Abstract

Network operators deploy optical monitors to ensure uninterrupted network operation and high quality of service. To achieve this they seek efficient design solutions that also maximize the benefit of their investments. In this work we present a monitoring technique that utilizes partial physical layer information generated by only a small set of monitors deployed in a mesh optical network to assess the quality of transmission (QoT) of all the established connections. The proposed method focuses on the placement of the monitors and on the minimization of the required monitoring equipment. We develop a heuristic that takes advantage of the attribute of certain end-to-end impairments that accumulate additively along the established lightpaths in order to find the optimum locations of a reduced number of available monitors. When monitoring a subset of the established lightpaths, it is possible to estimate the monitored QoT-related metric for all lightpaths leveraging the correlation between the connections sharing common links. The proposed algorithm efficiently selects the monitor locations that maximize the estimation accuracy. Extensive simulation studies show that the heuristic provides solutions close to the optimum and demonstrate that only a fraction of all the available monitor locations (1/4 or 1/3) need to be equipped, leading to significant cost savings. The monitor placement solutions are evaluated for core optical networks of different scales in the presence of static and incremental traffic.

© 2011 OSA

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. D. C. Kilper, R. Bach, D. J. Blumenthal, D. Einstein, T. Landolsi, L. Ostar, M. Preiss, and A. E. Willner, "Optical performance monitoring," J. Lightwave Technol. 22, (1), 294‒304 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  2. Y. Pointurier, M. Coates, and M. Rabbat, "Cross-layer monitoring in transparent optical networks," J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 3, 189‒198 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  3. S. Azodolmolky, M. Klinkowski, E. M. Tordera, D. Careglio, J. Solé-Pareta, and I. Tomkos, "A survey on physical layer impairments aware routing and wavelength assignment algorithms in optical networks," Comput. Netw. 53, (7), 926‒944 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  4. C. Mas, I. Tomkos, and O. K. Tonguz, "Failure location algorithm for transparent optical networks," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 23, (1), 1508‒1519 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. Petersson, H. Sunnerud, M. Karlsson, and B.-E. Olsson, "Performance monitoring in optical networks using Stokes parameters," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, (2), 686‒688 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  6. L. Meflah, B. Thomsen, J. E. Mitchell, P. Bayvel, G. Lehmann, S. Santori, and B. Bollezn, "Advanced optical performance monitoring for dynamically reconfigurable networks," Proc. Networks and Optical Communication (NOC), 2005.
  7. Y. K. Lizé, J.-Y. Yang, L. C. Christen, X. Wu, S. Nuccio, T. Wu, A. E. Willner, R. Kashyap, and F. Séguin, "Simultaneous and independent monitoring of OSNR, chromatic and polarization mode dispersion for NRZ-OOK, DPSK and duobinary," Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2007, OThN2.
  8. S. L. Woodward, "Monitors to ensure the performance of photonic networks," Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2007, OMM1.
  9. Y. Ku, C. Chan, and L. Chan, "Chromatic dispersion monitoring technique using birefringent fiber loop," Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2006, OFN2.
  10. X. Yi, F. Buchali, W. Chen, and W. Shieh, "Chromatic dispersion monitoring in electronic dispersion equalizers using tapped delay lines," Opt. Express 15, (2), 312‒315 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. F. N. Khan, A. P. T. Lau, C. Lu, and P. K. A. Wai, "Chromatic dispersion monitoring for multiple modulation formats and data rates using sideband optical filtering and asynchronous amplitude sampling technique," Opt. Express 19, (2), 1007‒1015 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. G.-W. Lu, M.-H. Cheung, L.-K. Chen, and C.-K. Chan, "Simultaneous PMD and OSNR monitoring by enhanced RF spectral dip analysis assisted with a local large-DGD element," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, (12), 2790‒2792 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. Yang, C. Yu, L. Cheng, Z. Li, C. Lu, A. P. T. Lau, H.-Y. Tam, and P. K. A. Wai, "CD-insensitive PMD monitoring based on RF power measurement," Opt. Express 19, (2), 1354‒1359 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. J. H. Lee, D. K. Jung, C. H. Kim, and Y. C. Chung, "OSNR monitoring technique using polarization-nulling method," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, (1), 88‒90 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  15. L. Baker-Meflah, B. Thomsen, J. Mitchell, and P. Bayvel, "Simultaneous chromatic dispersion, polarization-mode-dispersion and OSNR monitoring at 40 Gbit/s," Opt. Express 19, (20), 15999‒16004 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  16. J. Schröder, O. Brasier, T. D. Vo, M. A. F. Roelens, S. Frisken, and B. J. Eggleton, "Simultaneous multi-channel OSNR monitoring with a wavelength selective switch," Opt. Express 18, (21), 22299‒22304 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. D. B. Chua, E. D. Kolaczyk, and M. Crovella, "Network kriging," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 24, (12), 2263‒2272 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  18. S. Stanic, S. Subramaniam, H. Choi, G. Sahin, and H.-A. Choi, "On monitoring transparent optical networks," Proc. ICPPW, 2002.
  19. Y. G. Wen, V. Chan, and L. Z. Zheng, "Efficient fault diagnosis algorithms for all-optical WDM networks with probabilistic link failures," J. Lightwave Technol. 23, (10), 3358‒3371 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  20. P. Nayek, S. Pal, B. Choudhury, A. Mukherjee, D. Saha, and M. Nasipuri, "Optimal monitor placement scheme for single fault detection in optical network," Proc. ICTON, 2005.
  21. C. Mas Machuca and M. Kiese, "Optimal placement of monitoring equipment in transparent optical networks," Proc. 6th Int. Workshop on Design and Reliable Communication Networks (DRCN), 2007.
  22. A. Ferguson, B. O’Sullivan, and D. Kilper, "Transparent path length optimized optical monitor placement in transparent mesh networks," Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2008, OThI3.
  23. N. Sambo, Y. Pointurier, F. Cugini, L. Valcarenghi, P. Castoldi, and I. Tomkos, "Lightpath establishment assisted by offline QOT estimation in transparent optical networks," J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 2, (11), 928‒937 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  24. J.-C. Antona, S. Bigo, and J.-P. Faure, "Nonlinear cumulated phase as a criterion to assess performance of terrestrial WDM systems," Optical Fiber Communications Conf., 2002, WX5.
  25. F. Cugini, N. Sambo, N. Andriolli, A. Giorgetti, L. Valcarenghi, P. Castoldi, E. Le Rouzic, and J. Poirrier, "Enhancing GMPLS signaling protocol for encompassing quality of transmission (QoT) in all-optical networks," J. Lightwave Technol. 26, (19), 3318‒3328 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  26. G. Agrawal, Fiber-Optic Communication Systems, 3rd ed., John Wiley & Sons Inc., 2002.
  27. M. Angelou, Y. Pointurier, S. Azodolmolky, D. Careglio, S. Spadaro, and I. Tomkos, "A novel monitor placement algorithm for accurate performance monitoring in optical networks," Optical Fiber Communications Conf., 2011, JWA53.

2011

2010

2009

S. Azodolmolky, M. Klinkowski, E. M. Tordera, D. Careglio, J. Solé-Pareta, and I. Tomkos, "A survey on physical layer impairments aware routing and wavelength assignment algorithms in optical networks," Comput. Netw. 53, (7), 926‒944 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

L. Baker-Meflah, B. Thomsen, J. Mitchell, and P. Bayvel, "Simultaneous chromatic dispersion, polarization-mode-dispersion and OSNR monitoring at 40 Gbit/s," Opt. Express 19, (20), 15999‒16004 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

2006

D. B. Chua, E. D. Kolaczyk, and M. Crovella, "Network kriging," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 24, (12), 2263‒2272 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

Y. G. Wen, V. Chan, and L. Z. Zheng, "Efficient fault diagnosis algorithms for all-optical WDM networks with probabilistic link failures," J. Lightwave Technol. 23, (10), 3358‒3371 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G.-W. Lu, M.-H. Cheung, L.-K. Chen, and C.-K. Chan, "Simultaneous PMD and OSNR monitoring by enhanced RF spectral dip analysis assisted with a local large-DGD element," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, (12), 2790‒2792 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Mas, I. Tomkos, and O. K. Tonguz, "Failure location algorithm for transparent optical networks," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 23, (1), 1508‒1519 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

M. Petersson, H. Sunnerud, M. Karlsson, and B.-E. Olsson, "Performance monitoring in optical networks using Stokes parameters," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, (2), 686‒688 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Kilper, R. Bach, D. J. Blumenthal, D. Einstein, T. Landolsi, L. Ostar, M. Preiss, and A. E. Willner, "Optical performance monitoring," J. Lightwave Technol. 22, (1), 294‒304 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2001

J. H. Lee, D. K. Jung, C. H. Kim, and Y. C. Chung, "OSNR monitoring technique using polarization-nulling method," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, (1), 88‒90 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Agrawal, G.

G. Agrawal, Fiber-Optic Communication Systems, 3rd ed., John Wiley & Sons Inc., 2002.

Andriolli, N.

Angelou, M.

M. Angelou, Y. Pointurier, S. Azodolmolky, D. Careglio, S. Spadaro, and I. Tomkos, "A novel monitor placement algorithm for accurate performance monitoring in optical networks," Optical Fiber Communications Conf., 2011, JWA53.

Antona, J.-C.

J.-C. Antona, S. Bigo, and J.-P. Faure, "Nonlinear cumulated phase as a criterion to assess performance of terrestrial WDM systems," Optical Fiber Communications Conf., 2002, WX5.

Azodolmolky, S.

S. Azodolmolky, M. Klinkowski, E. M. Tordera, D. Careglio, J. Solé-Pareta, and I. Tomkos, "A survey on physical layer impairments aware routing and wavelength assignment algorithms in optical networks," Comput. Netw. 53, (7), 926‒944 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Angelou, Y. Pointurier, S. Azodolmolky, D. Careglio, S. Spadaro, and I. Tomkos, "A novel monitor placement algorithm for accurate performance monitoring in optical networks," Optical Fiber Communications Conf., 2011, JWA53.

Bach, R.

Baker-Meflah, L.

L. Baker-Meflah, B. Thomsen, J. Mitchell, and P. Bayvel, "Simultaneous chromatic dispersion, polarization-mode-dispersion and OSNR monitoring at 40 Gbit/s," Opt. Express 19, (20), 15999‒16004 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bayvel, P.

L. Baker-Meflah, B. Thomsen, J. Mitchell, and P. Bayvel, "Simultaneous chromatic dispersion, polarization-mode-dispersion and OSNR monitoring at 40 Gbit/s," Opt. Express 19, (20), 15999‒16004 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Meflah, B. Thomsen, J. E. Mitchell, P. Bayvel, G. Lehmann, S. Santori, and B. Bollezn, "Advanced optical performance monitoring for dynamically reconfigurable networks," Proc. Networks and Optical Communication (NOC), 2005.

Bigo, S.

J.-C. Antona, S. Bigo, and J.-P. Faure, "Nonlinear cumulated phase as a criterion to assess performance of terrestrial WDM systems," Optical Fiber Communications Conf., 2002, WX5.

Blumenthal, D. J.

Bollezn, B.

L. Meflah, B. Thomsen, J. E. Mitchell, P. Bayvel, G. Lehmann, S. Santori, and B. Bollezn, "Advanced optical performance monitoring for dynamically reconfigurable networks," Proc. Networks and Optical Communication (NOC), 2005.

Brasier, O.

Buchali, F.

Careglio, D.

S. Azodolmolky, M. Klinkowski, E. M. Tordera, D. Careglio, J. Solé-Pareta, and I. Tomkos, "A survey on physical layer impairments aware routing and wavelength assignment algorithms in optical networks," Comput. Netw. 53, (7), 926‒944 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Angelou, Y. Pointurier, S. Azodolmolky, D. Careglio, S. Spadaro, and I. Tomkos, "A novel monitor placement algorithm for accurate performance monitoring in optical networks," Optical Fiber Communications Conf., 2011, JWA53.

Castoldi, P.

Chan, C.

Y. Ku, C. Chan, and L. Chan, "Chromatic dispersion monitoring technique using birefringent fiber loop," Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2006, OFN2.

Chan, C.-K.

G.-W. Lu, M.-H. Cheung, L.-K. Chen, and C.-K. Chan, "Simultaneous PMD and OSNR monitoring by enhanced RF spectral dip analysis assisted with a local large-DGD element," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, (12), 2790‒2792 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chan, L.

Y. Ku, C. Chan, and L. Chan, "Chromatic dispersion monitoring technique using birefringent fiber loop," Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2006, OFN2.

Chan, V.

Chen, L.-K.

G.-W. Lu, M.-H. Cheung, L.-K. Chen, and C.-K. Chan, "Simultaneous PMD and OSNR monitoring by enhanced RF spectral dip analysis assisted with a local large-DGD element," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, (12), 2790‒2792 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chen, W.

Cheng, L.

Cheung, M.-H.

G.-W. Lu, M.-H. Cheung, L.-K. Chen, and C.-K. Chan, "Simultaneous PMD and OSNR monitoring by enhanced RF spectral dip analysis assisted with a local large-DGD element," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, (12), 2790‒2792 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Choi, H.

S. Stanic, S. Subramaniam, H. Choi, G. Sahin, and H.-A. Choi, "On monitoring transparent optical networks," Proc. ICPPW, 2002.

Choi, H.-A.

S. Stanic, S. Subramaniam, H. Choi, G. Sahin, and H.-A. Choi, "On monitoring transparent optical networks," Proc. ICPPW, 2002.

Choudhury, B.

P. Nayek, S. Pal, B. Choudhury, A. Mukherjee, D. Saha, and M. Nasipuri, "Optimal monitor placement scheme for single fault detection in optical network," Proc. ICTON, 2005.

Christen, L. C.

Y. K. Lizé, J.-Y. Yang, L. C. Christen, X. Wu, S. Nuccio, T. Wu, A. E. Willner, R. Kashyap, and F. Séguin, "Simultaneous and independent monitoring of OSNR, chromatic and polarization mode dispersion for NRZ-OOK, DPSK and duobinary," Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2007, OThN2.

Chua, D. B.

D. B. Chua, E. D. Kolaczyk, and M. Crovella, "Network kriging," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 24, (12), 2263‒2272 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chung, Y. C.

J. H. Lee, D. K. Jung, C. H. Kim, and Y. C. Chung, "OSNR monitoring technique using polarization-nulling method," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, (1), 88‒90 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Coates, M.

Crovella, M.

D. B. Chua, E. D. Kolaczyk, and M. Crovella, "Network kriging," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 24, (12), 2263‒2272 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cugini, F.

Eggleton, B. J.

Einstein, D.

Faure, J.-P.

J.-C. Antona, S. Bigo, and J.-P. Faure, "Nonlinear cumulated phase as a criterion to assess performance of terrestrial WDM systems," Optical Fiber Communications Conf., 2002, WX5.

Ferguson, A.

A. Ferguson, B. O’Sullivan, and D. Kilper, "Transparent path length optimized optical monitor placement in transparent mesh networks," Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2008, OThI3.

Frisken, S.

Giorgetti, A.

Jung, D. K.

J. H. Lee, D. K. Jung, C. H. Kim, and Y. C. Chung, "OSNR monitoring technique using polarization-nulling method," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, (1), 88‒90 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Karlsson, M.

M. Petersson, H. Sunnerud, M. Karlsson, and B.-E. Olsson, "Performance monitoring in optical networks using Stokes parameters," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, (2), 686‒688 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kashyap, R.

Y. K. Lizé, J.-Y. Yang, L. C. Christen, X. Wu, S. Nuccio, T. Wu, A. E. Willner, R. Kashyap, and F. Séguin, "Simultaneous and independent monitoring of OSNR, chromatic and polarization mode dispersion for NRZ-OOK, DPSK and duobinary," Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2007, OThN2.

Khan, F. N.

Kiese, M.

C. Mas Machuca and M. Kiese, "Optimal placement of monitoring equipment in transparent optical networks," Proc. 6th Int. Workshop on Design and Reliable Communication Networks (DRCN), 2007.

Kilper, D.

A. Ferguson, B. O’Sullivan, and D. Kilper, "Transparent path length optimized optical monitor placement in transparent mesh networks," Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2008, OThI3.

Kilper, D. C.

Kim, C. H.

J. H. Lee, D. K. Jung, C. H. Kim, and Y. C. Chung, "OSNR monitoring technique using polarization-nulling method," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, (1), 88‒90 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Klinkowski, M.

S. Azodolmolky, M. Klinkowski, E. M. Tordera, D. Careglio, J. Solé-Pareta, and I. Tomkos, "A survey on physical layer impairments aware routing and wavelength assignment algorithms in optical networks," Comput. Netw. 53, (7), 926‒944 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kolaczyk, E. D.

D. B. Chua, E. D. Kolaczyk, and M. Crovella, "Network kriging," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 24, (12), 2263‒2272 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ku, Y.

Y. Ku, C. Chan, and L. Chan, "Chromatic dispersion monitoring technique using birefringent fiber loop," Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2006, OFN2.

Landolsi, T.

Lau, A. P. T.

Le Rouzic, E.

Lee, J. H.

J. H. Lee, D. K. Jung, C. H. Kim, and Y. C. Chung, "OSNR monitoring technique using polarization-nulling method," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, (1), 88‒90 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lehmann, G.

L. Meflah, B. Thomsen, J. E. Mitchell, P. Bayvel, G. Lehmann, S. Santori, and B. Bollezn, "Advanced optical performance monitoring for dynamically reconfigurable networks," Proc. Networks and Optical Communication (NOC), 2005.

Li, Z.

Lizé, Y. K.

Y. K. Lizé, J.-Y. Yang, L. C. Christen, X. Wu, S. Nuccio, T. Wu, A. E. Willner, R. Kashyap, and F. Séguin, "Simultaneous and independent monitoring of OSNR, chromatic and polarization mode dispersion for NRZ-OOK, DPSK and duobinary," Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2007, OThN2.

Lu, C.

Lu, G.-W.

G.-W. Lu, M.-H. Cheung, L.-K. Chen, and C.-K. Chan, "Simultaneous PMD and OSNR monitoring by enhanced RF spectral dip analysis assisted with a local large-DGD element," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, (12), 2790‒2792 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mas, C.

C. Mas, I. Tomkos, and O. K. Tonguz, "Failure location algorithm for transparent optical networks," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 23, (1), 1508‒1519 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mas Machuca, C.

C. Mas Machuca and M. Kiese, "Optimal placement of monitoring equipment in transparent optical networks," Proc. 6th Int. Workshop on Design and Reliable Communication Networks (DRCN), 2007.

Meflah, L.

L. Meflah, B. Thomsen, J. E. Mitchell, P. Bayvel, G. Lehmann, S. Santori, and B. Bollezn, "Advanced optical performance monitoring for dynamically reconfigurable networks," Proc. Networks and Optical Communication (NOC), 2005.

Mitchell, J.

L. Baker-Meflah, B. Thomsen, J. Mitchell, and P. Bayvel, "Simultaneous chromatic dispersion, polarization-mode-dispersion and OSNR monitoring at 40 Gbit/s," Opt. Express 19, (20), 15999‒16004 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mitchell, J. E.

L. Meflah, B. Thomsen, J. E. Mitchell, P. Bayvel, G. Lehmann, S. Santori, and B. Bollezn, "Advanced optical performance monitoring for dynamically reconfigurable networks," Proc. Networks and Optical Communication (NOC), 2005.

Mukherjee, A.

P. Nayek, S. Pal, B. Choudhury, A. Mukherjee, D. Saha, and M. Nasipuri, "Optimal monitor placement scheme for single fault detection in optical network," Proc. ICTON, 2005.

Nasipuri, M.

P. Nayek, S. Pal, B. Choudhury, A. Mukherjee, D. Saha, and M. Nasipuri, "Optimal monitor placement scheme for single fault detection in optical network," Proc. ICTON, 2005.

Nayek, P.

P. Nayek, S. Pal, B. Choudhury, A. Mukherjee, D. Saha, and M. Nasipuri, "Optimal monitor placement scheme for single fault detection in optical network," Proc. ICTON, 2005.

Nuccio, S.

Y. K. Lizé, J.-Y. Yang, L. C. Christen, X. Wu, S. Nuccio, T. Wu, A. E. Willner, R. Kashyap, and F. Séguin, "Simultaneous and independent monitoring of OSNR, chromatic and polarization mode dispersion for NRZ-OOK, DPSK and duobinary," Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2007, OThN2.

O’Sullivan, B.

A. Ferguson, B. O’Sullivan, and D. Kilper, "Transparent path length optimized optical monitor placement in transparent mesh networks," Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2008, OThI3.

Olsson, B.-E.

M. Petersson, H. Sunnerud, M. Karlsson, and B.-E. Olsson, "Performance monitoring in optical networks using Stokes parameters," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, (2), 686‒688 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ostar, L.

Pal, S.

P. Nayek, S. Pal, B. Choudhury, A. Mukherjee, D. Saha, and M. Nasipuri, "Optimal monitor placement scheme for single fault detection in optical network," Proc. ICTON, 2005.

Petersson, M.

M. Petersson, H. Sunnerud, M. Karlsson, and B.-E. Olsson, "Performance monitoring in optical networks using Stokes parameters," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, (2), 686‒688 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pointurier, Y.

Poirrier, J.

Preiss, M.

Rabbat, M.

Roelens, M. A. F.

Saha, D.

P. Nayek, S. Pal, B. Choudhury, A. Mukherjee, D. Saha, and M. Nasipuri, "Optimal monitor placement scheme for single fault detection in optical network," Proc. ICTON, 2005.

Sahin, G.

S. Stanic, S. Subramaniam, H. Choi, G. Sahin, and H.-A. Choi, "On monitoring transparent optical networks," Proc. ICPPW, 2002.

Sambo, N.

Santori, S.

L. Meflah, B. Thomsen, J. E. Mitchell, P. Bayvel, G. Lehmann, S. Santori, and B. Bollezn, "Advanced optical performance monitoring for dynamically reconfigurable networks," Proc. Networks and Optical Communication (NOC), 2005.

Schröder, J.

Séguin, F.

Y. K. Lizé, J.-Y. Yang, L. C. Christen, X. Wu, S. Nuccio, T. Wu, A. E. Willner, R. Kashyap, and F. Séguin, "Simultaneous and independent monitoring of OSNR, chromatic and polarization mode dispersion for NRZ-OOK, DPSK and duobinary," Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2007, OThN2.

Shieh, W.

Solé-Pareta, J.

S. Azodolmolky, M. Klinkowski, E. M. Tordera, D. Careglio, J. Solé-Pareta, and I. Tomkos, "A survey on physical layer impairments aware routing and wavelength assignment algorithms in optical networks," Comput. Netw. 53, (7), 926‒944 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Spadaro, S.

M. Angelou, Y. Pointurier, S. Azodolmolky, D. Careglio, S. Spadaro, and I. Tomkos, "A novel monitor placement algorithm for accurate performance monitoring in optical networks," Optical Fiber Communications Conf., 2011, JWA53.

Stanic, S.

S. Stanic, S. Subramaniam, H. Choi, G. Sahin, and H.-A. Choi, "On monitoring transparent optical networks," Proc. ICPPW, 2002.

Subramaniam, S.

S. Stanic, S. Subramaniam, H. Choi, G. Sahin, and H.-A. Choi, "On monitoring transparent optical networks," Proc. ICPPW, 2002.

Sunnerud, H.

M. Petersson, H. Sunnerud, M. Karlsson, and B.-E. Olsson, "Performance monitoring in optical networks using Stokes parameters," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, (2), 686‒688 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tam, H.-Y.

Thomsen, B.

L. Baker-Meflah, B. Thomsen, J. Mitchell, and P. Bayvel, "Simultaneous chromatic dispersion, polarization-mode-dispersion and OSNR monitoring at 40 Gbit/s," Opt. Express 19, (20), 15999‒16004 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Meflah, B. Thomsen, J. E. Mitchell, P. Bayvel, G. Lehmann, S. Santori, and B. Bollezn, "Advanced optical performance monitoring for dynamically reconfigurable networks," Proc. Networks and Optical Communication (NOC), 2005.

Tomkos, I.

N. Sambo, Y. Pointurier, F. Cugini, L. Valcarenghi, P. Castoldi, and I. Tomkos, "Lightpath establishment assisted by offline QOT estimation in transparent optical networks," J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 2, (11), 928‒937 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Azodolmolky, M. Klinkowski, E. M. Tordera, D. Careglio, J. Solé-Pareta, and I. Tomkos, "A survey on physical layer impairments aware routing and wavelength assignment algorithms in optical networks," Comput. Netw. 53, (7), 926‒944 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Mas, I. Tomkos, and O. K. Tonguz, "Failure location algorithm for transparent optical networks," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 23, (1), 1508‒1519 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Angelou, Y. Pointurier, S. Azodolmolky, D. Careglio, S. Spadaro, and I. Tomkos, "A novel monitor placement algorithm for accurate performance monitoring in optical networks," Optical Fiber Communications Conf., 2011, JWA53.

Tonguz, O. K.

C. Mas, I. Tomkos, and O. K. Tonguz, "Failure location algorithm for transparent optical networks," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 23, (1), 1508‒1519 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tordera, E. M.

S. Azodolmolky, M. Klinkowski, E. M. Tordera, D. Careglio, J. Solé-Pareta, and I. Tomkos, "A survey on physical layer impairments aware routing and wavelength assignment algorithms in optical networks," Comput. Netw. 53, (7), 926‒944 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Valcarenghi, L.

Vo, T. D.

Wai, P. K. A.

Wen, Y. G.

Willner, A. E.

D. C. Kilper, R. Bach, D. J. Blumenthal, D. Einstein, T. Landolsi, L. Ostar, M. Preiss, and A. E. Willner, "Optical performance monitoring," J. Lightwave Technol. 22, (1), 294‒304 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. K. Lizé, J.-Y. Yang, L. C. Christen, X. Wu, S. Nuccio, T. Wu, A. E. Willner, R. Kashyap, and F. Séguin, "Simultaneous and independent monitoring of OSNR, chromatic and polarization mode dispersion for NRZ-OOK, DPSK and duobinary," Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2007, OThN2.

Woodward, S. L.

S. L. Woodward, "Monitors to ensure the performance of photonic networks," Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2007, OMM1.

Wu, T.

Y. K. Lizé, J.-Y. Yang, L. C. Christen, X. Wu, S. Nuccio, T. Wu, A. E. Willner, R. Kashyap, and F. Séguin, "Simultaneous and independent monitoring of OSNR, chromatic and polarization mode dispersion for NRZ-OOK, DPSK and duobinary," Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2007, OThN2.

Wu, X.

Y. K. Lizé, J.-Y. Yang, L. C. Christen, X. Wu, S. Nuccio, T. Wu, A. E. Willner, R. Kashyap, and F. Séguin, "Simultaneous and independent monitoring of OSNR, chromatic and polarization mode dispersion for NRZ-OOK, DPSK and duobinary," Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2007, OThN2.

Yang, J.

Yang, J.-Y.

Y. K. Lizé, J.-Y. Yang, L. C. Christen, X. Wu, S. Nuccio, T. Wu, A. E. Willner, R. Kashyap, and F. Séguin, "Simultaneous and independent monitoring of OSNR, chromatic and polarization mode dispersion for NRZ-OOK, DPSK and duobinary," Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2007, OThN2.

Yi, X.

Yu, C.

Zheng, L. Z.

Comput. Netw.

S. Azodolmolky, M. Klinkowski, E. M. Tordera, D. Careglio, J. Solé-Pareta, and I. Tomkos, "A survey on physical layer impairments aware routing and wavelength assignment algorithms in optical networks," Comput. Netw. 53, (7), 926‒944 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun.

C. Mas, I. Tomkos, and O. K. Tonguz, "Failure location algorithm for transparent optical networks," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 23, (1), 1508‒1519 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. B. Chua, E. D. Kolaczyk, and M. Crovella, "Network kriging," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 24, (12), 2263‒2272 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

M. Petersson, H. Sunnerud, M. Karlsson, and B.-E. Olsson, "Performance monitoring in optical networks using Stokes parameters," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, (2), 686‒688 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G.-W. Lu, M.-H. Cheung, L.-K. Chen, and C.-K. Chan, "Simultaneous PMD and OSNR monitoring by enhanced RF spectral dip analysis assisted with a local large-DGD element," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, (12), 2790‒2792 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Lee, D. K. Jung, C. H. Kim, and Y. C. Chung, "OSNR monitoring technique using polarization-nulling method," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, (1), 88‒90 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

J. Opt. Commun. Netw.

Opt. Express

Other

P. Nayek, S. Pal, B. Choudhury, A. Mukherjee, D. Saha, and M. Nasipuri, "Optimal monitor placement scheme for single fault detection in optical network," Proc. ICTON, 2005.

C. Mas Machuca and M. Kiese, "Optimal placement of monitoring equipment in transparent optical networks," Proc. 6th Int. Workshop on Design and Reliable Communication Networks (DRCN), 2007.

A. Ferguson, B. O’Sullivan, and D. Kilper, "Transparent path length optimized optical monitor placement in transparent mesh networks," Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2008, OThI3.

L. Meflah, B. Thomsen, J. E. Mitchell, P. Bayvel, G. Lehmann, S. Santori, and B. Bollezn, "Advanced optical performance monitoring for dynamically reconfigurable networks," Proc. Networks and Optical Communication (NOC), 2005.

Y. K. Lizé, J.-Y. Yang, L. C. Christen, X. Wu, S. Nuccio, T. Wu, A. E. Willner, R. Kashyap, and F. Séguin, "Simultaneous and independent monitoring of OSNR, chromatic and polarization mode dispersion for NRZ-OOK, DPSK and duobinary," Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2007, OThN2.

S. L. Woodward, "Monitors to ensure the performance of photonic networks," Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2007, OMM1.

Y. Ku, C. Chan, and L. Chan, "Chromatic dispersion monitoring technique using birefringent fiber loop," Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2006, OFN2.

J.-C. Antona, S. Bigo, and J.-P. Faure, "Nonlinear cumulated phase as a criterion to assess performance of terrestrial WDM systems," Optical Fiber Communications Conf., 2002, WX5.

S. Stanic, S. Subramaniam, H. Choi, G. Sahin, and H.-A. Choi, "On monitoring transparent optical networks," Proc. ICPPW, 2002.

G. Agrawal, Fiber-Optic Communication Systems, 3rd ed., John Wiley & Sons Inc., 2002.

M. Angelou, Y. Pointurier, S. Azodolmolky, D. Careglio, S. Spadaro, and I. Tomkos, "A novel monitor placement algorithm for accurate performance monitoring in optical networks," Optical Fiber Communications Conf., 2011, JWA53.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Two nodes each with nodal degree of 3 are connected with a pair of unidirectional links. Monitors may be placed at the drop points of the nodes, yielding six possible monitor locations.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

It is possible to use monitoring measurements collected from a subset of all the network lightpaths (LP1, LP2, LP3, LP4) to estimate accurately the corresponding end-to-end metric (e.g., OSNR) of a lightpath that is not monitored (LP5) using the “network kriging” estimation framework [2,17,23]. Placing monitoring devices at the termination points of LP1, LP2, LP3, and LP4 would allow the operator to also estimate the QoT of LP5 using only partial network information.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Pseudo-monitoring monitor placement algorithm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(Color online) The three topologies considered in this paper: two country-sized networks (Deutsche Telekom and Polish Telecom) and a continent-sized network (GEANT2). The Deutsche Telekom backbone network is shown with 20 monitored locations resulting from the PM placement.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Comparison of the placement techniques for the Deutsche Telekom (DT) network. The averaged relative root mean square error was computed for all placement methods applied in the DT backbone network for traffic load equal to 2, i.e., 2 connections on average per pair of nodes. With the PM heuristic, 15 monitors out of the possible 46 locations are enough to yield an estimation error for the OSNR below 1%.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Fraction of the energy (“energy ratio”) of the unobserved lightpaths that lies in the space spanned by the observed lightpaths for the DT topology with a load of 2. The energy ratio is higher when more information about the unobserved lightpaths is known through the observation of other lightpaths with the deployed monitors.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(Color online) Comparison of optimum solutions against the solutions retrieved by the three heuristics for the DT topology; the resulting error is the average of 50 randomly generated traffic matrices of load equal to 1 (top). PM and optimum relative RMSE error results for each of the 50 traffic matrices when 5 monitored locations are assumed (bottom).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Averaged relative RMSE of all placement methods applied on the Polish Telecom topology. The traffic load is equal to 2.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(Color online) Relative RMSE for the PM and QR monitor placement methods with respect to the number of available monitors and increasing traffic load in the TP topology. PM and QR are not affected by the traffic load and PM achieves an estimation error below 1% for m = 20 deployed monitors.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Averaged relative root mean square error of all placement methods applied on the GEANT2 topology. PM achieves an estimation error below 1% for m = 25 monitored locations out of 104 available.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

(Color online) Example of monitor placement in the presence of varying incremental traffic. Twenty fixed equipped locations computed by the PM algorithm for a traffic matrix of load 1 are studied as “chunks” of traffic and are added to the already established lightpaths. Without installing additional monitors the estimation error becomes larger than 1% for a traffic load larger than 2. It was observed by inspection that only 3 (out of 20 possible) monitor displacements are sufficient to decrease the estimation error back to less than 1%.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table I Network Topologies Specifications

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

y ˆ n m o n = R n m o n R m o n ( R n m o n R m o n T ) + y m o n ,
rRMSE ( R , M , P ) = y y ˆ y ,
F * = arg min E m y y ˆ y .