Abstract

We describe an absolute energy efficiency metric (measured in dBε) that can be universally applied to any ICT system, subsystem and component. It shows what energy efficiency improvements are possible for any data processing/transmission/storage system. The metric’s versatility is also displayed by applying it to biologically based and quantum-level information systems. As an exemplar, we identify ten different and independent approaches, each of which on its own could achieve at least a 50% energy efficiency saving, so as to enable a thousand-fold (i.e., 30 dB) improvement in overall energy efficiency in photonic telecommunications networking.

© 2011 OSA

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2011

R. S. Tucker, "Green optical communications—part I: Energy limitations in transport," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, (2), 245‒260 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Tucker, "Green optical communications—part II: Energy limitations in networks," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, (2), 261‒274 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Lange, D. Kosiankowski, R. Weidmann, and A. Gladisch, "Energy consumption of telecommunication networks and related improvement options," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, (2), 285‒295 (2011).
[CrossRef]

X. Wang, W. Hou, L. Guo, J. Cao, and D. Jiang, "Energy saving and cost reduction in multi-granularity green optical networks," Comput. Netw. 55, (3), 807‒821 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Nishimura, K. Shinoda, Y. Lee, G. Ono, K. Fukuda, F. Yuki, T. Takemoto, H. Toyoda, M. Yamada, T. Shinji, and N. Ikeda, "Components and interconnection technologies for photonic-assisted routers toward green networks," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, (2), 347‒356 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Ben Yoo, "Energy efficiency in the future Internet the role of optical packet switching and optical label switching," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, (2), 406‒418 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

K. Pentikousis, "In search of energy-efficient mobile networking," IEEE Commun. Mag. 48, (1), 95‒103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

2008

M. C. Parker and S. D. Walker, "Differential temperature Carnot heat analysis shows that computing machines are thermodynamically irreversible," Opt. Commun. 281, 3440‒3446 (2008).
[CrossRef]

X. Liu, P. Shenoy, and M. D. Corner, "Chameleon: Application-level power management," IEEE Trans. Mobile Comput. 7, (8), 995‒1010 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. R. S. Fludger, T. Duthel, D. van den Borne, C. Schulien, E.-D. Schmidt, T. Wuth, J. Geyer, E. De Man, G.-D. Khoe, and H. de Waardt, "Coherent equalization and POLMUX-RZ-DQPSK for robust 100-GE transmission," J. Lightwave Technol. 26, 64‒72 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

X. Yang, A. K. Mishra, R. J. Manning, R. P. Webb, and A. D. Ellis, "All-optical 42.6 Gbit/s NRZ to RZ format conversion by cross-phase modulation in single SOA," Electron. Lett. 43, (16), 890‒892 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. Shieh, X. Yi, and Y. Tang, "Transmission experiment of multi-gigabit coherent optical OFDM systems over 1000 km SSMF fibre," Electron. Lett. 43, (3), 183‒5 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Parker and S. D. Walker, "Is computation reversible?," Opt. Commun. 271, 274‒277 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

2005

I. Tsalamanis, E. Rochat, M. C. Parker, and S. D. Walker, "Effect of polarization dependent loss and temperature fluctuations on degree of orthogonality in polarization multiplexed arrayed waveguide grating based networks," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 945‒950 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

E. Rochat, S. D. Walker, and M. C. Parker, "Polarisation and wavelength division multiplexing at 1.55 µm for bandwidth enhancement of multimode fibre based access networks," Opt. Express 12, (10), 2280‒2292 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Pohekar and M. Ramachandran, "Application of multi-criteria decision making to sustainable energy planning—A review," Renewable Sustainable Energy Rev. 8, (4), 365‒381 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Parker and S. D. Walker, "Information transfer and Landauer’s principle," Opt. Commun. 229, 23‒27 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

P. E. Ross, "5 Commandments [technology laws and rules of thumb]," IEEE Spectrum 12, 30‒35 (2003).

E. Minciuca, O. Le Corre, V. Athanasovicib, and M. Tazerouta, "Fuel savings and CO2 emissions for tri-generation systems," Appl. Therm. Eng. 23, (11), 1333‒1346 (2003).

E. Rochat, S. D. Walker, and M. C. Parker, "C-band polarisation orthogonality preservation in 5 Gb/s, 50 µm multimode fibre links up to 3 km," Opt. Express 11, (6), 507‒514 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001

M. S. Bhatt, "Mapping of general combined heat and power systems," Energy Convers. Manage. 42, 115‒124 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Parker and S. D. Walker, "Multiple order adaptive dispersion compensation using polynomially-chirped grating devices," Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 73, (5/6), 635‒645 (2001).

1997

B. Pakkenberg and H. J. G. Gundersen, "Neocortical neuron number in humans: Effect of sex and age," J. Comp. Neurol. 384, 312‒320 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1990

J. R. Barry and E. A. Lee, "Performance of coherent optical receivers," Proc. IEEE 78, (8), 1369‒1394 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Aleksic, S.

Andriolli, N.

Apostolopoulos, D.

Athanasovicib, V.

E. Minciuca, O. Le Corre, V. Athanasovicib, and M. Tazerouta, "Fuel savings and CO2 emissions for tri-generation systems," Appl. Therm. Eng. 23, (11), 1333‒1346 (2003).

Audenaert, P.

M. Pickavet, R. Van Caenegem, S. Demeyer, P. Audenaert, D. Colle, P. Demeester, R. Leppla, M. Jaeger, A. Gladisch, and H.-M. Foisel, "Energy footprint of ICT," BroadBand Europe Antwerp, 2007, Belgium, Tu1.1.

Avramopoulos, H.

Ayre, R.

Baliga, J.

Barry, J. R.

J. R. Barry and E. A. Lee, "Performance of coherent optical receivers," Proc. IEEE 78, (8), 1369‒1394 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Ben Yoo, S. J.

S. J. Ben Yoo, "Energy efficiency in the future Internet the role of optical packet switching and optical label switching," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, (2), 406‒418 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bhatt, M. S.

M. S. Bhatt, "Mapping of general combined heat and power systems," Energy Convers. Manage. 42, 115‒124 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Boyd, I.

Broccardo, M.

M. Broccardo, P. Girdinio, E. Martino, S. Moccia, M. Nervi, A. Pini Prato, and M. Repetto, "Modular small-CHP plants optimized design as a way to reduce CO2 emissions," Int. Conf. Clean Electrical Power (ICCEP 09), 2009, Capri, Italy.

Burrows, E.

A. H. Gnauck, G. Charlet, P. Tran, P. Winzer, C. Doerr, J. Centanni, E. Burrows, T. Kawanishi, T. Sakamoto, and K. Higuma, "25.6-Tb/s C+L-band transmission of polarization-multiplexed RZ-DQPSK signals," Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC’07), 2007, PDP19.

Cao, J.

X. Wang, W. Hou, L. Guo, J. Cao, and D. Jiang, "Energy saving and cost reduction in multi-granularity green optical networks," Comput. Netw. 55, (3), 807‒821 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Centanni, J.

A. H. Gnauck, G. Charlet, P. Tran, P. Winzer, C. Doerr, J. Centanni, E. Burrows, T. Kawanishi, T. Sakamoto, and K. Higuma, "25.6-Tb/s C+L-band transmission of polarization-multiplexed RZ-DQPSK signals," Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC’07), 2007, PDP19.

Charlet, G.

A. H. Gnauck, G. Charlet, P. Tran, P. Winzer, C. Doerr, J. Centanni, E. Burrows, T. Kawanishi, T. Sakamoto, and K. Higuma, "25.6-Tb/s C+L-band transmission of polarization-multiplexed RZ-DQPSK signals," Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC’07), 2007, PDP19.

Colle, D.

W. Vereecken, W. Van Heddeghem, B. Puype, D. Colle, M. Pickavet, and P. Demeester, "Optical networks: How much power do they consume and how can we optimize this?," European Conf. Optical Communications (ECOC’10), 2010, Turin, Mo1D1.

W. Van Heddeghem, M. De Groote, W. Vereecken, D. Colle, M. Pickavet, and P. Demeester, "Energy-efficiency in telecommunications networks: Link-by-link versus end-to-end grooming," ONDM 2010, 2010, Kyoto, Japan.

B. Puype, W. Vereecken, D. Colle, M. Pickavet, and P. Demeester, "Power reduction techniques in multilayer traffic engineering," Proc. 11th Int. Conf. Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON 2009), 2009, Sao Miguel, Azores, Portugal.

M. Pickavet, R. Van Caenegem, S. Demeyer, P. Audenaert, D. Colle, P. Demeester, R. Leppla, M. Jaeger, A. Gladisch, and H.-M. Foisel, "Energy footprint of ICT," BroadBand Europe Antwerp, 2007, Belgium, Tu1.1.

Corner, M. D.

X. Liu, P. Shenoy, and M. D. Corner, "Chameleon: Application-level power management," IEEE Trans. Mobile Comput. 7, (8), 995‒1010 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Davey, R. P.

De Groote, M.

W. Van Heddeghem, M. De Groote, W. Vereecken, D. Colle, M. Pickavet, and P. Demeester, "Energy-efficiency in telecommunications networks: Link-by-link versus end-to-end grooming," ONDM 2010, 2010, Kyoto, Japan.

De Man, E.

de Waardt, H.

Demeester, P.

W. Van Heddeghem, M. De Groote, W. Vereecken, D. Colle, M. Pickavet, and P. Demeester, "Energy-efficiency in telecommunications networks: Link-by-link versus end-to-end grooming," ONDM 2010, 2010, Kyoto, Japan.

B. Puype, W. Vereecken, D. Colle, M. Pickavet, and P. Demeester, "Power reduction techniques in multilayer traffic engineering," Proc. 11th Int. Conf. Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON 2009), 2009, Sao Miguel, Azores, Portugal.

W. Vereecken, W. Van Heddeghem, B. Puype, D. Colle, M. Pickavet, and P. Demeester, "Optical networks: How much power do they consume and how can we optimize this?," European Conf. Optical Communications (ECOC’10), 2010, Turin, Mo1D1.

M. Pickavet, R. Van Caenegem, S. Demeyer, P. Audenaert, D. Colle, P. Demeester, R. Leppla, M. Jaeger, A. Gladisch, and H.-M. Foisel, "Energy footprint of ICT," BroadBand Europe Antwerp, 2007, Belgium, Tu1.1.

Demeyer, S.

M. Pickavet, R. Van Caenegem, S. Demeyer, P. Audenaert, D. Colle, P. Demeester, R. Leppla, M. Jaeger, A. Gladisch, and H.-M. Foisel, "Energy footprint of ICT," BroadBand Europe Antwerp, 2007, Belgium, Tu1.1.

Desurvire, E.

E. Desurvire, Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifiers, John Wiley & Sons, 1994.

Doerr, C.

A. H. Gnauck, G. Charlet, P. Tran, P. Winzer, C. Doerr, J. Centanni, E. Burrows, T. Kawanishi, T. Sakamoto, and K. Higuma, "25.6-Tb/s C+L-band transmission of polarization-multiplexed RZ-DQPSK signals," Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC’07), 2007, PDP19.

Doerr, C. R.

Dudley, S. E. M.

Duthel, T.

Ellis, A. D.

X. Yang, A. K. Mishra, R. J. Manning, R. P. Webb, and A. D. Ellis, "All-optical 42.6 Gbit/s NRZ to RZ format conversion by cross-phase modulation in single SOA," Electron. Lett. 43, (16), 890‒892 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Eneroth, P.

R. E. Schuh, P. Eneroth, and P. Karlsson, "Multi-standard mobile terminals," Proc. IST Mobile & Wireless Telecommunications Summit’02, 2002, pp. 174‒178.

Erasme, D.

Essiambre, R.-J.

Fludger, C. R. S.

Foisel, H.-M.

M. Pickavet, R. Van Caenegem, S. Demeyer, P. Audenaert, D. Colle, P. Demeester, R. Leppla, M. Jaeger, A. Gladisch, and H.-M. Foisel, "Energy footprint of ICT," BroadBand Europe Antwerp, 2007, Belgium, Tu1.1.

Fukuda, K.

S. Nishimura, K. Shinoda, Y. Lee, G. Ono, K. Fukuda, F. Yuki, T. Takemoto, H. Toyoda, M. Yamada, T. Shinji, and N. Ikeda, "Components and interconnection technologies for photonic-assisted routers toward green networks," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, (2), 347‒356 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Gerlach, C.

C. Lange, D. Kosiankowski, C. Gerlach, F. Westphal, and A. Gladisch, "Energy consumption of telecommunication networks," ECOC 2010, 2009, Vienna, Austria, 5.5.3.

Gershenfeld, N.

N. Gershenfeld, The Physics of Information Technology, Cambridge Univ. Press, 2000, ch. 13.

Geyer, J.

Girdinio, P.

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W. Vereecken, W. Van Heddeghem, B. Puype, D. Colle, M. Pickavet, and P. Demeester, "Optical networks: How much power do they consume and how can we optimize this?," European Conf. Optical Communications (ECOC’10), 2010, Turin, Mo1D1.

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Figures (1)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(Color online) Plot of absolute energy efficiency figure (dBε) against conventional energy/bit (J/b) metric for a range of network architectures, ICT devices and information processing systems.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table I Absolute Energy Efficiency Metric dB ε and Energy/bit Measures of Diverse Information Processing Systems

Tables Icon

Table II Summary of Cumulative Energy Efficiency Savings to Achieve 30 dB Overall Improvement

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

TEEER = log P total data throughput ,
P total = 0 . 35 × P max + 0 . 4 × P ave + 0 . 25 × P sleep .
dB ε = 10 log 10 Power / Bit Rate k T ln2 .
n = 1 n = 10 10 log 10 α n .
δ δ S 0 S x S e a x δ x + S 1 x e a x δ x = 0 .
P = 1 2 α ρ π r 2 ν 3 ,