Abstract

Today’s optical wavelength division multiplexing backbone networks need to support traffic demands with very diverse capacity requirements. Recent studies have shown how to design an optical transport network that supports mixed line rates (MLR), where the wavelength channels of the optical paths (i.e., lightpaths) can have a variety of capacities (10/40/100 Gbps). Some preliminary work on the design of MLR optical networks has already appeared, but survivability, which is a key concern in optical network design, is a nascent topic in MLR networks. This study investigates the problem of protection in MLR optical networks: in particular, we study how to design a cost-effective transparent MLR network that provides dedicated protection at the lightpath level. We propose three mechanisms: MLR-at-p-lightpath protection (MLR-p), MLR-at-lightpath protection (MLR-l), and MLR-with-backup-flow-grooming protection (MLR-g). The design problem is solved by two different approaches: (1) a two-step approach that formulates part of the problem as an integer linear program and (2) a heuristic approach. Our results show that, by appropriate assignment of rates to lightpaths, MLR networks can provide protection for diverse traffic demands with much lower transponder cost compared to single-line-rate networks.

© 2011 OSA

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2010

2009

M. S. Alfiad, M. Kuschnerov, T. Wuth, T. J. Xia, G. Wellbrock, E.-D. Schmidt, D. van den Borne, B. Spinnler, C. J. Weiske, E. de Man, A. Napoli, M. Finkenzeller, S. Spaelter, M. Rehman, J. Behel, M. Chbat, M. Stachowiak, D. Peterson, W. Lee, M. Pollock, B. Basch, D. Chen, M. Freiberger, B. Lankl, and H. de Waardt, "111-Gb/s transmission over 1040-km field-deployed fiber with 10G/40G neighbors," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, (10), 615‒617 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Nag and M. Tornatore, "Optical network design with mixed line rates," Opt. Switching Networking 6, (4), 227‒234 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

2007

W. Bigos, B. Cousin, S. Gosselin, M. Le Foll, and H. Nakajima, "Survivable MPLS over optical transport networks: cost and resource usage analysis," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 25, (5), 949‒962 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005

2004

2003

C. Ou, K. Zhu, H. Zang, L. H. Sahasrabuddhe, and B. Mukherjee, "Traffic grooming for survivable WDM networks—shared protection," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 21, (9), 1367‒1383 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2000

H. Zang, J. P. Jue, and B. Mukherjee, "A review of routing and wavelength assignment approaches for wavelength-routed optical WDM networks," Opt. Networks Mag. 1, (1), 47‒60 (2000).

Alfiad, M. S.

M. S. Alfiad, M. Kuschnerov, T. Wuth, T. J. Xia, G. Wellbrock, E.-D. Schmidt, D. van den Borne, B. Spinnler, C. J. Weiske, E. de Man, A. Napoli, M. Finkenzeller, S. Spaelter, M. Rehman, J. Behel, M. Chbat, M. Stachowiak, D. Peterson, W. Lee, M. Pollock, B. Basch, D. Chen, M. Freiberger, B. Lankl, and H. de Waardt, "111-Gb/s transmission over 1040-km field-deployed fiber with 10G/40G neighbors," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, (10), 615‒617 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Basch, B.

M. S. Alfiad, M. Kuschnerov, T. Wuth, T. J. Xia, G. Wellbrock, E.-D. Schmidt, D. van den Borne, B. Spinnler, C. J. Weiske, E. de Man, A. Napoli, M. Finkenzeller, S. Spaelter, M. Rehman, J. Behel, M. Chbat, M. Stachowiak, D. Peterson, W. Lee, M. Pollock, B. Basch, D. Chen, M. Freiberger, B. Lankl, and H. de Waardt, "111-Gb/s transmission over 1040-km field-deployed fiber with 10G/40G neighbors," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, (10), 615‒617 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Batayneh, M.

Behel, J.

M. S. Alfiad, M. Kuschnerov, T. Wuth, T. J. Xia, G. Wellbrock, E.-D. Schmidt, D. van den Borne, B. Spinnler, C. J. Weiske, E. de Man, A. Napoli, M. Finkenzeller, S. Spaelter, M. Rehman, J. Behel, M. Chbat, M. Stachowiak, D. Peterson, W. Lee, M. Pollock, B. Basch, D. Chen, M. Freiberger, B. Lankl, and H. de Waardt, "111-Gb/s transmission over 1040-km field-deployed fiber with 10G/40G neighbors," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, (10), 615‒617 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Berthold, J.

Bigos, W.

W. Bigos, B. Cousin, S. Gosselin, M. Le Foll, and H. Nakajima, "Survivable MPLS over optical transport networks: cost and resource usage analysis," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 25, (5), 949‒962 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Blair, L.

Chbat, M.

M. S. Alfiad, M. Kuschnerov, T. Wuth, T. J. Xia, G. Wellbrock, E.-D. Schmidt, D. van den Borne, B. Spinnler, C. J. Weiske, E. de Man, A. Napoli, M. Finkenzeller, S. Spaelter, M. Rehman, J. Behel, M. Chbat, M. Stachowiak, D. Peterson, W. Lee, M. Pollock, B. Basch, D. Chen, M. Freiberger, B. Lankl, and H. de Waardt, "111-Gb/s transmission over 1040-km field-deployed fiber with 10G/40G neighbors," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, (10), 615‒617 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chbat, M. W.

T. Wuth, M. W. Chbat, and V. F. Kamalov, "Multi-rate (100G/40G/10G) transport over deployed optical networks," Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2008, San Diego, CA, NTuB3.

Chen, D.

M. S. Alfiad, M. Kuschnerov, T. Wuth, T. J. Xia, G. Wellbrock, E.-D. Schmidt, D. van den Borne, B. Spinnler, C. J. Weiske, E. de Man, A. Napoli, M. Finkenzeller, S. Spaelter, M. Rehman, J. Behel, M. Chbat, M. Stachowiak, D. Peterson, W. Lee, M. Pollock, B. Basch, D. Chen, M. Freiberger, B. Lankl, and H. de Waardt, "111-Gb/s transmission over 1040-km field-deployed fiber with 10G/40G neighbors," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, (10), 615‒617 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cousin, B.

W. Bigos, B. Cousin, S. Gosselin, M. Le Foll, and H. Nakajima, "Survivable MPLS over optical transport networks: cost and resource usage analysis," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 25, (5), 949‒962 (2007).
[CrossRef]

de Man, E.

M. S. Alfiad, M. Kuschnerov, T. Wuth, T. J. Xia, G. Wellbrock, E.-D. Schmidt, D. van den Borne, B. Spinnler, C. J. Weiske, E. de Man, A. Napoli, M. Finkenzeller, S. Spaelter, M. Rehman, J. Behel, M. Chbat, M. Stachowiak, D. Peterson, W. Lee, M. Pollock, B. Basch, D. Chen, M. Freiberger, B. Lankl, and H. de Waardt, "111-Gb/s transmission over 1040-km field-deployed fiber with 10G/40G neighbors," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, (10), 615‒617 (2009).
[CrossRef]

de Waardt, H.

M. S. Alfiad, M. Kuschnerov, T. Wuth, T. J. Xia, G. Wellbrock, E.-D. Schmidt, D. van den Borne, B. Spinnler, C. J. Weiske, E. de Man, A. Napoli, M. Finkenzeller, S. Spaelter, M. Rehman, J. Behel, M. Chbat, M. Stachowiak, D. Peterson, W. Lee, M. Pollock, B. Basch, D. Chen, M. Freiberger, B. Lankl, and H. de Waardt, "111-Gb/s transmission over 1040-km field-deployed fiber with 10G/40G neighbors," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, (10), 615‒617 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fang, J.

J. Fang, M. Sivakumar, A. K. Somani, and K. M. Sivalingam, "On partial protection in groomed optical WDM mesh networks," Int. Conf. on Dependable Systems and Networks, 2005, pp. 228‒237.

Finkenzeller, M.

M. S. Alfiad, M. Kuschnerov, T. Wuth, T. J. Xia, G. Wellbrock, E.-D. Schmidt, D. van den Borne, B. Spinnler, C. J. Weiske, E. de Man, A. Napoli, M. Finkenzeller, S. Spaelter, M. Rehman, J. Behel, M. Chbat, M. Stachowiak, D. Peterson, W. Lee, M. Pollock, B. Basch, D. Chen, M. Freiberger, B. Lankl, and H. de Waardt, "111-Gb/s transmission over 1040-km field-deployed fiber with 10G/40G neighbors," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, (10), 615‒617 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Freiberger, M.

M. S. Alfiad, M. Kuschnerov, T. Wuth, T. J. Xia, G. Wellbrock, E.-D. Schmidt, D. van den Borne, B. Spinnler, C. J. Weiske, E. de Man, A. Napoli, M. Finkenzeller, S. Spaelter, M. Rehman, J. Behel, M. Chbat, M. Stachowiak, D. Peterson, W. Lee, M. Pollock, B. Basch, D. Chen, M. Freiberger, B. Lankl, and H. de Waardt, "111-Gb/s transmission over 1040-km field-deployed fiber with 10G/40G neighbors," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, (10), 615‒617 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gosselin, S.

W. Bigos, B. Cousin, S. Gosselin, M. Le Foll, and H. Nakajima, "Survivable MPLS over optical transport networks: cost and resource usage analysis," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 25, (5), 949‒962 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gurrsamy, M.

K. Ratnam, M. Gurrsamy, and L. Zhou, "Differentiated QoS routing of restorable sub-lambda connections in IP-over-WDM networks using a multi-layer protection approach," 2nd Int. Conf. on Broadband Networks, Vol. 1, Oct. 2005, pp. 127‒136.

Hoffmann, M.

Jue, J. P.

H. Zang, J. P. Jue, and B. Mukherjee, "A review of routing and wavelength assignment approaches for wavelength-routed optical WDM networks," Opt. Networks Mag. 1, (1), 47‒60 (2000).

Kamalov, V. F.

T. Wuth, M. W. Chbat, and V. F. Kamalov, "Multi-rate (100G/40G/10G) transport over deployed optical networks," Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2008, San Diego, CA, NTuB3.

Kirstaedter, A.

Kuschnerov, M.

M. S. Alfiad, M. Kuschnerov, T. Wuth, T. J. Xia, G. Wellbrock, E.-D. Schmidt, D. van den Borne, B. Spinnler, C. J. Weiske, E. de Man, A. Napoli, M. Finkenzeller, S. Spaelter, M. Rehman, J. Behel, M. Chbat, M. Stachowiak, D. Peterson, W. Lee, M. Pollock, B. Basch, D. Chen, M. Freiberger, B. Lankl, and H. de Waardt, "111-Gb/s transmission over 1040-km field-deployed fiber with 10G/40G neighbors," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, (10), 615‒617 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lankl, B.

M. S. Alfiad, M. Kuschnerov, T. Wuth, T. J. Xia, G. Wellbrock, E.-D. Schmidt, D. van den Borne, B. Spinnler, C. J. Weiske, E. de Man, A. Napoli, M. Finkenzeller, S. Spaelter, M. Rehman, J. Behel, M. Chbat, M. Stachowiak, D. Peterson, W. Lee, M. Pollock, B. Basch, D. Chen, M. Freiberger, B. Lankl, and H. de Waardt, "111-Gb/s transmission over 1040-km field-deployed fiber with 10G/40G neighbors," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, (10), 615‒617 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Le Foll, M.

W. Bigos, B. Cousin, S. Gosselin, M. Le Foll, and H. Nakajima, "Survivable MPLS over optical transport networks: cost and resource usage analysis," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 25, (5), 949‒962 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, W.

M. S. Alfiad, M. Kuschnerov, T. Wuth, T. J. Xia, G. Wellbrock, E.-D. Schmidt, D. van den Borne, B. Spinnler, C. J. Weiske, E. de Man, A. Napoli, M. Finkenzeller, S. Spaelter, M. Rehman, J. Behel, M. Chbat, M. Stachowiak, D. Peterson, W. Lee, M. Pollock, B. Basch, D. Chen, M. Freiberger, B. Lankl, and H. de Waardt, "111-Gb/s transmission over 1040-km field-deployed fiber with 10G/40G neighbors," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, (10), 615‒617 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Meusburger, C.

Morea, A.

A. Morea and O. Rival, "Advantages of elasticity versus fixed data-rate schemes for restorable optical networks," 36th European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication, Sept. 2010, Torino, Italy.

Mukherjee, B.

Nag, A.

Nakajima, H.

W. Bigos, B. Cousin, S. Gosselin, M. Le Foll, and H. Nakajima, "Survivable MPLS over optical transport networks: cost and resource usage analysis," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 25, (5), 949‒962 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Napoli, A.

M. S. Alfiad, M. Kuschnerov, T. Wuth, T. J. Xia, G. Wellbrock, E.-D. Schmidt, D. van den Borne, B. Spinnler, C. J. Weiske, E. de Man, A. Napoli, M. Finkenzeller, S. Spaelter, M. Rehman, J. Behel, M. Chbat, M. Stachowiak, D. Peterson, W. Lee, M. Pollock, B. Basch, D. Chen, M. Freiberger, B. Lankl, and H. de Waardt, "111-Gb/s transmission over 1040-km field-deployed fiber with 10G/40G neighbors," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, (10), 615‒617 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ou, C.

C. Ou, K. Zhu, J. Zhang, H. Zhu, B. Mukherjee, H. Zang, and L. Sahasrabuddhe, "Traffic grooming for survivable WDM networks: dedicated protection [Invited]," J. Opt. Netw. 3, (1), 50‒74 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Ou, K. Zhu, H. Zang, L. H. Sahasrabuddhe, and B. Mukherjee, "Traffic grooming for survivable WDM networks—shared protection," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 21, (9), 1367‒1383 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Peterson, D.

M. S. Alfiad, M. Kuschnerov, T. Wuth, T. J. Xia, G. Wellbrock, E.-D. Schmidt, D. van den Borne, B. Spinnler, C. J. Weiske, E. de Man, A. Napoli, M. Finkenzeller, S. Spaelter, M. Rehman, J. Behel, M. Chbat, M. Stachowiak, D. Peterson, W. Lee, M. Pollock, B. Basch, D. Chen, M. Freiberger, B. Lankl, and H. de Waardt, "111-Gb/s transmission over 1040-km field-deployed fiber with 10G/40G neighbors," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, (10), 615‒617 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pollock, M.

M. S. Alfiad, M. Kuschnerov, T. Wuth, T. J. Xia, G. Wellbrock, E.-D. Schmidt, D. van den Borne, B. Spinnler, C. J. Weiske, E. de Man, A. Napoli, M. Finkenzeller, S. Spaelter, M. Rehman, J. Behel, M. Chbat, M. Stachowiak, D. Peterson, W. Lee, M. Pollock, B. Basch, D. Chen, M. Freiberger, B. Lankl, and H. de Waardt, "111-Gb/s transmission over 1040-km field-deployed fiber with 10G/40G neighbors," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, (10), 615‒617 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ramamurthy, B.

Ratnam, K.

K. Ratnam, M. Gurrsamy, and L. Zhou, "Differentiated QoS routing of restorable sub-lambda connections in IP-over-WDM networks using a multi-layer protection approach," 2nd Int. Conf. on Broadband Networks, Vol. 1, Oct. 2005, pp. 127‒136.

Rehman, M.

M. S. Alfiad, M. Kuschnerov, T. Wuth, T. J. Xia, G. Wellbrock, E.-D. Schmidt, D. van den Borne, B. Spinnler, C. J. Weiske, E. de Man, A. Napoli, M. Finkenzeller, S. Spaelter, M. Rehman, J. Behel, M. Chbat, M. Stachowiak, D. Peterson, W. Lee, M. Pollock, B. Basch, D. Chen, M. Freiberger, B. Lankl, and H. de Waardt, "111-Gb/s transmission over 1040-km field-deployed fiber with 10G/40G neighbors," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, (10), 615‒617 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rival, O.

A. Morea and O. Rival, "Advantages of elasticity versus fixed data-rate schemes for restorable optical networks," 36th European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication, Sept. 2010, Torino, Italy.

Sahasrabuddhe, L.

Sahasrabuddhe, L. H.

C. Ou, K. Zhu, H. Zang, L. H. Sahasrabuddhe, and B. Mukherjee, "Traffic grooming for survivable WDM networks—shared protection," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 21, (9), 1367‒1383 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Saleh, A. A. M.

Schmidt, E.-D.

M. S. Alfiad, M. Kuschnerov, T. Wuth, T. J. Xia, G. Wellbrock, E.-D. Schmidt, D. van den Borne, B. Spinnler, C. J. Weiske, E. de Man, A. Napoli, M. Finkenzeller, S. Spaelter, M. Rehman, J. Behel, M. Chbat, M. Stachowiak, D. Peterson, W. Lee, M. Pollock, B. Basch, D. Chen, M. Freiberger, B. Lankl, and H. de Waardt, "111-Gb/s transmission over 1040-km field-deployed fiber with 10G/40G neighbors," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, (10), 615‒617 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Schupke, D. A.

Simmons, J. M.

Sivakumar, M.

J. Fang, M. Sivakumar, A. K. Somani, and K. M. Sivalingam, "On partial protection in groomed optical WDM mesh networks," Int. Conf. on Dependable Systems and Networks, 2005, pp. 228‒237.

Sivalingam, K. M.

J. Fang, M. Sivakumar, A. K. Somani, and K. M. Sivalingam, "On partial protection in groomed optical WDM mesh networks," Int. Conf. on Dependable Systems and Networks, 2005, pp. 228‒237.

Somani, A. K.

J. Fang, M. Sivakumar, A. K. Somani, and K. M. Sivalingam, "On partial protection in groomed optical WDM mesh networks," Int. Conf. on Dependable Systems and Networks, 2005, pp. 228‒237.

A. K. Somani, Survivability and Traffic Grooming in WDM Optical Networks, Cambridge Univ. Press, 2006.

Spaelter, S.

M. S. Alfiad, M. Kuschnerov, T. Wuth, T. J. Xia, G. Wellbrock, E.-D. Schmidt, D. van den Borne, B. Spinnler, C. J. Weiske, E. de Man, A. Napoli, M. Finkenzeller, S. Spaelter, M. Rehman, J. Behel, M. Chbat, M. Stachowiak, D. Peterson, W. Lee, M. Pollock, B. Basch, D. Chen, M. Freiberger, B. Lankl, and H. de Waardt, "111-Gb/s transmission over 1040-km field-deployed fiber with 10G/40G neighbors," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, (10), 615‒617 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Spinnler, B.

M. S. Alfiad, M. Kuschnerov, T. Wuth, T. J. Xia, G. Wellbrock, E.-D. Schmidt, D. van den Borne, B. Spinnler, C. J. Weiske, E. de Man, A. Napoli, M. Finkenzeller, S. Spaelter, M. Rehman, J. Behel, M. Chbat, M. Stachowiak, D. Peterson, W. Lee, M. Pollock, B. Basch, D. Chen, M. Freiberger, B. Lankl, and H. de Waardt, "111-Gb/s transmission over 1040-km field-deployed fiber with 10G/40G neighbors," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, (10), 615‒617 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Stachowiak, M.

M. S. Alfiad, M. Kuschnerov, T. Wuth, T. J. Xia, G. Wellbrock, E.-D. Schmidt, D. van den Borne, B. Spinnler, C. J. Weiske, E. de Man, A. Napoli, M. Finkenzeller, S. Spaelter, M. Rehman, J. Behel, M. Chbat, M. Stachowiak, D. Peterson, W. Lee, M. Pollock, B. Basch, D. Chen, M. Freiberger, B. Lankl, and H. de Waardt, "111-Gb/s transmission over 1040-km field-deployed fiber with 10G/40G neighbors," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, (10), 615‒617 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tornatore, M.

van den Borne, D.

M. S. Alfiad, M. Kuschnerov, T. Wuth, T. J. Xia, G. Wellbrock, E.-D. Schmidt, D. van den Borne, B. Spinnler, C. J. Weiske, E. de Man, A. Napoli, M. Finkenzeller, S. Spaelter, M. Rehman, J. Behel, M. Chbat, M. Stachowiak, D. Peterson, W. Lee, M. Pollock, B. Basch, D. Chen, M. Freiberger, B. Lankl, and H. de Waardt, "111-Gb/s transmission over 1040-km field-deployed fiber with 10G/40G neighbors," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, (10), 615‒617 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Weiske, C. J.

M. S. Alfiad, M. Kuschnerov, T. Wuth, T. J. Xia, G. Wellbrock, E.-D. Schmidt, D. van den Borne, B. Spinnler, C. J. Weiske, E. de Man, A. Napoli, M. Finkenzeller, S. Spaelter, M. Rehman, J. Behel, M. Chbat, M. Stachowiak, D. Peterson, W. Lee, M. Pollock, B. Basch, D. Chen, M. Freiberger, B. Lankl, and H. de Waardt, "111-Gb/s transmission over 1040-km field-deployed fiber with 10G/40G neighbors," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, (10), 615‒617 (2009).
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M. S. Alfiad, M. Kuschnerov, T. Wuth, T. J. Xia, G. Wellbrock, E.-D. Schmidt, D. van den Borne, B. Spinnler, C. J. Weiske, E. de Man, A. Napoli, M. Finkenzeller, S. Spaelter, M. Rehman, J. Behel, M. Chbat, M. Stachowiak, D. Peterson, W. Lee, M. Pollock, B. Basch, D. Chen, M. Freiberger, B. Lankl, and H. de Waardt, "111-Gb/s transmission over 1040-km field-deployed fiber with 10G/40G neighbors," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, (10), 615‒617 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wuth, T.

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T. Wuth, M. W. Chbat, and V. F. Kamalov, "Multi-rate (100G/40G/10G) transport over deployed optical networks," Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2008, San Diego, CA, NTuB3.

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M. S. Alfiad, M. Kuschnerov, T. Wuth, T. J. Xia, G. Wellbrock, E.-D. Schmidt, D. van den Borne, B. Spinnler, C. J. Weiske, E. de Man, A. Napoli, M. Finkenzeller, S. Spaelter, M. Rehman, J. Behel, M. Chbat, M. Stachowiak, D. Peterson, W. Lee, M. Pollock, B. Basch, D. Chen, M. Freiberger, B. Lankl, and H. de Waardt, "111-Gb/s transmission over 1040-km field-deployed fiber with 10G/40G neighbors," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, (10), 615‒617 (2009).
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C. Ou, K. Zhu, J. Zhang, H. Zhu, B. Mukherjee, H. Zang, and L. Sahasrabuddhe, "Traffic grooming for survivable WDM networks: dedicated protection [Invited]," J. Opt. Netw. 3, (1), 50‒74 (2004).
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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(Color online) Reach of different line rates.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Six-node network (link lengths in km).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(Color online) Comparison between MLR-p and MLR-l.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(Color online) Comparison between MLR-l and MLR-g.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Flow chart of the two-step approach.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(Color online) Graphs used in the algorithm related to Λ 1 .

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(Color online) Graphs used in the algorithm related to Λ 2 .

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

COST239 network (link lengths in km).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(Color online) Cost reduction for MLR approaches versus SLR with 100 Gbps transponders.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

24-node US backbone network (link lengths in km).

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

(Color online) Normalized cost for 24-node US network obtained by the heuristic approach.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

(Color online) Modified 14-node NSFNET (link length in km).

Tables (9)

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Table I Candidate p-Lightpaths From Node 1 to Node 2 in Fig. 1

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Table II Complexity of ILP Formulations ( η = N ( N 1 ) )

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Table III Candidate p-Lightpaths Given in Fig. 2

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Table IV Three Traffic Demands Considered in Fig. 2

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Table V Traffic Matrix for COST239 (in Gbps)

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Table VI Normalized Cost for COST239 Network Obtained by the Two-Step Approach (X = 350 Gbps)

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Table VII Running Time of the ILP

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Table VIII Comparison of Normalized Cost for COST239 Network Obtained by Two-Step and Heuristic Approaches (X = 350 Gbps)

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Table IX Normalized Cost for Modified NSFNET Using the Two-Step Approach (X = 1 Tbps)

Equations (14)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

α i j , k = 1 if  B E R i j , k , w < B 0 otherwise ( i , j ) , k ,
β i j , k = 1 if  B E R i j , k , b < B 0 otherwise ( i , j ) , k ,
Minimize : ( i , j ) k 2 W i j , k D .
r α i j , k β i j , k W i j , k s d f i j , k s d ( i , j ) , k ,
L i j , k w P m n L i j , k b P m n α i j , k β i j , k W i j , k W ( m , n ) ,
i k f i j , k s d i k f j i , k s d = Λ s d if  s = j Λ s d if  d = j 0 otherwise j , ( s , d ) .
f i j , k s d 0 ( s , d ) , ( i , j ) , k ,
0 W i j , k W integer ( i , j ) , k , .
Minimize: ( i , j ) k ( W i j , k + B i j , k ) D .
r α i j , k W i j , k s d f i j , k s d ( i , j ) , k ,
r β i j , k B i j , k s d f i j , k s d ( i , j ) , k ,
L i j , k w P m n α i j , k W i j , k + L i j , k b P m n β i j , k B i j , k W ( m , n ) ,
0 B i j , k W integer ( i , j ) , k , .
r B i j , k β i j , k + L i j , k b S B L i j , k r B i j , k β i j , k s d f i j , k s d + L i j , k b S B L i j , k s d f i j , k s d ( i , j ) , k .