pp. 178–200, June2003.

H. Willebrand and B. S. Ghuman, Free Space Optics: Enabling Optical Connectivity in Today’s Networks. Sams Publishing, 2002.

Woodbridge, E.

Zilberman, A.

N. Blaunstein, S. Arnon, N. Kopeika, and A. Zilberman, Applied Aspects of Optical Communication and LIDAR. Taylor & Francis–CRC, 2010.

Appl. Opt.

Electron. Lett.

G. K. Karagiannidis, T. A. Tsiftsis, and H. G. Sandalidis, “Outage probability of relayed free space optical communication systems,” Electron. Lett., vol. 42, no. 17, pp. 994–995, Aug.2006.
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun.

F. Nadeem, V. Kvicera, M. S. Awan, E. Leitgeb, S. Muhammad, and G. Kandus, “Weather effects on hybrid FSO/RF communication link,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 27, no. 9, pp. 1687–1697, Dec.2009.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol.

S. Srinivasa and M. Haenggi, “Distance distributions in finite uniformly random networks: theory and applications,” IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol., vol. 59, no. 2, pp. 940–949, Feb.2010.
[CrossRef]

W. Ao and K. Chen, “Bounds and exact mean node degree and node isolation probability in interference-limited wireless ad hoc networks with general fading,” IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol., vol. 61, no. 5, pp. 2342–2348, June2012.
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Commun. Netw.

J. Opt. Netw.

J. Opt. Commun. Netw.

A. Vavoulas, H. G. Sandalidis, and D. Varoutas, “Node isolation probability for serial ultraviolet UV-C multi-hop networks,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol. 3, no. 9, pp. 750–757, Sept.2011.
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

I. Kim, B. McArthur, and E. Korevaar, “Comparison of laser beam propagation at 785 and 1550 nm in fog and haze for optical wireless communications,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 4214, pp. 26–37, July2001.
[CrossRef]

Other

ITU recommendation ITU-R P.1814, “Prediction methods required for the design fo terrestrial free-space optical links.”

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