Abstract

A scalable and reliable architecture for both a wavelength division multiplexing passive optical network and a hybrid wavelength and time division multiplexing passive optical network with self-healing capability is presented and evaluated. Our protection scheme is compatible with a cascaded arrayed waveguide grating that can accommodate an ultra-large number of end users. A simple interconnection pattern between two adjacent optical network units (ONUs) is applied in order to provide protection for distributed fibers between a remote node and the ONUs. Therefore, the investment cost on a per-user basis can be significantly reduced. Meanwhile, the performance evaluation shows that our approach can achieve high connection availability while maintaining the support of long reach and high splitting ratio.

© 2011 OSA

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  1. M. C. Parker, F. Farjady, and S. D. Walker, "Wavelength-tolerant optical access architectures featuring N-dimensional addressing and cascaded arrayed-waveguide gratings," J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 2296‒2301 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  2. G. Maier, M. Martinelli, A. Pattavina, and E. Salvadori, "Design and cost performance of the multistage WDM-PON access networks," J. Lightwave Technol. 18, 125‒143 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  3. C. Bock, J. Prat, and S. D. Walker, "Hybrid WDM/TDM PON using the AWG FSR and featuring centralized light generation and dynamic bandwidth allocation," J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 3981‒3988 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. V. Tran, C. Chae, and R. S. Tucker, "Ethernet PON or WDM PON: A comparison of cost and reliability," TENCON 2005, IEEE Region 10, Nov. 2005.
  5. Z. Wang, X. Sun, C. Lin, C. K. Chan, and L. K. Chen, "A novel centally controlled protection scheme for traffic restoration in WDM passive optical networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 717‒719 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  6. C. Sue, "A novel 1:N protection scheme for WDM passive optical networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1472‒1474 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. Chen, L. Wosinska, and S. He, "High utilization of wavelengths and simple interconnection between users in a protection scheme for passive optical networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 389‒391 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  8. K. Lee, S. G. Mun, C. H. Lee, and S. B. Lee, "Reliable wavelength-division-multiplexed passive optical network using novel protection scheme," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 679‒681 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  9. S. van der Merwe, C. G. Gruber, Y. Grigoreva, and T. Kessler, "A model-based techno-economic comparison of optical access technologies," IEEE GLOBECOM Workshops, Nov.–Dec. 2009.
  10. W. Hofmann, E. Wong, G. Bohm, M. Ortsiefer, N. H. Zhu, and M. C. Amann, "1.55-um VCSEL arrays for high-bandwidth WDM-PONs," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 291‒293 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  11. X. Lin and K. T. Hon, "Nonreciprocal optical modulation for colorless integrated optical transceivers in passive optical networks," J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 2, 131‒136 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  12. L. Wosinska, "A study of the reliability of optical switching nodes for high capacity telecommunications networks [Ph.D. thesis]," TRITA-MVT Report, 1999.
  13. J. Chen, C. Mas Machuca, L. Wosinska, and M. Jäger, "Cost vs. reliability performance study of fiber access network architectures," IEEE Commun. Mag. 48, 56‒65 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  14. JDSU technical data sheet for 100 GHz narrowband Array Wave Guide Grating, [Online]. Available: http://www.jdsu.com/ProductLiterature/awg100n_ds_cc_ae.pdf
  15. S. Bigo, G. Bellotti, and M. W. Chbat, "Investigation of cross-phase modulation limitations on 10 Gbit/s transmission over various types of fiber infrastructures," Optical Fiber Communication Conf., and the Int. Conf. Integrated Optics and Optical Fiber Communication, OFC/IOOC’99, Vol. 3, 1999, pp. 40‒42.
  16. T. C. McDermott, "10 GB/s transmission system performance issues and approaches," IEEE Global Telecommunications Conf., GLOBECOM’94, Vol. 1, Nov. 1994, pp. 650‒654.

2010 (2)

X. Lin and K. T. Hon, "Nonreciprocal optical modulation for colorless integrated optical transceivers in passive optical networks," J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 2, 131‒136 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Chen, C. Mas Machuca, L. Wosinska, and M. Jäger, "Cost vs. reliability performance study of fiber access network architectures," IEEE Commun. Mag. 48, 56‒65 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

J. Chen, L. Wosinska, and S. He, "High utilization of wavelengths and simple interconnection between users in a protection scheme for passive optical networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 389‒391 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Lee, S. G. Mun, C. H. Lee, and S. B. Lee, "Reliable wavelength-division-multiplexed passive optical network using novel protection scheme," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 679‒681 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. Hofmann, E. Wong, G. Bohm, M. Ortsiefer, N. H. Zhu, and M. C. Amann, "1.55-um VCSEL arrays for high-bandwidth WDM-PONs," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 291‒293 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

C. Sue, "A novel 1:N protection scheme for WDM passive optical networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1472‒1474 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

C. Bock, J. Prat, and S. D. Walker, "Hybrid WDM/TDM PON using the AWG FSR and featuring centralized light generation and dynamic bandwidth allocation," J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 3981‒3988 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Z. Wang, X. Sun, C. Lin, C. K. Chan, and L. K. Chen, "A novel centally controlled protection scheme for traffic restoration in WDM passive optical networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 717‒719 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

1998 (1)

Amann, M. C.

W. Hofmann, E. Wong, G. Bohm, M. Ortsiefer, N. H. Zhu, and M. C. Amann, "1.55-um VCSEL arrays for high-bandwidth WDM-PONs," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 291‒293 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bellotti, G.

S. Bigo, G. Bellotti, and M. W. Chbat, "Investigation of cross-phase modulation limitations on 10 Gbit/s transmission over various types of fiber infrastructures," Optical Fiber Communication Conf., and the Int. Conf. Integrated Optics and Optical Fiber Communication, OFC/IOOC’99, Vol. 3, 1999, pp. 40‒42.

Bigo, S.

S. Bigo, G. Bellotti, and M. W. Chbat, "Investigation of cross-phase modulation limitations on 10 Gbit/s transmission over various types of fiber infrastructures," Optical Fiber Communication Conf., and the Int. Conf. Integrated Optics and Optical Fiber Communication, OFC/IOOC’99, Vol. 3, 1999, pp. 40‒42.

Bock, C.

Bohm, G.

W. Hofmann, E. Wong, G. Bohm, M. Ortsiefer, N. H. Zhu, and M. C. Amann, "1.55-um VCSEL arrays for high-bandwidth WDM-PONs," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 291‒293 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chae, C.

A. V. Tran, C. Chae, and R. S. Tucker, "Ethernet PON or WDM PON: A comparison of cost and reliability," TENCON 2005, IEEE Region 10, Nov. 2005.

Chan, C. K.

Z. Wang, X. Sun, C. Lin, C. K. Chan, and L. K. Chen, "A novel centally controlled protection scheme for traffic restoration in WDM passive optical networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 717‒719 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chbat, M. W.

S. Bigo, G. Bellotti, and M. W. Chbat, "Investigation of cross-phase modulation limitations on 10 Gbit/s transmission over various types of fiber infrastructures," Optical Fiber Communication Conf., and the Int. Conf. Integrated Optics and Optical Fiber Communication, OFC/IOOC’99, Vol. 3, 1999, pp. 40‒42.

Chen, J.

J. Chen, C. Mas Machuca, L. Wosinska, and M. Jäger, "Cost vs. reliability performance study of fiber access network architectures," IEEE Commun. Mag. 48, 56‒65 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Chen, L. Wosinska, and S. He, "High utilization of wavelengths and simple interconnection between users in a protection scheme for passive optical networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 389‒391 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L. K.

Z. Wang, X. Sun, C. Lin, C. K. Chan, and L. K. Chen, "A novel centally controlled protection scheme for traffic restoration in WDM passive optical networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 717‒719 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Farjady, F.

Grigoreva, Y.

S. van der Merwe, C. G. Gruber, Y. Grigoreva, and T. Kessler, "A model-based techno-economic comparison of optical access technologies," IEEE GLOBECOM Workshops, Nov.–Dec. 2009.

Gruber, C. G.

S. van der Merwe, C. G. Gruber, Y. Grigoreva, and T. Kessler, "A model-based techno-economic comparison of optical access technologies," IEEE GLOBECOM Workshops, Nov.–Dec. 2009.

He, S.

J. Chen, L. Wosinska, and S. He, "High utilization of wavelengths and simple interconnection between users in a protection scheme for passive optical networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 389‒391 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hofmann, W.

W. Hofmann, E. Wong, G. Bohm, M. Ortsiefer, N. H. Zhu, and M. C. Amann, "1.55-um VCSEL arrays for high-bandwidth WDM-PONs," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 291‒293 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hon, K. T.

Jäger, M.

J. Chen, C. Mas Machuca, L. Wosinska, and M. Jäger, "Cost vs. reliability performance study of fiber access network architectures," IEEE Commun. Mag. 48, 56‒65 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kessler, T.

S. van der Merwe, C. G. Gruber, Y. Grigoreva, and T. Kessler, "A model-based techno-economic comparison of optical access technologies," IEEE GLOBECOM Workshops, Nov.–Dec. 2009.

Lee, C. H.

K. Lee, S. G. Mun, C. H. Lee, and S. B. Lee, "Reliable wavelength-division-multiplexed passive optical network using novel protection scheme," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 679‒681 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K.

K. Lee, S. G. Mun, C. H. Lee, and S. B. Lee, "Reliable wavelength-division-multiplexed passive optical network using novel protection scheme," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 679‒681 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. B.

K. Lee, S. G. Mun, C. H. Lee, and S. B. Lee, "Reliable wavelength-division-multiplexed passive optical network using novel protection scheme," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 679‒681 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C.

Z. Wang, X. Sun, C. Lin, C. K. Chan, and L. K. Chen, "A novel centally controlled protection scheme for traffic restoration in WDM passive optical networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 717‒719 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lin, X.

Maier, G.

Martinelli, M.

Mas Machuca, C.

J. Chen, C. Mas Machuca, L. Wosinska, and M. Jäger, "Cost vs. reliability performance study of fiber access network architectures," IEEE Commun. Mag. 48, 56‒65 (2010).
[CrossRef]

McDermott, T. C.

T. C. McDermott, "10 GB/s transmission system performance issues and approaches," IEEE Global Telecommunications Conf., GLOBECOM’94, Vol. 1, Nov. 1994, pp. 650‒654.

Mun, S. G.

K. Lee, S. G. Mun, C. H. Lee, and S. B. Lee, "Reliable wavelength-division-multiplexed passive optical network using novel protection scheme," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 679‒681 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ortsiefer, M.

W. Hofmann, E. Wong, G. Bohm, M. Ortsiefer, N. H. Zhu, and M. C. Amann, "1.55-um VCSEL arrays for high-bandwidth WDM-PONs," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 291‒293 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Parker, M. C.

Pattavina, A.

Prat, J.

Salvadori, E.

Sue, C.

C. Sue, "A novel 1:N protection scheme for WDM passive optical networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1472‒1474 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sun, X.

Z. Wang, X. Sun, C. Lin, C. K. Chan, and L. K. Chen, "A novel centally controlled protection scheme for traffic restoration in WDM passive optical networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 717‒719 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tran, A. V.

A. V. Tran, C. Chae, and R. S. Tucker, "Ethernet PON or WDM PON: A comparison of cost and reliability," TENCON 2005, IEEE Region 10, Nov. 2005.

Tucker, R. S.

A. V. Tran, C. Chae, and R. S. Tucker, "Ethernet PON or WDM PON: A comparison of cost and reliability," TENCON 2005, IEEE Region 10, Nov. 2005.

van der Merwe, S.

S. van der Merwe, C. G. Gruber, Y. Grigoreva, and T. Kessler, "A model-based techno-economic comparison of optical access technologies," IEEE GLOBECOM Workshops, Nov.–Dec. 2009.

Walker, S. D.

Wang, Z.

Z. Wang, X. Sun, C. Lin, C. K. Chan, and L. K. Chen, "A novel centally controlled protection scheme for traffic restoration in WDM passive optical networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 717‒719 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wong, E.

W. Hofmann, E. Wong, G. Bohm, M. Ortsiefer, N. H. Zhu, and M. C. Amann, "1.55-um VCSEL arrays for high-bandwidth WDM-PONs," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 291‒293 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wosinska, L.

J. Chen, C. Mas Machuca, L. Wosinska, and M. Jäger, "Cost vs. reliability performance study of fiber access network architectures," IEEE Commun. Mag. 48, 56‒65 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Chen, L. Wosinska, and S. He, "High utilization of wavelengths and simple interconnection between users in a protection scheme for passive optical networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 389‒391 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Wosinska, "A study of the reliability of optical switching nodes for high capacity telecommunications networks [Ph.D. thesis]," TRITA-MVT Report, 1999.

Zhu, N. H.

W. Hofmann, E. Wong, G. Bohm, M. Ortsiefer, N. H. Zhu, and M. C. Amann, "1.55-um VCSEL arrays for high-bandwidth WDM-PONs," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 291‒293 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Commun. Mag. (1)

J. Chen, C. Mas Machuca, L. Wosinska, and M. Jäger, "Cost vs. reliability performance study of fiber access network architectures," IEEE Commun. Mag. 48, 56‒65 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (5)

Z. Wang, X. Sun, C. Lin, C. K. Chan, and L. K. Chen, "A novel centally controlled protection scheme for traffic restoration in WDM passive optical networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 717‒719 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Sue, "A novel 1:N protection scheme for WDM passive optical networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1472‒1474 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Chen, L. Wosinska, and S. He, "High utilization of wavelengths and simple interconnection between users in a protection scheme for passive optical networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 389‒391 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Lee, S. G. Mun, C. H. Lee, and S. B. Lee, "Reliable wavelength-division-multiplexed passive optical network using novel protection scheme," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 679‒681 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. Hofmann, E. Wong, G. Bohm, M. Ortsiefer, N. H. Zhu, and M. C. Amann, "1.55-um VCSEL arrays for high-bandwidth WDM-PONs," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 291‒293 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (3)

J. Opt. Commun. Netw. (1)

Other (6)

L. Wosinska, "A study of the reliability of optical switching nodes for high capacity telecommunications networks [Ph.D. thesis]," TRITA-MVT Report, 1999.

A. V. Tran, C. Chae, and R. S. Tucker, "Ethernet PON or WDM PON: A comparison of cost and reliability," TENCON 2005, IEEE Region 10, Nov. 2005.

S. van der Merwe, C. G. Gruber, Y. Grigoreva, and T. Kessler, "A model-based techno-economic comparison of optical access technologies," IEEE GLOBECOM Workshops, Nov.–Dec. 2009.

JDSU technical data sheet for 100 GHz narrowband Array Wave Guide Grating, [Online]. Available: http://www.jdsu.com/ProductLiterature/awg100n_ds_cc_ae.pdf

S. Bigo, G. Bellotti, and M. W. Chbat, "Investigation of cross-phase modulation limitations on 10 Gbit/s transmission over various types of fiber infrastructures," Optical Fiber Communication Conf., and the Int. Conf. Integrated Optics and Optical Fiber Communication, OFC/IOOC’99, Vol. 3, 1999, pp. 40‒42.

T. C. McDermott, "10 GB/s transmission system performance issues and approaches," IEEE Global Telecommunications Conf., GLOBECOM’94, Vol. 1, Nov. 1994, pp. 650‒654.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Proposed protection scheme for a two-stage AWG-based hybrid WDM/TDM PON.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Proposed protection scheme up to the remote node.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Reliability block diagram (RBD) for (a) an unprotected scheme, (b–e) the existing protection schemes in [58], and our proposed protection scheme with protection (f) up to end user and (g) up to RN.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(Color online) Reliability performance for all the considered schemes.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Pre-FEC BER versus feeder fiber length.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table I Comparison of the Number of Network Elements (Devices and Fibers)

Tables Icon

Table II Reliability Data [4,13]

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

U Unprotected = U OLT + U AWG + U FF + K i U splitter + U DF + U ONU ,
U Scheme [5] = U OLT + U Optical_switch + U FF + U AWG + U Wavelength_filter + ( U DF + K i U splitter ) ( U DF + K ( N / 2 ) + i U splitter ) + U splitter + U ONU ,
U Scheme [6] = U OLT + 2 U splitter + U Optical_switch + U AWG + U FF + ( 4 U splitter + U DF + K i U splitter ) U Wavelength_filter + 4 U splitter + 2 U Optical_switch + U DF + K p U splitter + K q U splitter + U ONU ,
U Scheme [7] = U OLT + 2 U splitter + U AWG + U FF U FF + ( U Wavelength_filter + U DF + K i U splitter ) ( U Wavelength_filter + U DF + K ( M / 2 ) + i U splitter ) + U Optical_switch + U ONU ,
U Scheme [8] = U OLT + U splitter + U AWG + U FF U FF + ( U DF + K i U splitter ) ( U DF + K i U splitter ) + U Optical_switch + U ONU ,
U proposed(end_user) = U OLT + 2 U splitter + 2 U AWG + U FF U FF + ( U Wavelength_filter + U DF + K i , j U splitter ) ( U Wavelength_filter + U DF + K ( N / 2 ) + i , j U splitter ) + U Optical_switch + U ONU ,
U proposed(RN) = U OLT + 2 U splitter + 2 U AWG + U FF U FF + U DF + K i , j U splitter + U Wavelength_filter + U ONU .