Abstract

This paper reviews advances in the technology of integrated semiconductor optical amplifier based photonic switch fabrics, with particular emphasis on their suitability for high performance network switches for use within a datacenter. The key requirements for large port count optical switch fabrics are addressed noting the need for switches with substantial port counts. The design options for a 16 × 16 port photonic switch fabric architecture are discussed and the choice of a Clos–tree design is described. The control strategy, based on arbitration and scheduling, for an integrated switch fabric is explained. The detailed design and fabrication of the switch is followed by experimental characterization, showing net optical gain and operation at 10 Gb/s with bit error rates lower than 109. Finally improvements to the switch are suggested, which should result in 100 Gb/s per port operation at energy efficiencies of 3 pJ/bit.

© 2011 OSA

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2011 (1)

R. S. Tucker, "Green optical communications—part II: energy limitations in networks," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, (2), 261‒274 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (3)

S. Assefa, F. Xia, W. M. J. Green, C. L. Schow, A. V. Rylyakov, and Y. A. Vlasov, "CMOS-integrated optical receivers for on-chip interconnects," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 1376‒1385 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. G. Lee, A. Biberman, J. Chan, and K. Bergman, "High-performance modulators and switches for silicon photonic networks-on-chip," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, (1), 6‒22 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, G. T. Reed, F. Milesi, and J.-M. Fedeli, "High speed silicon optical modulator with self aligned fabrication process," Opt. Express 18, 19064‒19069 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

2006 (1)

M. Lipson, "Compact electro-optic modulators on a silicon chip," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1520‒1526 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

A. Zhang, K. T. Chan, M. S. Demokan, V. W. C. Chan, P. C. H. Chan, H. S. Kwok, and A. H. P. Chan, "Integrated liquid crystal optical switch based on total internal reflection," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, (21), 211108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Shacham, B. A. Small, O. Liboiron-Ladouceur, and K. Bergman, "A fully implemented 12×12 data vortex optical packet switching interconnection network," J. Lightwave Technol. 23, (10), 3066‒3075 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Shacham, B. G. Lee, and K. Bergman, "A wide-band nonblocking 2×2 switching node for a SPINet network," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17, 2742‒2744 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

R. Varrazza, I. B. Djordjevic, and S. Yu, "Active vertical-coupler-based optical crosspoint switch matrix for optical packet-switching applications," J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 2034‒2042 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J.-H. Song, H.-S. Kim, E. D. Shim, J.-W. Park, and Y. S. Baek, "Monolithically integrated 4×4 InGaAsP/InP laser amplifier gate switch matrix based on buried ridge stripe waveguides," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, L18‒L20 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

L. Dittmann, C. Develder, D. Chiaroni, F. Neri, F. Callegati, W. Koerber, A. Stavdas, M. Renaud, A. Rafel, J. Sole-Pareta, W. Cerroni, N. Leligou, L. Dembeck, B. Mortensen, M. Pickavet, N. Le Sauze, M. Mahony, B. Berde, and G. Eilenberger, "The European IST project DAVID: a viable approach toward optical packet switching," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 21, 1026‒1040 (2003).
[CrossRef]

V. A. Aksyuk, S. Arney, N. R. Basavanhally, D. J. Bishop, C. A. Bolle, C. C. Chang, R. Frahm, A. Gasparyan, J. V. Gates, R. George, C. R. Giles, J. Kim, P. R. Kolodner, T. M. Lee, D. T. Neilson, C. Nijander, C. J. Nuzman, M. Paczkowski, A. R. Papazian, F. Pardo, D. A. Ramsey, R. Ryf, R. E. Scotti, H. Shea, and M. E. Simon, "238×238 micromechanical optical cross connect," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 587‒589 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

2000 (1)

S. Yu, M. Owen, R. Varrazza, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, "Demonstration of high-speed optical packet routing using vertical coupler crosspoint space switch array," Electron. Lett. 36, 556‒558 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

N. McKeown, "The iSLIP scheduling algorithm for input-queued switches," IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 7, (2), 188‒201 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. K. Hunter, M. H. M. Nizam, M. C. Chia, I. Andonovic, K. M. Guild, A. Tzanakaki, M. J. O’Mahony, J. D. Bainbridge, M. F. C. Stephens, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, "WASPNET: a wavelength switched packet network," IEEE Commun. Mag. 37, (3), 120‒129 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

G. A. Fish, B. Mason, L. A. Coldren, and S. P. DenBaars, "Compact, 4×4 InGaAsP-InP optical crossconnect with a scaleable architecture," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1256‒1258 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

E. Almstrom, C. P. Larsen, L. Gillner, W. H. van Berlo, M. Gustavsson, and E. Berglind, "Experimental and analytical evaluation of packaged 4×4 InGaAsP/InP semiconductor optical amplifier gate switch matrices for optical networks," J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 996‒1004 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Renaud, M. Bachmann, and M. Erman, "Semiconductor optical space switches," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 277‒288 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

J. D. Burton, P. J. Fiddyment, M. J. Robertson, and P. Sully, "Monolithic InGaAsP-InP laser amplifier gate switch matrix," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 2023‒2027 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (2)

M. Gustavsson, B. Lagerstrom, L. Thylen, M. Janson, L. Lundgren, A. C. Morner, M. Rask, and B. Stoltz, "Monolithically integrated 4∗4 InGaAsP/InP laser amplifier gate switch arrays," Electron. Lett. 28, 2223‒2225 (1992).
[CrossRef]

K. Hamamoto, T. Anan, K. Komatsu, M. Sugimoto, and I. Mito, "First 8∗8 semiconductor optical matrix switches using GaAs/AlGaAs electro-optic guided-wave directional couplers," Electron. Lett. 28, 441‒443 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

P. J. Duthie and M. J. Wale, "16∗16 single chip optical switch array in lithium niobate," Electron. Lett. 27, (14), 1265‒1266 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

I. H. White, J. J. S. Watts, J. E. Carroll, C. J. Armistead, D. J. Moole, and J. A. Champelovier, "InGaAsP 400 ∗ 200 µm active crosspoint switch operating at 1.5 µm using novel reflective Y-coupler components," Electron. Lett. 26, 617‒618 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

A. Ajisawa, M. Fujiwara, J. Shimizu, M. Sugimoto, M. Uchida, and Y. Ohta, "Monolithically integrated optical gate 2×2 matrix switch using GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum well structure," Electron. Lett. 23, 1121‒1122 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Ajisawa, A.

A. Ajisawa, M. Fujiwara, J. Shimizu, M. Sugimoto, M. Uchida, and Y. Ohta, "Monolithically integrated optical gate 2×2 matrix switch using GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum well structure," Electron. Lett. 23, 1121‒1122 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Aksyuk, V. A.

V. A. Aksyuk, S. Arney, N. R. Basavanhally, D. J. Bishop, C. A. Bolle, C. C. Chang, R. Frahm, A. Gasparyan, J. V. Gates, R. George, C. R. Giles, J. Kim, P. R. Kolodner, T. M. Lee, D. T. Neilson, C. Nijander, C. J. Nuzman, M. Paczkowski, A. R. Papazian, F. Pardo, D. A. Ramsey, R. Ryf, R. E. Scotti, H. Shea, and M. E. Simon, "238×238 micromechanical optical cross connect," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 587‒589 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Albores-Mejia, A.

K. A. Williams, A. Albores-Mejia, T. de Vries, E. Smalbrugge, Y. S. Oei, M. K. Smit, and R. Notzel, "Scalable quantum dot based optical interconnects," OptoElectronics and Communications Conf., 2009 (OECC 2009), 2009, pp. 1‒2.

Alduino, A.

A. Alduino, L. Liao, R. Jones, M. Morse, B. Kim, W. Lo, J. Basak, B. Koch, H. Liu, H. Rong, M. Sysak, C. Krause, R. Saba, D. Lazar, L. Horwitz, R. Bar, S. Litski, A. Liu, K. Sullivan, O. Dosunmu, N. Na, T. Yin, F. Haubensack, I. Hsieh, J. Heck, R. Beatty, H. Park, J. Bovington, S. Lee, H. Nguyen, H. Au, K. Nguyen, P. Merani, M. Hakami, and M. Paniccia, "Demonstration of a high speed 4-channel integrated silicon photonics WDM link with hybrid silicon lasers," Photonics in Switching 2010 (PDIWI5), 25–28 July 2010.

Almstrom, E.

E. Almstrom, C. P. Larsen, L. Gillner, W. H. van Berlo, M. Gustavsson, and E. Berglind, "Experimental and analytical evaluation of packaged 4×4 InGaAsP/InP semiconductor optical amplifier gate switch matrices for optical networks," J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 996‒1004 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ambrosy, A.

F. Dorgeuiele, L. Noirie, J. P. Faure, A. Ambrosy, S. Rabaron, F. Boubal, M. Schilling, and C. Artigue, "1.28 Tbit/s throughput 8×8 optical switch based on arrays of gain-clamped semiconductor optical amplifier gates," Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Vol. 4, 2000, pp. 221‒223.

Anan, T.

K. Hamamoto, T. Anan, K. Komatsu, M. Sugimoto, and I. Mito, "First 8∗8 semiconductor optical matrix switches using GaAs/AlGaAs electro-optic guided-wave directional couplers," Electron. Lett. 28, 441‒443 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Andonovic, I.

D. K. Hunter, M. H. M. Nizam, M. C. Chia, I. Andonovic, K. M. Guild, A. Tzanakaki, M. J. O’Mahony, J. D. Bainbridge, M. F. C. Stephens, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, "WASPNET: a wavelength switched packet network," IEEE Commun. Mag. 37, (3), 120‒129 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Aoki, Y.

Y. Kai, K. Sone, S. Yoshida, Y. Aoki, G. Nakagawa, and S. Kinoshita, "A compact and lossless 8×8 SOA gate switch subsystem for WDM optical packet interconnections," ECOC 2008, 21–25 Sept. 2008, pp. 1‒2.

Armistead, C. J.

I. H. White, J. J. S. Watts, J. E. Carroll, C. J. Armistead, D. J. Moole, and J. A. Champelovier, "InGaAsP 400 ∗ 200 µm active crosspoint switch operating at 1.5 µm using novel reflective Y-coupler components," Electron. Lett. 26, 617‒618 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Arney, S.

V. A. Aksyuk, S. Arney, N. R. Basavanhally, D. J. Bishop, C. A. Bolle, C. C. Chang, R. Frahm, A. Gasparyan, J. V. Gates, R. George, C. R. Giles, J. Kim, P. R. Kolodner, T. M. Lee, D. T. Neilson, C. Nijander, C. J. Nuzman, M. Paczkowski, A. R. Papazian, F. Pardo, D. A. Ramsey, R. Ryf, R. E. Scotti, H. Shea, and M. E. Simon, "238×238 micromechanical optical cross connect," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 587‒589 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Artigue, C.

F. Dorgeuiele, L. Noirie, J. P. Faure, A. Ambrosy, S. Rabaron, F. Boubal, M. Schilling, and C. Artigue, "1.28 Tbit/s throughput 8×8 optical switch based on arrays of gain-clamped semiconductor optical amplifier gates," Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Vol. 4, 2000, pp. 221‒223.

Assefa, S.

S. Assefa, F. Xia, W. M. J. Green, C. L. Schow, A. V. Rylyakov, and Y. A. Vlasov, "CMOS-integrated optical receivers for on-chip interconnects," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 1376‒1385 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Au, H.

A. Alduino, L. Liao, R. Jones, M. Morse, B. Kim, W. Lo, J. Basak, B. Koch, H. Liu, H. Rong, M. Sysak, C. Krause, R. Saba, D. Lazar, L. Horwitz, R. Bar, S. Litski, A. Liu, K. Sullivan, O. Dosunmu, N. Na, T. Yin, F. Haubensack, I. Hsieh, J. Heck, R. Beatty, H. Park, J. Bovington, S. Lee, H. Nguyen, H. Au, K. Nguyen, P. Merani, M. Hakami, and M. Paniccia, "Demonstration of a high speed 4-channel integrated silicon photonics WDM link with hybrid silicon lasers," Photonics in Switching 2010 (PDIWI5), 25–28 July 2010.

Aw, E. T.

Aw, E.

E. Aw, A. Wonfor, M. Glick, R. Penty, and I. White, "Large dynamic range 32×32 optimized non-blocking SOA based switch for 2.56 Tb/s interconnect applications," 33rd European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC 2007), 2007, p. 2.

Aw, E. T.

E. T. Aw, T. Lin, A. Wonfor, M. Glick, K. A. Williams, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, "Layered control to enable large scale SOA switch fabric," ECOC 2006, 24–28 Sept. 2006, pp. 1‒2.

E. T. Aw, H. Wang, M. G. Thompson, A. Wonfor, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, and A. R. Kovsh, "Uncooled 2×2 quantum dot semiconductor optical amplifier based switch," Lasers and Electro-Optics, 2008 and 2008 Conf. on Quantum Electronics and Laser Science (CLEO/QELS 2008), 2008, pp. 1‒2.

E. T. Aw, A. Wonfor, M. Glick, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, "An optimized non-blocking SOA switch architecture for high performance Tb/s network interconnects," Photonics in Switching, 2007, pp. 15‒16.

Bachmann, M.

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D. K. Hunter, M. H. M. Nizam, M. C. Chia, I. Andonovic, K. M. Guild, A. Tzanakaki, M. J. O’Mahony, J. D. Bainbridge, M. F. C. Stephens, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, "WASPNET: a wavelength switched packet network," IEEE Commun. Mag. 37, (3), 120‒129 (1999).
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A. Alduino, L. Liao, R. Jones, M. Morse, B. Kim, W. Lo, J. Basak, B. Koch, H. Liu, H. Rong, M. Sysak, C. Krause, R. Saba, D. Lazar, L. Horwitz, R. Bar, S. Litski, A. Liu, K. Sullivan, O. Dosunmu, N. Na, T. Yin, F. Haubensack, I. Hsieh, J. Heck, R. Beatty, H. Park, J. Bovington, S. Lee, H. Nguyen, H. Au, K. Nguyen, P. Merani, M. Hakami, and M. Paniccia, "Demonstration of a high speed 4-channel integrated silicon photonics WDM link with hybrid silicon lasers," Photonics in Switching 2010 (PDIWI5), 25–28 July 2010.

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V. A. Aksyuk, S. Arney, N. R. Basavanhally, D. J. Bishop, C. A. Bolle, C. C. Chang, R. Frahm, A. Gasparyan, J. V. Gates, R. George, C. R. Giles, J. Kim, P. R. Kolodner, T. M. Lee, D. T. Neilson, C. Nijander, C. J. Nuzman, M. Paczkowski, A. R. Papazian, F. Pardo, D. A. Ramsey, R. Ryf, R. E. Scotti, H. Shea, and M. E. Simon, "238×238 micromechanical optical cross connect," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 587‒589 (2003).
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L. Dittmann, C. Develder, D. Chiaroni, F. Neri, F. Callegati, W. Koerber, A. Stavdas, M. Renaud, A. Rafel, J. Sole-Pareta, W. Cerroni, N. Leligou, L. Dembeck, B. Mortensen, M. Pickavet, N. Le Sauze, M. Mahony, B. Berde, and G. Eilenberger, "The European IST project DAVID: a viable approach toward optical packet switching," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 21, 1026‒1040 (2003).
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B. G. Lee, A. Biberman, J. Chan, and K. Bergman, "High-performance modulators and switches for silicon photonic networks-on-chip," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, (1), 6‒22 (2010).
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A. Shacham, B. G. Lee, and K. Bergman, "A wide-band nonblocking 2×2 switching node for a SPINet network," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17, 2742‒2744 (2005).
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Biberman, A.

B. G. Lee, A. Biberman, J. Chan, and K. Bergman, "High-performance modulators and switches for silicon photonic networks-on-chip," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, (1), 6‒22 (2010).
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V. A. Aksyuk, S. Arney, N. R. Basavanhally, D. J. Bishop, C. A. Bolle, C. C. Chang, R. Frahm, A. Gasparyan, J. V. Gates, R. George, C. R. Giles, J. Kim, P. R. Kolodner, T. M. Lee, D. T. Neilson, C. Nijander, C. J. Nuzman, M. Paczkowski, A. R. Papazian, F. Pardo, D. A. Ramsey, R. Ryf, R. E. Scotti, H. Shea, and M. E. Simon, "238×238 micromechanical optical cross connect," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 587‒589 (2003).
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J. A. Summers, V. Lal, M. L. Masanovic, N. Dagli, and D. J. Blumenthal, "Concave low-loss total internal reflection mirrors in indium phosphide for high fabrication tolerance," Conf. Lasers and Electro-Optics, 2007 (CLEO 2007), 2007, pp. 1‒2.

Bolle, C. A.

V. A. Aksyuk, S. Arney, N. R. Basavanhally, D. J. Bishop, C. A. Bolle, C. C. Chang, R. Frahm, A. Gasparyan, J. V. Gates, R. George, C. R. Giles, J. Kim, P. R. Kolodner, T. M. Lee, D. T. Neilson, C. Nijander, C. J. Nuzman, M. Paczkowski, A. R. Papazian, F. Pardo, D. A. Ramsey, R. Ryf, R. E. Scotti, H. Shea, and M. E. Simon, "238×238 micromechanical optical cross connect," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 587‒589 (2003).
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F. Dorgeuiele, L. Noirie, J. P. Faure, A. Ambrosy, S. Rabaron, F. Boubal, M. Schilling, and C. Artigue, "1.28 Tbit/s throughput 8×8 optical switch based on arrays of gain-clamped semiconductor optical amplifier gates," Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Vol. 4, 2000, pp. 221‒223.

Bovington, J.

A. Alduino, L. Liao, R. Jones, M. Morse, B. Kim, W. Lo, J. Basak, B. Koch, H. Liu, H. Rong, M. Sysak, C. Krause, R. Saba, D. Lazar, L. Horwitz, R. Bar, S. Litski, A. Liu, K. Sullivan, O. Dosunmu, N. Na, T. Yin, F. Haubensack, I. Hsieh, J. Heck, R. Beatty, H. Park, J. Bovington, S. Lee, H. Nguyen, H. Au, K. Nguyen, P. Merani, M. Hakami, and M. Paniccia, "Demonstration of a high speed 4-channel integrated silicon photonics WDM link with hybrid silicon lasers," Photonics in Switching 2010 (PDIWI5), 25–28 July 2010.

Bowers, J. E.

J. E. Bowers, A. W. Fang, H. Park, R. Jones, O. Cohen, and M. J. Paniccia, "Hybrid silicon evanescent photonic integrated circuit technology," Conf. Lasers and Electro-Optics, 2007 (CLEO 2007), 6–11 May 2007, CTuQ1.

Burton, J. D.

J. D. Burton, P. J. Fiddyment, M. J. Robertson, and P. Sully, "Monolithic InGaAsP-InP laser amplifier gate switch matrix," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 2023‒2027 (1993).
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Callegati, F.

L. Dittmann, C. Develder, D. Chiaroni, F. Neri, F. Callegati, W. Koerber, A. Stavdas, M. Renaud, A. Rafel, J. Sole-Pareta, W. Cerroni, N. Leligou, L. Dembeck, B. Mortensen, M. Pickavet, N. Le Sauze, M. Mahony, B. Berde, and G. Eilenberger, "The European IST project DAVID: a viable approach toward optical packet switching," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 21, 1026‒1040 (2003).
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I. H. White, J. J. S. Watts, J. E. Carroll, C. J. Armistead, D. J. Moole, and J. A. Champelovier, "InGaAsP 400 ∗ 200 µm active crosspoint switch operating at 1.5 µm using novel reflective Y-coupler components," Electron. Lett. 26, 617‒618 (1990).
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L. Dittmann, C. Develder, D. Chiaroni, F. Neri, F. Callegati, W. Koerber, A. Stavdas, M. Renaud, A. Rafel, J. Sole-Pareta, W. Cerroni, N. Leligou, L. Dembeck, B. Mortensen, M. Pickavet, N. Le Sauze, M. Mahony, B. Berde, and G. Eilenberger, "The European IST project DAVID: a viable approach toward optical packet switching," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 21, 1026‒1040 (2003).
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Champelovier, J. A.

I. H. White, J. J. S. Watts, J. E. Carroll, C. J. Armistead, D. J. Moole, and J. A. Champelovier, "InGaAsP 400 ∗ 200 µm active crosspoint switch operating at 1.5 µm using novel reflective Y-coupler components," Electron. Lett. 26, 617‒618 (1990).
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A. Zhang, K. T. Chan, M. S. Demokan, V. W. C. Chan, P. C. H. Chan, H. S. Kwok, and A. H. P. Chan, "Integrated liquid crystal optical switch based on total internal reflection," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, (21), 211108 (2005).
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Chan, A. H. P.

A. Zhang, K. T. Chan, M. S. Demokan, V. W. C. Chan, P. C. H. Chan, H. S. Kwok, and A. H. P. Chan, "Integrated liquid crystal optical switch based on total internal reflection," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, (21), 211108 (2005).
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Chan, J.

B. G. Lee, A. Biberman, J. Chan, and K. Bergman, "High-performance modulators and switches for silicon photonic networks-on-chip," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, (1), 6‒22 (2010).
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Chan, K. T.

A. Zhang, K. T. Chan, M. S. Demokan, V. W. C. Chan, P. C. H. Chan, H. S. Kwok, and A. H. P. Chan, "Integrated liquid crystal optical switch based on total internal reflection," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, (21), 211108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chan, V. W. C.

A. Zhang, K. T. Chan, M. S. Demokan, V. W. C. Chan, P. C. H. Chan, H. S. Kwok, and A. H. P. Chan, "Integrated liquid crystal optical switch based on total internal reflection," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, (21), 211108 (2005).
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Chang, C. C.

V. A. Aksyuk, S. Arney, N. R. Basavanhally, D. J. Bishop, C. A. Bolle, C. C. Chang, R. Frahm, A. Gasparyan, J. V. Gates, R. George, C. R. Giles, J. Kim, P. R. Kolodner, T. M. Lee, D. T. Neilson, C. Nijander, C. J. Nuzman, M. Paczkowski, A. R. Papazian, F. Pardo, D. A. Ramsey, R. Ryf, R. E. Scotti, H. Shea, and M. E. Simon, "238×238 micromechanical optical cross connect," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 587‒589 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chia, M. C.

D. K. Hunter, M. H. M. Nizam, M. C. Chia, I. Andonovic, K. M. Guild, A. Tzanakaki, M. J. O’Mahony, J. D. Bainbridge, M. F. C. Stephens, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, "WASPNET: a wavelength switched packet network," IEEE Commun. Mag. 37, (3), 120‒129 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chiaroni, D.

L. Dittmann, C. Develder, D. Chiaroni, F. Neri, F. Callegati, W. Koerber, A. Stavdas, M. Renaud, A. Rafel, J. Sole-Pareta, W. Cerroni, N. Leligou, L. Dembeck, B. Mortensen, M. Pickavet, N. Le Sauze, M. Mahony, B. Berde, and G. Eilenberger, "The European IST project DAVID: a viable approach toward optical packet switching," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 21, 1026‒1040 (2003).
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Cohen, O.

J. E. Bowers, A. W. Fang, H. Park, R. Jones, O. Cohen, and M. J. Paniccia, "Hybrid silicon evanescent photonic integrated circuit technology," Conf. Lasers and Electro-Optics, 2007 (CLEO 2007), 6–11 May 2007, CTuQ1.

Coldren, L. A.

G. A. Fish, B. Mason, L. A. Coldren, and S. P. DenBaars, "Compact, 4×4 InGaAsP-InP optical crossconnect with a scaleable architecture," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1256‒1258 (1998).
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Dagli, N.

J. A. Summers, V. Lal, M. L. Masanovic, N. Dagli, and D. J. Blumenthal, "Concave low-loss total internal reflection mirrors in indium phosphide for high fabrication tolerance," Conf. Lasers and Electro-Optics, 2007 (CLEO 2007), 2007, pp. 1‒2.

Dales, M.

I. H. White, K. A. Williams, R. V. Penty, T. Lin, A. Wonfor, E. T. Aw, M. Glick, M. Dales, and D. McAuley, "Control architecture for high capacity multistage photonic switch circuits," J. Opt. Netw. 6, 180‒188 (2007).
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M. Glick, M. Dales, D. McAuley, T. Lin, K. Williams, R. Penty, and I. White, "SWIFT: a testbed with optically switched data paths for computing applications," ICTON 2005, Vol. 2, 3–7 July 2005, pp. 29‒32.

de Vries, T.

K. A. Williams, A. Albores-Mejia, T. de Vries, E. Smalbrugge, Y. S. Oei, M. K. Smit, and R. Notzel, "Scalable quantum dot based optical interconnects," OptoElectronics and Communications Conf., 2009 (OECC 2009), 2009, pp. 1‒2.

Dembeck, L.

L. Dittmann, C. Develder, D. Chiaroni, F. Neri, F. Callegati, W. Koerber, A. Stavdas, M. Renaud, A. Rafel, J. Sole-Pareta, W. Cerroni, N. Leligou, L. Dembeck, B. Mortensen, M. Pickavet, N. Le Sauze, M. Mahony, B. Berde, and G. Eilenberger, "The European IST project DAVID: a viable approach toward optical packet switching," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 21, 1026‒1040 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Demokan, M. S.

A. Zhang, K. T. Chan, M. S. Demokan, V. W. C. Chan, P. C. H. Chan, H. S. Kwok, and A. H. P. Chan, "Integrated liquid crystal optical switch based on total internal reflection," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, (21), 211108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

DenBaars, S. P.

G. A. Fish, B. Mason, L. A. Coldren, and S. P. DenBaars, "Compact, 4×4 InGaAsP-InP optical crossconnect with a scaleable architecture," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1256‒1258 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Develder, C.

L. Dittmann, C. Develder, D. Chiaroni, F. Neri, F. Callegati, W. Koerber, A. Stavdas, M. Renaud, A. Rafel, J. Sole-Pareta, W. Cerroni, N. Leligou, L. Dembeck, B. Mortensen, M. Pickavet, N. Le Sauze, M. Mahony, B. Berde, and G. Eilenberger, "The European IST project DAVID: a viable approach toward optical packet switching," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 21, 1026‒1040 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dittmann, L.

L. Dittmann, C. Develder, D. Chiaroni, F. Neri, F. Callegati, W. Koerber, A. Stavdas, M. Renaud, A. Rafel, J. Sole-Pareta, W. Cerroni, N. Leligou, L. Dembeck, B. Mortensen, M. Pickavet, N. Le Sauze, M. Mahony, B. Berde, and G. Eilenberger, "The European IST project DAVID: a viable approach toward optical packet switching," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 21, 1026‒1040 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Djordjevic, I. B.

Dorgeuiele, F.

F. Dorgeuiele, L. Noirie, J. P. Faure, A. Ambrosy, S. Rabaron, F. Boubal, M. Schilling, and C. Artigue, "1.28 Tbit/s throughput 8×8 optical switch based on arrays of gain-clamped semiconductor optical amplifier gates," Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Vol. 4, 2000, pp. 221‒223.

Dosunmu, O.

A. Alduino, L. Liao, R. Jones, M. Morse, B. Kim, W. Lo, J. Basak, B. Koch, H. Liu, H. Rong, M. Sysak, C. Krause, R. Saba, D. Lazar, L. Horwitz, R. Bar, S. Litski, A. Liu, K. Sullivan, O. Dosunmu, N. Na, T. Yin, F. Haubensack, I. Hsieh, J. Heck, R. Beatty, H. Park, J. Bovington, S. Lee, H. Nguyen, H. Au, K. Nguyen, P. Merani, M. Hakami, and M. Paniccia, "Demonstration of a high speed 4-channel integrated silicon photonics WDM link with hybrid silicon lasers," Photonics in Switching 2010 (PDIWI5), 25–28 July 2010.

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P. J. Duthie and M. J. Wale, "16∗16 single chip optical switch array in lithium niobate," Electron. Lett. 27, (14), 1265‒1266 (1991).
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Eilenberger, G.

L. Dittmann, C. Develder, D. Chiaroni, F. Neri, F. Callegati, W. Koerber, A. Stavdas, M. Renaud, A. Rafel, J. Sole-Pareta, W. Cerroni, N. Leligou, L. Dembeck, B. Mortensen, M. Pickavet, N. Le Sauze, M. Mahony, B. Berde, and G. Eilenberger, "The European IST project DAVID: a viable approach toward optical packet switching," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 21, 1026‒1040 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Erman, M.

M. Renaud, M. Bachmann, and M. Erman, "Semiconductor optical space switches," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 277‒288 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Fang, A. W.

J. E. Bowers, A. W. Fang, H. Park, R. Jones, O. Cohen, and M. J. Paniccia, "Hybrid silicon evanescent photonic integrated circuit technology," Conf. Lasers and Electro-Optics, 2007 (CLEO 2007), 6–11 May 2007, CTuQ1.

Faure, J. P.

F. Dorgeuiele, L. Noirie, J. P. Faure, A. Ambrosy, S. Rabaron, F. Boubal, M. Schilling, and C. Artigue, "1.28 Tbit/s throughput 8×8 optical switch based on arrays of gain-clamped semiconductor optical amplifier gates," Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Vol. 4, 2000, pp. 221‒223.

Fedeli, J.-M.

Fiddyment, P. J.

J. D. Burton, P. J. Fiddyment, M. J. Robertson, and P. Sully, "Monolithic InGaAsP-InP laser amplifier gate switch matrix," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 2023‒2027 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Fish, G. A.

G. A. Fish, B. Mason, L. A. Coldren, and S. P. DenBaars, "Compact, 4×4 InGaAsP-InP optical crossconnect with a scaleable architecture," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1256‒1258 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Frahm, R.

V. A. Aksyuk, S. Arney, N. R. Basavanhally, D. J. Bishop, C. A. Bolle, C. C. Chang, R. Frahm, A. Gasparyan, J. V. Gates, R. George, C. R. Giles, J. Kim, P. R. Kolodner, T. M. Lee, D. T. Neilson, C. Nijander, C. J. Nuzman, M. Paczkowski, A. R. Papazian, F. Pardo, D. A. Ramsey, R. Ryf, R. E. Scotti, H. Shea, and M. E. Simon, "238×238 micromechanical optical cross connect," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 587‒589 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fujiwara, M.

A. Ajisawa, M. Fujiwara, J. Shimizu, M. Sugimoto, M. Uchida, and Y. Ohta, "Monolithically integrated optical gate 2×2 matrix switch using GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum well structure," Electron. Lett. 23, 1121‒1122 (1987).
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Gardes, F. Y.

Gasparyan, A.

V. A. Aksyuk, S. Arney, N. R. Basavanhally, D. J. Bishop, C. A. Bolle, C. C. Chang, R. Frahm, A. Gasparyan, J. V. Gates, R. George, C. R. Giles, J. Kim, P. R. Kolodner, T. M. Lee, D. T. Neilson, C. Nijander, C. J. Nuzman, M. Paczkowski, A. R. Papazian, F. Pardo, D. A. Ramsey, R. Ryf, R. E. Scotti, H. Shea, and M. E. Simon, "238×238 micromechanical optical cross connect," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 587‒589 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gates, J. V.

V. A. Aksyuk, S. Arney, N. R. Basavanhally, D. J. Bishop, C. A. Bolle, C. C. Chang, R. Frahm, A. Gasparyan, J. V. Gates, R. George, C. R. Giles, J. Kim, P. R. Kolodner, T. M. Lee, D. T. Neilson, C. Nijander, C. J. Nuzman, M. Paczkowski, A. R. Papazian, F. Pardo, D. A. Ramsey, R. Ryf, R. E. Scotti, H. Shea, and M. E. Simon, "238×238 micromechanical optical cross connect," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 587‒589 (2003).
[CrossRef]

George, R.

V. A. Aksyuk, S. Arney, N. R. Basavanhally, D. J. Bishop, C. A. Bolle, C. C. Chang, R. Frahm, A. Gasparyan, J. V. Gates, R. George, C. R. Giles, J. Kim, P. R. Kolodner, T. M. Lee, D. T. Neilson, C. Nijander, C. J. Nuzman, M. Paczkowski, A. R. Papazian, F. Pardo, D. A. Ramsey, R. Ryf, R. E. Scotti, H. Shea, and M. E. Simon, "238×238 micromechanical optical cross connect," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 587‒589 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Giles, C. R.

V. A. Aksyuk, S. Arney, N. R. Basavanhally, D. J. Bishop, C. A. Bolle, C. C. Chang, R. Frahm, A. Gasparyan, J. V. Gates, R. George, C. R. Giles, J. Kim, P. R. Kolodner, T. M. Lee, D. T. Neilson, C. Nijander, C. J. Nuzman, M. Paczkowski, A. R. Papazian, F. Pardo, D. A. Ramsey, R. Ryf, R. E. Scotti, H. Shea, and M. E. Simon, "238×238 micromechanical optical cross connect," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 587‒589 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gillner, L.

E. Almstrom, C. P. Larsen, L. Gillner, W. H. van Berlo, M. Gustavsson, and E. Berglind, "Experimental and analytical evaluation of packaged 4×4 InGaAsP/InP semiconductor optical amplifier gate switch matrices for optical networks," J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 996‒1004 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Glick, M.

I. H. White, K. A. Williams, R. V. Penty, T. Lin, A. Wonfor, E. T. Aw, M. Glick, M. Dales, and D. McAuley, "Control architecture for high capacity multistage photonic switch circuits," J. Opt. Netw. 6, 180‒188 (2007).
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T. Lin, K. A. Williams, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, and M. Glick, "Capacity scaling in a multihost wavelength-striped SOA-based switch fabric," J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 655‒663 (2007).
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E. Aw, A. Wonfor, M. Glick, R. Penty, and I. White, "Large dynamic range 32×32 optimized non-blocking SOA based switch for 2.56 Tb/s interconnect applications," 33rd European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC 2007), 2007, p. 2.

E. T. Aw, T. Lin, A. Wonfor, M. Glick, K. A. Williams, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, "Layered control to enable large scale SOA switch fabric," ECOC 2006, 24–28 Sept. 2006, pp. 1‒2.

M. Glick, M. Dales, D. McAuley, T. Lin, K. Williams, R. Penty, and I. White, "SWIFT: a testbed with optically switched data paths for computing applications," ICTON 2005, Vol. 2, 3–7 July 2005, pp. 29‒32.

E. T. Aw, A. Wonfor, M. Glick, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, "An optimized non-blocking SOA switch architecture for high performance Tb/s network interconnects," Photonics in Switching, 2007, pp. 15‒16.

Green, W. M. J.

S. Assefa, F. Xia, W. M. J. Green, C. L. Schow, A. V. Rylyakov, and Y. A. Vlasov, "CMOS-integrated optical receivers for on-chip interconnects," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 1376‒1385 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Grzybowski, R.

R. P. Luijten and R. Grzybowski, "The OSMOSIS optical packet switch for supercomputers," OFC 2009, 22–26 Mar. 2009, OTuF3.

Guild, K. M.

D. K. Hunter, M. H. M. Nizam, M. C. Chia, I. Andonovic, K. M. Guild, A. Tzanakaki, M. J. O’Mahony, J. D. Bainbridge, M. F. C. Stephens, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, "WASPNET: a wavelength switched packet network," IEEE Commun. Mag. 37, (3), 120‒129 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gustavsson, M.

E. Almstrom, C. P. Larsen, L. Gillner, W. H. van Berlo, M. Gustavsson, and E. Berglind, "Experimental and analytical evaluation of packaged 4×4 InGaAsP/InP semiconductor optical amplifier gate switch matrices for optical networks," J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 996‒1004 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Gustavsson, B. Lagerstrom, L. Thylen, M. Janson, L. Lundgren, A. C. Morner, M. Rask, and B. Stoltz, "Monolithically integrated 4∗4 InGaAsP/InP laser amplifier gate switch arrays," Electron. Lett. 28, 2223‒2225 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Hakami, M.

A. Alduino, L. Liao, R. Jones, M. Morse, B. Kim, W. Lo, J. Basak, B. Koch, H. Liu, H. Rong, M. Sysak, C. Krause, R. Saba, D. Lazar, L. Horwitz, R. Bar, S. Litski, A. Liu, K. Sullivan, O. Dosunmu, N. Na, T. Yin, F. Haubensack, I. Hsieh, J. Heck, R. Beatty, H. Park, J. Bovington, S. Lee, H. Nguyen, H. Au, K. Nguyen, P. Merani, M. Hakami, and M. Paniccia, "Demonstration of a high speed 4-channel integrated silicon photonics WDM link with hybrid silicon lasers," Photonics in Switching 2010 (PDIWI5), 25–28 July 2010.

Hamamoto, K.

K. Hamamoto, T. Anan, K. Komatsu, M. Sugimoto, and I. Mito, "First 8∗8 semiconductor optical matrix switches using GaAs/AlGaAs electro-optic guided-wave directional couplers," Electron. Lett. 28, 441‒443 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Hashimoto, T.

N. Xie, T. Hashimoto, and K. Utaka, "Ultimate-low-power-consumption, polarization-independent, and high-speed polymer Mach–Zehnder thermo-optic switch," OFC 2009, 22–26 Mar. 2009, pp. 1‒3.

Haubensack, F.

A. Alduino, L. Liao, R. Jones, M. Morse, B. Kim, W. Lo, J. Basak, B. Koch, H. Liu, H. Rong, M. Sysak, C. Krause, R. Saba, D. Lazar, L. Horwitz, R. Bar, S. Litski, A. Liu, K. Sullivan, O. Dosunmu, N. Na, T. Yin, F. Haubensack, I. Hsieh, J. Heck, R. Beatty, H. Park, J. Bovington, S. Lee, H. Nguyen, H. Au, K. Nguyen, P. Merani, M. Hakami, and M. Paniccia, "Demonstration of a high speed 4-channel integrated silicon photonics WDM link with hybrid silicon lasers," Photonics in Switching 2010 (PDIWI5), 25–28 July 2010.

Heck, J.

A. Alduino, L. Liao, R. Jones, M. Morse, B. Kim, W. Lo, J. Basak, B. Koch, H. Liu, H. Rong, M. Sysak, C. Krause, R. Saba, D. Lazar, L. Horwitz, R. Bar, S. Litski, A. Liu, K. Sullivan, O. Dosunmu, N. Na, T. Yin, F. Haubensack, I. Hsieh, J. Heck, R. Beatty, H. Park, J. Bovington, S. Lee, H. Nguyen, H. Au, K. Nguyen, P. Merani, M. Hakami, and M. Paniccia, "Demonstration of a high speed 4-channel integrated silicon photonics WDM link with hybrid silicon lasers," Photonics in Switching 2010 (PDIWI5), 25–28 July 2010.

Hölzle, U.

L. A. Barroso and U. Hölzle, "The datacenter as a computer: an introduction to the design of warehouse-scale machines," Synthesis Lectures on Computer Architecture, Morgan & Claypool, 2009.

Horwitz, L.

A. Alduino, L. Liao, R. Jones, M. Morse, B. Kim, W. Lo, J. Basak, B. Koch, H. Liu, H. Rong, M. Sysak, C. Krause, R. Saba, D. Lazar, L. Horwitz, R. Bar, S. Litski, A. Liu, K. Sullivan, O. Dosunmu, N. Na, T. Yin, F. Haubensack, I. Hsieh, J. Heck, R. Beatty, H. Park, J. Bovington, S. Lee, H. Nguyen, H. Au, K. Nguyen, P. Merani, M. Hakami, and M. Paniccia, "Demonstration of a high speed 4-channel integrated silicon photonics WDM link with hybrid silicon lasers," Photonics in Switching 2010 (PDIWI5), 25–28 July 2010.

Hsieh, I.

A. Alduino, L. Liao, R. Jones, M. Morse, B. Kim, W. Lo, J. Basak, B. Koch, H. Liu, H. Rong, M. Sysak, C. Krause, R. Saba, D. Lazar, L. Horwitz, R. Bar, S. Litski, A. Liu, K. Sullivan, O. Dosunmu, N. Na, T. Yin, F. Haubensack, I. Hsieh, J. Heck, R. Beatty, H. Park, J. Bovington, S. Lee, H. Nguyen, H. Au, K. Nguyen, P. Merani, M. Hakami, and M. Paniccia, "Demonstration of a high speed 4-channel integrated silicon photonics WDM link with hybrid silicon lasers," Photonics in Switching 2010 (PDIWI5), 25–28 July 2010.

Hughes, G. D.

Hunter, D. K.

D. K. Hunter, M. H. M. Nizam, M. C. Chia, I. Andonovic, K. M. Guild, A. Tzanakaki, M. J. O’Mahony, J. D. Bainbridge, M. F. C. Stephens, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, "WASPNET: a wavelength switched packet network," IEEE Commun. Mag. 37, (3), 120‒129 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Janson, M.

M. Gustavsson, B. Lagerstrom, L. Thylen, M. Janson, L. Lundgren, A. C. Morner, M. Rask, and B. Stoltz, "Monolithically integrated 4∗4 InGaAsP/InP laser amplifier gate switch arrays," Electron. Lett. 28, 2223‒2225 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, F. G.

Jones, R.

J. E. Bowers, A. W. Fang, H. Park, R. Jones, O. Cohen, and M. J. Paniccia, "Hybrid silicon evanescent photonic integrated circuit technology," Conf. Lasers and Electro-Optics, 2007 (CLEO 2007), 6–11 May 2007, CTuQ1.

A. Alduino, L. Liao, R. Jones, M. Morse, B. Kim, W. Lo, J. Basak, B. Koch, H. Liu, H. Rong, M. Sysak, C. Krause, R. Saba, D. Lazar, L. Horwitz, R. Bar, S. Litski, A. Liu, K. Sullivan, O. Dosunmu, N. Na, T. Yin, F. Haubensack, I. Hsieh, J. Heck, R. Beatty, H. Park, J. Bovington, S. Lee, H. Nguyen, H. Au, K. Nguyen, P. Merani, M. Hakami, and M. Paniccia, "Demonstration of a high speed 4-channel integrated silicon photonics WDM link with hybrid silicon lasers," Photonics in Switching 2010 (PDIWI5), 25–28 July 2010.

Kai, Y.

Y. Kai, K. Sone, S. Yoshida, Y. Aoki, G. Nakagawa, and S. Kinoshita, "A compact and lossless 8×8 SOA gate switch subsystem for WDM optical packet interconnections," ECOC 2008, 21–25 Sept. 2008, pp. 1‒2.

Kim, B.

A. Alduino, L. Liao, R. Jones, M. Morse, B. Kim, W. Lo, J. Basak, B. Koch, H. Liu, H. Rong, M. Sysak, C. Krause, R. Saba, D. Lazar, L. Horwitz, R. Bar, S. Litski, A. Liu, K. Sullivan, O. Dosunmu, N. Na, T. Yin, F. Haubensack, I. Hsieh, J. Heck, R. Beatty, H. Park, J. Bovington, S. Lee, H. Nguyen, H. Au, K. Nguyen, P. Merani, M. Hakami, and M. Paniccia, "Demonstration of a high speed 4-channel integrated silicon photonics WDM link with hybrid silicon lasers," Photonics in Switching 2010 (PDIWI5), 25–28 July 2010.

Kim, H.-S.

J.-H. Song, H.-S. Kim, E. D. Shim, J.-W. Park, and Y. S. Baek, "Monolithically integrated 4×4 InGaAsP/InP laser amplifier gate switch matrix based on buried ridge stripe waveguides," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, L18‒L20 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J.

V. A. Aksyuk, S. Arney, N. R. Basavanhally, D. J. Bishop, C. A. Bolle, C. C. Chang, R. Frahm, A. Gasparyan, J. V. Gates, R. George, C. R. Giles, J. Kim, P. R. Kolodner, T. M. Lee, D. T. Neilson, C. Nijander, C. J. Nuzman, M. Paczkowski, A. R. Papazian, F. Pardo, D. A. Ramsey, R. Ryf, R. E. Scotti, H. Shea, and M. E. Simon, "238×238 micromechanical optical cross connect," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 587‒589 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kinoshita, S.

Y. Kai, K. Sone, S. Yoshida, Y. Aoki, G. Nakagawa, and S. Kinoshita, "A compact and lossless 8×8 SOA gate switch subsystem for WDM optical packet interconnections," ECOC 2008, 21–25 Sept. 2008, pp. 1‒2.

Koch, B.

A. Alduino, L. Liao, R. Jones, M. Morse, B. Kim, W. Lo, J. Basak, B. Koch, H. Liu, H. Rong, M. Sysak, C. Krause, R. Saba, D. Lazar, L. Horwitz, R. Bar, S. Litski, A. Liu, K. Sullivan, O. Dosunmu, N. Na, T. Yin, F. Haubensack, I. Hsieh, J. Heck, R. Beatty, H. Park, J. Bovington, S. Lee, H. Nguyen, H. Au, K. Nguyen, P. Merani, M. Hakami, and M. Paniccia, "Demonstration of a high speed 4-channel integrated silicon photonics WDM link with hybrid silicon lasers," Photonics in Switching 2010 (PDIWI5), 25–28 July 2010.

Koerber, W.

L. Dittmann, C. Develder, D. Chiaroni, F. Neri, F. Callegati, W. Koerber, A. Stavdas, M. Renaud, A. Rafel, J. Sole-Pareta, W. Cerroni, N. Leligou, L. Dembeck, B. Mortensen, M. Pickavet, N. Le Sauze, M. Mahony, B. Berde, and G. Eilenberger, "The European IST project DAVID: a viable approach toward optical packet switching," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 21, 1026‒1040 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kolodner, P. R.

V. A. Aksyuk, S. Arney, N. R. Basavanhally, D. J. Bishop, C. A. Bolle, C. C. Chang, R. Frahm, A. Gasparyan, J. V. Gates, R. George, C. R. Giles, J. Kim, P. R. Kolodner, T. M. Lee, D. T. Neilson, C. Nijander, C. J. Nuzman, M. Paczkowski, A. R. Papazian, F. Pardo, D. A. Ramsey, R. Ryf, R. E. Scotti, H. Shea, and M. E. Simon, "238×238 micromechanical optical cross connect," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 587‒589 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Komatsu, K.

K. Hamamoto, T. Anan, K. Komatsu, M. Sugimoto, and I. Mito, "First 8∗8 semiconductor optical matrix switches using GaAs/AlGaAs electro-optic guided-wave directional couplers," Electron. Lett. 28, 441‒443 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kovsh, A. R.

E. T. Aw, H. Wang, M. G. Thompson, A. Wonfor, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, and A. R. Kovsh, "Uncooled 2×2 quantum dot semiconductor optical amplifier based switch," Lasers and Electro-Optics, 2008 and 2008 Conf. on Quantum Electronics and Laser Science (CLEO/QELS 2008), 2008, pp. 1‒2.

Krause, C.

A. Alduino, L. Liao, R. Jones, M. Morse, B. Kim, W. Lo, J. Basak, B. Koch, H. Liu, H. Rong, M. Sysak, C. Krause, R. Saba, D. Lazar, L. Horwitz, R. Bar, S. Litski, A. Liu, K. Sullivan, O. Dosunmu, N. Na, T. Yin, F. Haubensack, I. Hsieh, J. Heck, R. Beatty, H. Park, J. Bovington, S. Lee, H. Nguyen, H. Au, K. Nguyen, P. Merani, M. Hakami, and M. Paniccia, "Demonstration of a high speed 4-channel integrated silicon photonics WDM link with hybrid silicon lasers," Photonics in Switching 2010 (PDIWI5), 25–28 July 2010.

Kwok, H. S.

A. Zhang, K. T. Chan, M. S. Demokan, V. W. C. Chan, P. C. H. Chan, H. S. Kwok, and A. H. P. Chan, "Integrated liquid crystal optical switch based on total internal reflection," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, (21), 211108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lagerstrom, B.

M. Gustavsson, B. Lagerstrom, L. Thylen, M. Janson, L. Lundgren, A. C. Morner, M. Rask, and B. Stoltz, "Monolithically integrated 4∗4 InGaAsP/InP laser amplifier gate switch arrays," Electron. Lett. 28, 2223‒2225 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Lal, V.

J. A. Summers, V. Lal, M. L. Masanovic, N. Dagli, and D. J. Blumenthal, "Concave low-loss total internal reflection mirrors in indium phosphide for high fabrication tolerance," Conf. Lasers and Electro-Optics, 2007 (CLEO 2007), 2007, pp. 1‒2.

Larsen, C. P.

E. Almstrom, C. P. Larsen, L. Gillner, W. H. van Berlo, M. Gustavsson, and E. Berglind, "Experimental and analytical evaluation of packaged 4×4 InGaAsP/InP semiconductor optical amplifier gate switch matrices for optical networks," J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 996‒1004 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lazar, D.

A. Alduino, L. Liao, R. Jones, M. Morse, B. Kim, W. Lo, J. Basak, B. Koch, H. Liu, H. Rong, M. Sysak, C. Krause, R. Saba, D. Lazar, L. Horwitz, R. Bar, S. Litski, A. Liu, K. Sullivan, O. Dosunmu, N. Na, T. Yin, F. Haubensack, I. Hsieh, J. Heck, R. Beatty, H. Park, J. Bovington, S. Lee, H. Nguyen, H. Au, K. Nguyen, P. Merani, M. Hakami, and M. Paniccia, "Demonstration of a high speed 4-channel integrated silicon photonics WDM link with hybrid silicon lasers," Photonics in Switching 2010 (PDIWI5), 25–28 July 2010.

Le Sauze, N.

L. Dittmann, C. Develder, D. Chiaroni, F. Neri, F. Callegati, W. Koerber, A. Stavdas, M. Renaud, A. Rafel, J. Sole-Pareta, W. Cerroni, N. Leligou, L. Dembeck, B. Mortensen, M. Pickavet, N. Le Sauze, M. Mahony, B. Berde, and G. Eilenberger, "The European IST project DAVID: a viable approach toward optical packet switching," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 21, 1026‒1040 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lee, B. G.

B. G. Lee, A. Biberman, J. Chan, and K. Bergman, "High-performance modulators and switches for silicon photonic networks-on-chip," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, (1), 6‒22 (2010).
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A. Shacham, B. G. Lee, and K. Bergman, "A wide-band nonblocking 2×2 switching node for a SPINet network," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17, 2742‒2744 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S.

A. Alduino, L. Liao, R. Jones, M. Morse, B. Kim, W. Lo, J. Basak, B. Koch, H. Liu, H. Rong, M. Sysak, C. Krause, R. Saba, D. Lazar, L. Horwitz, R. Bar, S. Litski, A. Liu, K. Sullivan, O. Dosunmu, N. Na, T. Yin, F. Haubensack, I. Hsieh, J. Heck, R. Beatty, H. Park, J. Bovington, S. Lee, H. Nguyen, H. Au, K. Nguyen, P. Merani, M. Hakami, and M. Paniccia, "Demonstration of a high speed 4-channel integrated silicon photonics WDM link with hybrid silicon lasers," Photonics in Switching 2010 (PDIWI5), 25–28 July 2010.

Lee, T. M.

V. A. Aksyuk, S. Arney, N. R. Basavanhally, D. J. Bishop, C. A. Bolle, C. C. Chang, R. Frahm, A. Gasparyan, J. V. Gates, R. George, C. R. Giles, J. Kim, P. R. Kolodner, T. M. Lee, D. T. Neilson, C. Nijander, C. J. Nuzman, M. Paczkowski, A. R. Papazian, F. Pardo, D. A. Ramsey, R. Ryf, R. E. Scotti, H. Shea, and M. E. Simon, "238×238 micromechanical optical cross connect," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 587‒589 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Leligou, N.

L. Dittmann, C. Develder, D. Chiaroni, F. Neri, F. Callegati, W. Koerber, A. Stavdas, M. Renaud, A. Rafel, J. Sole-Pareta, W. Cerroni, N. Leligou, L. Dembeck, B. Mortensen, M. Pickavet, N. Le Sauze, M. Mahony, B. Berde, and G. Eilenberger, "The European IST project DAVID: a viable approach toward optical packet switching," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 21, 1026‒1040 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Liao, L.

A. Alduino, L. Liao, R. Jones, M. Morse, B. Kim, W. Lo, J. Basak, B. Koch, H. Liu, H. Rong, M. Sysak, C. Krause, R. Saba, D. Lazar, L. Horwitz, R. Bar, S. Litski, A. Liu, K. Sullivan, O. Dosunmu, N. Na, T. Yin, F. Haubensack, I. Hsieh, J. Heck, R. Beatty, H. Park, J. Bovington, S. Lee, H. Nguyen, H. Au, K. Nguyen, P. Merani, M. Hakami, and M. Paniccia, "Demonstration of a high speed 4-channel integrated silicon photonics WDM link with hybrid silicon lasers," Photonics in Switching 2010 (PDIWI5), 25–28 July 2010.

Liboiron-Ladouceur, O.

Lin, T.

T. Lin, K. A. Williams, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, and M. Glick, "Capacity scaling in a multihost wavelength-striped SOA-based switch fabric," J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 655‒663 (2007).
[CrossRef]

I. H. White, K. A. Williams, R. V. Penty, T. Lin, A. Wonfor, E. T. Aw, M. Glick, M. Dales, and D. McAuley, "Control architecture for high capacity multistage photonic switch circuits," J. Opt. Netw. 6, 180‒188 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Glick, M. Dales, D. McAuley, T. Lin, K. Williams, R. Penty, and I. White, "SWIFT: a testbed with optically switched data paths for computing applications," ICTON 2005, Vol. 2, 3–7 July 2005, pp. 29‒32.

E. T. Aw, T. Lin, A. Wonfor, M. Glick, K. A. Williams, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, "Layered control to enable large scale SOA switch fabric," ECOC 2006, 24–28 Sept. 2006, pp. 1‒2.

Lipson, M.

M. Lipson, "Compact electro-optic modulators on a silicon chip," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1520‒1526 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Litski, S.

A. Alduino, L. Liao, R. Jones, M. Morse, B. Kim, W. Lo, J. Basak, B. Koch, H. Liu, H. Rong, M. Sysak, C. Krause, R. Saba, D. Lazar, L. Horwitz, R. Bar, S. Litski, A. Liu, K. Sullivan, O. Dosunmu, N. Na, T. Yin, F. Haubensack, I. Hsieh, J. Heck, R. Beatty, H. Park, J. Bovington, S. Lee, H. Nguyen, H. Au, K. Nguyen, P. Merani, M. Hakami, and M. Paniccia, "Demonstration of a high speed 4-channel integrated silicon photonics WDM link with hybrid silicon lasers," Photonics in Switching 2010 (PDIWI5), 25–28 July 2010.

Liu, A.

A. Alduino, L. Liao, R. Jones, M. Morse, B. Kim, W. Lo, J. Basak, B. Koch, H. Liu, H. Rong, M. Sysak, C. Krause, R. Saba, D. Lazar, L. Horwitz, R. Bar, S. Litski, A. Liu, K. Sullivan, O. Dosunmu, N. Na, T. Yin, F. Haubensack, I. Hsieh, J. Heck, R. Beatty, H. Park, J. Bovington, S. Lee, H. Nguyen, H. Au, K. Nguyen, P. Merani, M. Hakami, and M. Paniccia, "Demonstration of a high speed 4-channel integrated silicon photonics WDM link with hybrid silicon lasers," Photonics in Switching 2010 (PDIWI5), 25–28 July 2010.

Liu, H.

A. Alduino, L. Liao, R. Jones, M. Morse, B. Kim, W. Lo, J. Basak, B. Koch, H. Liu, H. Rong, M. Sysak, C. Krause, R. Saba, D. Lazar, L. Horwitz, R. Bar, S. Litski, A. Liu, K. Sullivan, O. Dosunmu, N. Na, T. Yin, F. Haubensack, I. Hsieh, J. Heck, R. Beatty, H. Park, J. Bovington, S. Lee, H. Nguyen, H. Au, K. Nguyen, P. Merani, M. Hakami, and M. Paniccia, "Demonstration of a high speed 4-channel integrated silicon photonics WDM link with hybrid silicon lasers," Photonics in Switching 2010 (PDIWI5), 25–28 July 2010.

Lo, W.

A. Alduino, L. Liao, R. Jones, M. Morse, B. Kim, W. Lo, J. Basak, B. Koch, H. Liu, H. Rong, M. Sysak, C. Krause, R. Saba, D. Lazar, L. Horwitz, R. Bar, S. Litski, A. Liu, K. Sullivan, O. Dosunmu, N. Na, T. Yin, F. Haubensack, I. Hsieh, J. Heck, R. Beatty, H. Park, J. Bovington, S. Lee, H. Nguyen, H. Au, K. Nguyen, P. Merani, M. Hakami, and M. Paniccia, "Demonstration of a high speed 4-channel integrated silicon photonics WDM link with hybrid silicon lasers," Photonics in Switching 2010 (PDIWI5), 25–28 July 2010.

Luijten, R. P.

R. P. Luijten and R. Grzybowski, "The OSMOSIS optical packet switch for supercomputers," OFC 2009, 22–26 Mar. 2009, OTuF3.

Lundgren, L.

M. Gustavsson, B. Lagerstrom, L. Thylen, M. Janson, L. Lundgren, A. C. Morner, M. Rask, and B. Stoltz, "Monolithically integrated 4∗4 InGaAsP/InP laser amplifier gate switch arrays," Electron. Lett. 28, 2223‒2225 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Mahony, M.

L. Dittmann, C. Develder, D. Chiaroni, F. Neri, F. Callegati, W. Koerber, A. Stavdas, M. Renaud, A. Rafel, J. Sole-Pareta, W. Cerroni, N. Leligou, L. Dembeck, B. Mortensen, M. Pickavet, N. Le Sauze, M. Mahony, B. Berde, and G. Eilenberger, "The European IST project DAVID: a viable approach toward optical packet switching," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 21, 1026‒1040 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Masanovic, M. L.

J. A. Summers, V. Lal, M. L. Masanovic, N. Dagli, and D. J. Blumenthal, "Concave low-loss total internal reflection mirrors in indium phosphide for high fabrication tolerance," Conf. Lasers and Electro-Optics, 2007 (CLEO 2007), 2007, pp. 1‒2.

Mason, B.

G. A. Fish, B. Mason, L. A. Coldren, and S. P. DenBaars, "Compact, 4×4 InGaAsP-InP optical crossconnect with a scaleable architecture," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1256‒1258 (1998).
[CrossRef]

McAuley, D.

I. H. White, K. A. Williams, R. V. Penty, T. Lin, A. Wonfor, E. T. Aw, M. Glick, M. Dales, and D. McAuley, "Control architecture for high capacity multistage photonic switch circuits," J. Opt. Netw. 6, 180‒188 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Glick, M. Dales, D. McAuley, T. Lin, K. Williams, R. Penty, and I. White, "SWIFT: a testbed with optically switched data paths for computing applications," ICTON 2005, Vol. 2, 3–7 July 2005, pp. 29‒32.

McKeown, N.

N. McKeown, "The iSLIP scheduling algorithm for input-queued switches," IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 7, (2), 188‒201 (1999).
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A. Alduino, L. Liao, R. Jones, M. Morse, B. Kim, W. Lo, J. Basak, B. Koch, H. Liu, H. Rong, M. Sysak, C. Krause, R. Saba, D. Lazar, L. Horwitz, R. Bar, S. Litski, A. Liu, K. Sullivan, O. Dosunmu, N. Na, T. Yin, F. Haubensack, I. Hsieh, J. Heck, R. Beatty, H. Park, J. Bovington, S. Lee, H. Nguyen, H. Au, K. Nguyen, P. Merani, M. Hakami, and M. Paniccia, "Demonstration of a high speed 4-channel integrated silicon photonics WDM link with hybrid silicon lasers," Photonics in Switching 2010 (PDIWI5), 25–28 July 2010.

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L. Dittmann, C. Develder, D. Chiaroni, F. Neri, F. Callegati, W. Koerber, A. Stavdas, M. Renaud, A. Rafel, J. Sole-Pareta, W. Cerroni, N. Leligou, L. Dembeck, B. Mortensen, M. Pickavet, N. Le Sauze, M. Mahony, B. Berde, and G. Eilenberger, "The European IST project DAVID: a viable approach toward optical packet switching," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 21, 1026‒1040 (2003).
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V. A. Aksyuk, S. Arney, N. R. Basavanhally, D. J. Bishop, C. A. Bolle, C. C. Chang, R. Frahm, A. Gasparyan, J. V. Gates, R. George, C. R. Giles, J. Kim, P. R. Kolodner, T. M. Lee, D. T. Neilson, C. Nijander, C. J. Nuzman, M. Paczkowski, A. R. Papazian, F. Pardo, D. A. Ramsey, R. Ryf, R. E. Scotti, H. Shea, and M. E. Simon, "238×238 micromechanical optical cross connect," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 587‒589 (2003).
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L. Dittmann, C. Develder, D. Chiaroni, F. Neri, F. Callegati, W. Koerber, A. Stavdas, M. Renaud, A. Rafel, J. Sole-Pareta, W. Cerroni, N. Leligou, L. Dembeck, B. Mortensen, M. Pickavet, N. Le Sauze, M. Mahony, B. Berde, and G. Eilenberger, "The European IST project DAVID: a viable approach toward optical packet switching," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 21, 1026‒1040 (2003).
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A. Alduino, L. Liao, R. Jones, M. Morse, B. Kim, W. Lo, J. Basak, B. Koch, H. Liu, H. Rong, M. Sysak, C. Krause, R. Saba, D. Lazar, L. Horwitz, R. Bar, S. Litski, A. Liu, K. Sullivan, O. Dosunmu, N. Na, T. Yin, F. Haubensack, I. Hsieh, J. Heck, R. Beatty, H. Park, J. Bovington, S. Lee, H. Nguyen, H. Au, K. Nguyen, P. Merani, M. Hakami, and M. Paniccia, "Demonstration of a high speed 4-channel integrated silicon photonics WDM link with hybrid silicon lasers," Photonics in Switching 2010 (PDIWI5), 25–28 July 2010.

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V. A. Aksyuk, S. Arney, N. R. Basavanhally, D. J. Bishop, C. A. Bolle, C. C. Chang, R. Frahm, A. Gasparyan, J. V. Gates, R. George, C. R. Giles, J. Kim, P. R. Kolodner, T. M. Lee, D. T. Neilson, C. Nijander, C. J. Nuzman, M. Paczkowski, A. R. Papazian, F. Pardo, D. A. Ramsey, R. Ryf, R. E. Scotti, H. Shea, and M. E. Simon, "238×238 micromechanical optical cross connect," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 587‒589 (2003).
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V. A. Aksyuk, S. Arney, N. R. Basavanhally, D. J. Bishop, C. A. Bolle, C. C. Chang, R. Frahm, A. Gasparyan, J. V. Gates, R. George, C. R. Giles, J. Kim, P. R. Kolodner, T. M. Lee, D. T. Neilson, C. Nijander, C. J. Nuzman, M. Paczkowski, A. R. Papazian, F. Pardo, D. A. Ramsey, R. Ryf, R. E. Scotti, H. Shea, and M. E. Simon, "238×238 micromechanical optical cross connect," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 587‒589 (2003).
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K. A. Williams, A. Albores-Mejia, T. de Vries, E. Smalbrugge, Y. S. Oei, M. K. Smit, and R. Notzel, "Scalable quantum dot based optical interconnects," OptoElectronics and Communications Conf., 2009 (OECC 2009), 2009, pp. 1‒2.

Ohta, Y.

A. Ajisawa, M. Fujiwara, J. Shimizu, M. Sugimoto, M. Uchida, and Y. Ohta, "Monolithically integrated optical gate 2×2 matrix switch using GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum well structure," Electron. Lett. 23, 1121‒1122 (1987).
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Owen, M.

S. Yu, M. Owen, R. Varrazza, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, "Demonstration of high-speed optical packet routing using vertical coupler crosspoint space switch array," Electron. Lett. 36, 556‒558 (2000).
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Paczkowski, M.

V. A. Aksyuk, S. Arney, N. R. Basavanhally, D. J. Bishop, C. A. Bolle, C. C. Chang, R. Frahm, A. Gasparyan, J. V. Gates, R. George, C. R. Giles, J. Kim, P. R. Kolodner, T. M. Lee, D. T. Neilson, C. Nijander, C. J. Nuzman, M. Paczkowski, A. R. Papazian, F. Pardo, D. A. Ramsey, R. Ryf, R. E. Scotti, H. Shea, and M. E. Simon, "238×238 micromechanical optical cross connect," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 587‒589 (2003).
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Paniccia, M. J.

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Papazian, A. R.

V. A. Aksyuk, S. Arney, N. R. Basavanhally, D. J. Bishop, C. A. Bolle, C. C. Chang, R. Frahm, A. Gasparyan, J. V. Gates, R. George, C. R. Giles, J. Kim, P. R. Kolodner, T. M. Lee, D. T. Neilson, C. Nijander, C. J. Nuzman, M. Paczkowski, A. R. Papazian, F. Pardo, D. A. Ramsey, R. Ryf, R. E. Scotti, H. Shea, and M. E. Simon, "238×238 micromechanical optical cross connect," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 587‒589 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pardo, F.

V. A. Aksyuk, S. Arney, N. R. Basavanhally, D. J. Bishop, C. A. Bolle, C. C. Chang, R. Frahm, A. Gasparyan, J. V. Gates, R. George, C. R. Giles, J. Kim, P. R. Kolodner, T. M. Lee, D. T. Neilson, C. Nijander, C. J. Nuzman, M. Paczkowski, A. R. Papazian, F. Pardo, D. A. Ramsey, R. Ryf, R. E. Scotti, H. Shea, and M. E. Simon, "238×238 micromechanical optical cross connect," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 587‒589 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Park, H.

A. Alduino, L. Liao, R. Jones, M. Morse, B. Kim, W. Lo, J. Basak, B. Koch, H. Liu, H. Rong, M. Sysak, C. Krause, R. Saba, D. Lazar, L. Horwitz, R. Bar, S. Litski, A. Liu, K. Sullivan, O. Dosunmu, N. Na, T. Yin, F. Haubensack, I. Hsieh, J. Heck, R. Beatty, H. Park, J. Bovington, S. Lee, H. Nguyen, H. Au, K. Nguyen, P. Merani, M. Hakami, and M. Paniccia, "Demonstration of a high speed 4-channel integrated silicon photonics WDM link with hybrid silicon lasers," Photonics in Switching 2010 (PDIWI5), 25–28 July 2010.

J. E. Bowers, A. W. Fang, H. Park, R. Jones, O. Cohen, and M. J. Paniccia, "Hybrid silicon evanescent photonic integrated circuit technology," Conf. Lasers and Electro-Optics, 2007 (CLEO 2007), 6–11 May 2007, CTuQ1.

Park, J.-W.

J.-H. Song, H.-S. Kim, E. D. Shim, J.-W. Park, and Y. S. Baek, "Monolithically integrated 4×4 InGaAsP/InP laser amplifier gate switch matrix based on buried ridge stripe waveguides," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, L18‒L20 (2004).
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M. Glick, M. Dales, D. McAuley, T. Lin, K. Williams, R. Penty, and I. White, "SWIFT: a testbed with optically switched data paths for computing applications," ICTON 2005, Vol. 2, 3–7 July 2005, pp. 29‒32.

E. Aw, A. Wonfor, M. Glick, R. Penty, and I. White, "Large dynamic range 32×32 optimized non-blocking SOA based switch for 2.56 Tb/s interconnect applications," 33rd European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC 2007), 2007, p. 2.

Penty, R. V.

T. Lin, K. A. Williams, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, and M. Glick, "Capacity scaling in a multihost wavelength-striped SOA-based switch fabric," J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 655‒663 (2007).
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I. H. White, K. A. Williams, R. V. Penty, T. Lin, A. Wonfor, E. T. Aw, M. Glick, M. Dales, and D. McAuley, "Control architecture for high capacity multistage photonic switch circuits," J. Opt. Netw. 6, 180‒188 (2007).
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S. Yu, M. Owen, R. Varrazza, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, "Demonstration of high-speed optical packet routing using vertical coupler crosspoint space switch array," Electron. Lett. 36, 556‒558 (2000).
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D. K. Hunter, M. H. M. Nizam, M. C. Chia, I. Andonovic, K. M. Guild, A. Tzanakaki, M. J. O’Mahony, J. D. Bainbridge, M. F. C. Stephens, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, "WASPNET: a wavelength switched packet network," IEEE Commun. Mag. 37, (3), 120‒129 (1999).
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E. T. Aw, A. Wonfor, M. Glick, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, "An optimized non-blocking SOA switch architecture for high performance Tb/s network interconnects," Photonics in Switching, 2007, pp. 15‒16.

H. Wang, A. Wonfor, K. A. Williams, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, "Demonstration of a lossless monolithic 16×16 QW SOA switch," ECOC’09 Post-deadline, 20–24 Sept. 2009, pp. 1‒2.

E. T. Aw, T. Lin, A. Wonfor, M. Glick, K. A. Williams, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, "Layered control to enable large scale SOA switch fabric," ECOC 2006, 24–28 Sept. 2006, pp. 1‒2.

E. T. Aw, H. Wang, M. G. Thompson, A. Wonfor, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, and A. R. Kovsh, "Uncooled 2×2 quantum dot semiconductor optical amplifier based switch," Lasers and Electro-Optics, 2008 and 2008 Conf. on Quantum Electronics and Laser Science (CLEO/QELS 2008), 2008, pp. 1‒2.

Pickavet, M.

L. Dittmann, C. Develder, D. Chiaroni, F. Neri, F. Callegati, W. Koerber, A. Stavdas, M. Renaud, A. Rafel, J. Sole-Pareta, W. Cerroni, N. Leligou, L. Dembeck, B. Mortensen, M. Pickavet, N. Le Sauze, M. Mahony, B. Berde, and G. Eilenberger, "The European IST project DAVID: a viable approach toward optical packet switching," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 21, 1026‒1040 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rabaron, S.

F. Dorgeuiele, L. Noirie, J. P. Faure, A. Ambrosy, S. Rabaron, F. Boubal, M. Schilling, and C. Artigue, "1.28 Tbit/s throughput 8×8 optical switch based on arrays of gain-clamped semiconductor optical amplifier gates," Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Vol. 4, 2000, pp. 221‒223.

Rafel, A.

L. Dittmann, C. Develder, D. Chiaroni, F. Neri, F. Callegati, W. Koerber, A. Stavdas, M. Renaud, A. Rafel, J. Sole-Pareta, W. Cerroni, N. Leligou, L. Dembeck, B. Mortensen, M. Pickavet, N. Le Sauze, M. Mahony, B. Berde, and G. Eilenberger, "The European IST project DAVID: a viable approach toward optical packet switching," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 21, 1026‒1040 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ramsey, D. A.

V. A. Aksyuk, S. Arney, N. R. Basavanhally, D. J. Bishop, C. A. Bolle, C. C. Chang, R. Frahm, A. Gasparyan, J. V. Gates, R. George, C. R. Giles, J. Kim, P. R. Kolodner, T. M. Lee, D. T. Neilson, C. Nijander, C. J. Nuzman, M. Paczkowski, A. R. Papazian, F. Pardo, D. A. Ramsey, R. Ryf, R. E. Scotti, H. Shea, and M. E. Simon, "238×238 micromechanical optical cross connect," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 587‒589 (2003).
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Rask, M.

M. Gustavsson, B. Lagerstrom, L. Thylen, M. Janson, L. Lundgren, A. C. Morner, M. Rask, and B. Stoltz, "Monolithically integrated 4∗4 InGaAsP/InP laser amplifier gate switch arrays," Electron. Lett. 28, 2223‒2225 (1992).
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Reed, G. T.

Renaud, M.

L. Dittmann, C. Develder, D. Chiaroni, F. Neri, F. Callegati, W. Koerber, A. Stavdas, M. Renaud, A. Rafel, J. Sole-Pareta, W. Cerroni, N. Leligou, L. Dembeck, B. Mortensen, M. Pickavet, N. Le Sauze, M. Mahony, B. Berde, and G. Eilenberger, "The European IST project DAVID: a viable approach toward optical packet switching," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 21, 1026‒1040 (2003).
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J. D. Burton, P. J. Fiddyment, M. J. Robertson, and P. Sully, "Monolithic InGaAsP-InP laser amplifier gate switch matrix," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 2023‒2027 (1993).
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Rong, H.

A. Alduino, L. Liao, R. Jones, M. Morse, B. Kim, W. Lo, J. Basak, B. Koch, H. Liu, H. Rong, M. Sysak, C. Krause, R. Saba, D. Lazar, L. Horwitz, R. Bar, S. Litski, A. Liu, K. Sullivan, O. Dosunmu, N. Na, T. Yin, F. Haubensack, I. Hsieh, J. Heck, R. Beatty, H. Park, J. Bovington, S. Lee, H. Nguyen, H. Au, K. Nguyen, P. Merani, M. Hakami, and M. Paniccia, "Demonstration of a high speed 4-channel integrated silicon photonics WDM link with hybrid silicon lasers," Photonics in Switching 2010 (PDIWI5), 25–28 July 2010.

Ryf, R.

V. A. Aksyuk, S. Arney, N. R. Basavanhally, D. J. Bishop, C. A. Bolle, C. C. Chang, R. Frahm, A. Gasparyan, J. V. Gates, R. George, C. R. Giles, J. Kim, P. R. Kolodner, T. M. Lee, D. T. Neilson, C. Nijander, C. J. Nuzman, M. Paczkowski, A. R. Papazian, F. Pardo, D. A. Ramsey, R. Ryf, R. E. Scotti, H. Shea, and M. E. Simon, "238×238 micromechanical optical cross connect," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 587‒589 (2003).
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Rylyakov, A. V.

S. Assefa, F. Xia, W. M. J. Green, C. L. Schow, A. V. Rylyakov, and Y. A. Vlasov, "CMOS-integrated optical receivers for on-chip interconnects," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 1376‒1385 (2010).
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Saba, R.

A. Alduino, L. Liao, R. Jones, M. Morse, B. Kim, W. Lo, J. Basak, B. Koch, H. Liu, H. Rong, M. Sysak, C. Krause, R. Saba, D. Lazar, L. Horwitz, R. Bar, S. Litski, A. Liu, K. Sullivan, O. Dosunmu, N. Na, T. Yin, F. Haubensack, I. Hsieh, J. Heck, R. Beatty, H. Park, J. Bovington, S. Lee, H. Nguyen, H. Au, K. Nguyen, P. Merani, M. Hakami, and M. Paniccia, "Demonstration of a high speed 4-channel integrated silicon photonics WDM link with hybrid silicon lasers," Photonics in Switching 2010 (PDIWI5), 25–28 July 2010.

Schilling, M.

F. Dorgeuiele, L. Noirie, J. P. Faure, A. Ambrosy, S. Rabaron, F. Boubal, M. Schilling, and C. Artigue, "1.28 Tbit/s throughput 8×8 optical switch based on arrays of gain-clamped semiconductor optical amplifier gates," Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Vol. 4, 2000, pp. 221‒223.

Schow, C. L.

S. Assefa, F. Xia, W. M. J. Green, C. L. Schow, A. V. Rylyakov, and Y. A. Vlasov, "CMOS-integrated optical receivers for on-chip interconnects," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 1376‒1385 (2010).
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V. A. Aksyuk, S. Arney, N. R. Basavanhally, D. J. Bishop, C. A. Bolle, C. C. Chang, R. Frahm, A. Gasparyan, J. V. Gates, R. George, C. R. Giles, J. Kim, P. R. Kolodner, T. M. Lee, D. T. Neilson, C. Nijander, C. J. Nuzman, M. Paczkowski, A. R. Papazian, F. Pardo, D. A. Ramsey, R. Ryf, R. E. Scotti, H. Shea, and M. E. Simon, "238×238 micromechanical optical cross connect," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 587‒589 (2003).
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A. Shacham, B. G. Lee, and K. Bergman, "A wide-band nonblocking 2×2 switching node for a SPINet network," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17, 2742‒2744 (2005).
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Shea, H.

V. A. Aksyuk, S. Arney, N. R. Basavanhally, D. J. Bishop, C. A. Bolle, C. C. Chang, R. Frahm, A. Gasparyan, J. V. Gates, R. George, C. R. Giles, J. Kim, P. R. Kolodner, T. M. Lee, D. T. Neilson, C. Nijander, C. J. Nuzman, M. Paczkowski, A. R. Papazian, F. Pardo, D. A. Ramsey, R. Ryf, R. E. Scotti, H. Shea, and M. E. Simon, "238×238 micromechanical optical cross connect," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 587‒589 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shim, E. D.

J.-H. Song, H.-S. Kim, E. D. Shim, J.-W. Park, and Y. S. Baek, "Monolithically integrated 4×4 InGaAsP/InP laser amplifier gate switch matrix based on buried ridge stripe waveguides," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, L18‒L20 (2004).
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Shimizu, J.

A. Ajisawa, M. Fujiwara, J. Shimizu, M. Sugimoto, M. Uchida, and Y. Ohta, "Monolithically integrated optical gate 2×2 matrix switch using GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum well structure," Electron. Lett. 23, 1121‒1122 (1987).
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Simon, M. E.

V. A. Aksyuk, S. Arney, N. R. Basavanhally, D. J. Bishop, C. A. Bolle, C. C. Chang, R. Frahm, A. Gasparyan, J. V. Gates, R. George, C. R. Giles, J. Kim, P. R. Kolodner, T. M. Lee, D. T. Neilson, C. Nijander, C. J. Nuzman, M. Paczkowski, A. R. Papazian, F. Pardo, D. A. Ramsey, R. Ryf, R. E. Scotti, H. Shea, and M. E. Simon, "238×238 micromechanical optical cross connect," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 587‒589 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Smalbrugge, E.

K. A. Williams, A. Albores-Mejia, T. de Vries, E. Smalbrugge, Y. S. Oei, M. K. Smit, and R. Notzel, "Scalable quantum dot based optical interconnects," OptoElectronics and Communications Conf., 2009 (OECC 2009), 2009, pp. 1‒2.

Small, B. A.

Smit, M. K.

K. A. Williams, A. Albores-Mejia, T. de Vries, E. Smalbrugge, Y. S. Oei, M. K. Smit, and R. Notzel, "Scalable quantum dot based optical interconnects," OptoElectronics and Communications Conf., 2009 (OECC 2009), 2009, pp. 1‒2.

Sole-Pareta, J.

L. Dittmann, C. Develder, D. Chiaroni, F. Neri, F. Callegati, W. Koerber, A. Stavdas, M. Renaud, A. Rafel, J. Sole-Pareta, W. Cerroni, N. Leligou, L. Dembeck, B. Mortensen, M. Pickavet, N. Le Sauze, M. Mahony, B. Berde, and G. Eilenberger, "The European IST project DAVID: a viable approach toward optical packet switching," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 21, 1026‒1040 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sone, K.

Y. Kai, K. Sone, S. Yoshida, Y. Aoki, G. Nakagawa, and S. Kinoshita, "A compact and lossless 8×8 SOA gate switch subsystem for WDM optical packet interconnections," ECOC 2008, 21–25 Sept. 2008, pp. 1‒2.

Song, J.-H.

J.-H. Song, H.-S. Kim, E. D. Shim, J.-W. Park, and Y. S. Baek, "Monolithically integrated 4×4 InGaAsP/InP laser amplifier gate switch matrix based on buried ridge stripe waveguides," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, L18‒L20 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Stavdas, A.

L. Dittmann, C. Develder, D. Chiaroni, F. Neri, F. Callegati, W. Koerber, A. Stavdas, M. Renaud, A. Rafel, J. Sole-Pareta, W. Cerroni, N. Leligou, L. Dembeck, B. Mortensen, M. Pickavet, N. Le Sauze, M. Mahony, B. Berde, and G. Eilenberger, "The European IST project DAVID: a viable approach toward optical packet switching," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 21, 1026‒1040 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Stephens, M. F. C.

D. K. Hunter, M. H. M. Nizam, M. C. Chia, I. Andonovic, K. M. Guild, A. Tzanakaki, M. J. O’Mahony, J. D. Bainbridge, M. F. C. Stephens, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, "WASPNET: a wavelength switched packet network," IEEE Commun. Mag. 37, (3), 120‒129 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Stoltz, B.

M. Gustavsson, B. Lagerstrom, L. Thylen, M. Janson, L. Lundgren, A. C. Morner, M. Rask, and B. Stoltz, "Monolithically integrated 4∗4 InGaAsP/InP laser amplifier gate switch arrays," Electron. Lett. 28, 2223‒2225 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Sugimoto, M.

K. Hamamoto, T. Anan, K. Komatsu, M. Sugimoto, and I. Mito, "First 8∗8 semiconductor optical matrix switches using GaAs/AlGaAs electro-optic guided-wave directional couplers," Electron. Lett. 28, 441‒443 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. Ajisawa, M. Fujiwara, J. Shimizu, M. Sugimoto, M. Uchida, and Y. Ohta, "Monolithically integrated optical gate 2×2 matrix switch using GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum well structure," Electron. Lett. 23, 1121‒1122 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Sullivan, K.

A. Alduino, L. Liao, R. Jones, M. Morse, B. Kim, W. Lo, J. Basak, B. Koch, H. Liu, H. Rong, M. Sysak, C. Krause, R. Saba, D. Lazar, L. Horwitz, R. Bar, S. Litski, A. Liu, K. Sullivan, O. Dosunmu, N. Na, T. Yin, F. Haubensack, I. Hsieh, J. Heck, R. Beatty, H. Park, J. Bovington, S. Lee, H. Nguyen, H. Au, K. Nguyen, P. Merani, M. Hakami, and M. Paniccia, "Demonstration of a high speed 4-channel integrated silicon photonics WDM link with hybrid silicon lasers," Photonics in Switching 2010 (PDIWI5), 25–28 July 2010.

Sully, P.

J. D. Burton, P. J. Fiddyment, M. J. Robertson, and P. Sully, "Monolithic InGaAsP-InP laser amplifier gate switch matrix," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 2023‒2027 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Summers, J. A.

J. A. Summers, V. Lal, M. L. Masanovic, N. Dagli, and D. J. Blumenthal, "Concave low-loss total internal reflection mirrors in indium phosphide for high fabrication tolerance," Conf. Lasers and Electro-Optics, 2007 (CLEO 2007), 2007, pp. 1‒2.

Sysak, M.

A. Alduino, L. Liao, R. Jones, M. Morse, B. Kim, W. Lo, J. Basak, B. Koch, H. Liu, H. Rong, M. Sysak, C. Krause, R. Saba, D. Lazar, L. Horwitz, R. Bar, S. Litski, A. Liu, K. Sullivan, O. Dosunmu, N. Na, T. Yin, F. Haubensack, I. Hsieh, J. Heck, R. Beatty, H. Park, J. Bovington, S. Lee, H. Nguyen, H. Au, K. Nguyen, P. Merani, M. Hakami, and M. Paniccia, "Demonstration of a high speed 4-channel integrated silicon photonics WDM link with hybrid silicon lasers," Photonics in Switching 2010 (PDIWI5), 25–28 July 2010.

Thompson, M. G.

E. T. Aw, H. Wang, M. G. Thompson, A. Wonfor, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, and A. R. Kovsh, "Uncooled 2×2 quantum dot semiconductor optical amplifier based switch," Lasers and Electro-Optics, 2008 and 2008 Conf. on Quantum Electronics and Laser Science (CLEO/QELS 2008), 2008, pp. 1‒2.

Thomson, D. J.

Thylen, L.

M. Gustavsson, B. Lagerstrom, L. Thylen, M. Janson, L. Lundgren, A. C. Morner, M. Rask, and B. Stoltz, "Monolithically integrated 4∗4 InGaAsP/InP laser amplifier gate switch arrays," Electron. Lett. 28, 2223‒2225 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Tucker, R. S.

R. S. Tucker, "Green optical communications—part II: energy limitations in networks," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, (2), 261‒274 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tzanakaki, A.

D. K. Hunter, M. H. M. Nizam, M. C. Chia, I. Andonovic, K. M. Guild, A. Tzanakaki, M. J. O’Mahony, J. D. Bainbridge, M. F. C. Stephens, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, "WASPNET: a wavelength switched packet network," IEEE Commun. Mag. 37, (3), 120‒129 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Uchida, M.

A. Ajisawa, M. Fujiwara, J. Shimizu, M. Sugimoto, M. Uchida, and Y. Ohta, "Monolithically integrated optical gate 2×2 matrix switch using GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum well structure," Electron. Lett. 23, 1121‒1122 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Utaka, K.

N. Xie, T. Hashimoto, and K. Utaka, "Ultimate-low-power-consumption, polarization-independent, and high-speed polymer Mach–Zehnder thermo-optic switch," OFC 2009, 22–26 Mar. 2009, pp. 1‒3.

van Berlo, W. H.

E. Almstrom, C. P. Larsen, L. Gillner, W. H. van Berlo, M. Gustavsson, and E. Berglind, "Experimental and analytical evaluation of packaged 4×4 InGaAsP/InP semiconductor optical amplifier gate switch matrices for optical networks," J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 996‒1004 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Varrazza, R.

R. Varrazza, I. B. Djordjevic, and S. Yu, "Active vertical-coupler-based optical crosspoint switch matrix for optical packet-switching applications," J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 2034‒2042 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Yu, M. Owen, R. Varrazza, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, "Demonstration of high-speed optical packet routing using vertical coupler crosspoint space switch array," Electron. Lett. 36, 556‒558 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Vlasov, Y. A.

S. Assefa, F. Xia, W. M. J. Green, C. L. Schow, A. V. Rylyakov, and Y. A. Vlasov, "CMOS-integrated optical receivers for on-chip interconnects," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 1376‒1385 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wale, M. J.

P. J. Duthie and M. J. Wale, "16∗16 single chip optical switch array in lithium niobate," Electron. Lett. 27, (14), 1265‒1266 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Wang, H.

E. T. Aw, H. Wang, M. G. Thompson, A. Wonfor, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, and A. R. Kovsh, "Uncooled 2×2 quantum dot semiconductor optical amplifier based switch," Lasers and Electro-Optics, 2008 and 2008 Conf. on Quantum Electronics and Laser Science (CLEO/QELS 2008), 2008, pp. 1‒2.

H. Wang, A. Wonfor, K. A. Williams, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, "Demonstration of a lossless monolithic 16×16 QW SOA switch," ECOC’09 Post-deadline, 20–24 Sept. 2009, pp. 1‒2.

Watts, J. J. S.

I. H. White, J. J. S. Watts, J. E. Carroll, C. J. Armistead, D. J. Moole, and J. A. Champelovier, "InGaAsP 400 ∗ 200 µm active crosspoint switch operating at 1.5 µm using novel reflective Y-coupler components," Electron. Lett. 26, 617‒618 (1990).
[CrossRef]

White, I.

M. Glick, M. Dales, D. McAuley, T. Lin, K. Williams, R. Penty, and I. White, "SWIFT: a testbed with optically switched data paths for computing applications," ICTON 2005, Vol. 2, 3–7 July 2005, pp. 29‒32.

E. Aw, A. Wonfor, M. Glick, R. Penty, and I. White, "Large dynamic range 32×32 optimized non-blocking SOA based switch for 2.56 Tb/s interconnect applications," 33rd European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC 2007), 2007, p. 2.

White, I. H.

T. Lin, K. A. Williams, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, and M. Glick, "Capacity scaling in a multihost wavelength-striped SOA-based switch fabric," J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 655‒663 (2007).
[CrossRef]

I. H. White, K. A. Williams, R. V. Penty, T. Lin, A. Wonfor, E. T. Aw, M. Glick, M. Dales, and D. McAuley, "Control architecture for high capacity multistage photonic switch circuits," J. Opt. Netw. 6, 180‒188 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Yu, M. Owen, R. Varrazza, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, "Demonstration of high-speed optical packet routing using vertical coupler crosspoint space switch array," Electron. Lett. 36, 556‒558 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. K. Hunter, M. H. M. Nizam, M. C. Chia, I. Andonovic, K. M. Guild, A. Tzanakaki, M. J. O’Mahony, J. D. Bainbridge, M. F. C. Stephens, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, "WASPNET: a wavelength switched packet network," IEEE Commun. Mag. 37, (3), 120‒129 (1999).
[CrossRef]

I. H. White, J. J. S. Watts, J. E. Carroll, C. J. Armistead, D. J. Moole, and J. A. Champelovier, "InGaAsP 400 ∗ 200 µm active crosspoint switch operating at 1.5 µm using novel reflective Y-coupler components," Electron. Lett. 26, 617‒618 (1990).
[CrossRef]

E. T. Aw, A. Wonfor, M. Glick, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, "An optimized non-blocking SOA switch architecture for high performance Tb/s network interconnects," Photonics in Switching, 2007, pp. 15‒16.

H. Wang, A. Wonfor, K. A. Williams, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, "Demonstration of a lossless monolithic 16×16 QW SOA switch," ECOC’09 Post-deadline, 20–24 Sept. 2009, pp. 1‒2.

E. T. Aw, T. Lin, A. Wonfor, M. Glick, K. A. Williams, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, "Layered control to enable large scale SOA switch fabric," ECOC 2006, 24–28 Sept. 2006, pp. 1‒2.

E. T. Aw, H. Wang, M. G. Thompson, A. Wonfor, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, and A. R. Kovsh, "Uncooled 2×2 quantum dot semiconductor optical amplifier based switch," Lasers and Electro-Optics, 2008 and 2008 Conf. on Quantum Electronics and Laser Science (CLEO/QELS 2008), 2008, pp. 1‒2.

Williams, K.

M. Glick, M. Dales, D. McAuley, T. Lin, K. Williams, R. Penty, and I. White, "SWIFT: a testbed with optically switched data paths for computing applications," ICTON 2005, Vol. 2, 3–7 July 2005, pp. 29‒32.

Williams, K. A.

I. H. White, K. A. Williams, R. V. Penty, T. Lin, A. Wonfor, E. T. Aw, M. Glick, M. Dales, and D. McAuley, "Control architecture for high capacity multistage photonic switch circuits," J. Opt. Netw. 6, 180‒188 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Lin, K. A. Williams, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, and M. Glick, "Capacity scaling in a multihost wavelength-striped SOA-based switch fabric," J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 655‒663 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. T. Aw, T. Lin, A. Wonfor, M. Glick, K. A. Williams, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, "Layered control to enable large scale SOA switch fabric," ECOC 2006, 24–28 Sept. 2006, pp. 1‒2.

H. Wang, A. Wonfor, K. A. Williams, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, "Demonstration of a lossless monolithic 16×16 QW SOA switch," ECOC’09 Post-deadline, 20–24 Sept. 2009, pp. 1‒2.

K. A. Williams, A. Albores-Mejia, T. de Vries, E. Smalbrugge, Y. S. Oei, M. K. Smit, and R. Notzel, "Scalable quantum dot based optical interconnects," OptoElectronics and Communications Conf., 2009 (OECC 2009), 2009, pp. 1‒2.

Wonfor, A.

I. H. White, K. A. Williams, R. V. Penty, T. Lin, A. Wonfor, E. T. Aw, M. Glick, M. Dales, and D. McAuley, "Control architecture for high capacity multistage photonic switch circuits," J. Opt. Netw. 6, 180‒188 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. T. Aw, A. Wonfor, M. Glick, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, "An optimized non-blocking SOA switch architecture for high performance Tb/s network interconnects," Photonics in Switching, 2007, pp. 15‒16.

H. Wang, A. Wonfor, K. A. Williams, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, "Demonstration of a lossless monolithic 16×16 QW SOA switch," ECOC’09 Post-deadline, 20–24 Sept. 2009, pp. 1‒2.

E. T. Aw, T. Lin, A. Wonfor, M. Glick, K. A. Williams, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, "Layered control to enable large scale SOA switch fabric," ECOC 2006, 24–28 Sept. 2006, pp. 1‒2.

E. Aw, A. Wonfor, M. Glick, R. Penty, and I. White, "Large dynamic range 32×32 optimized non-blocking SOA based switch for 2.56 Tb/s interconnect applications," 33rd European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC 2007), 2007, p. 2.

E. T. Aw, H. Wang, M. G. Thompson, A. Wonfor, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, and A. R. Kovsh, "Uncooled 2×2 quantum dot semiconductor optical amplifier based switch," Lasers and Electro-Optics, 2008 and 2008 Conf. on Quantum Electronics and Laser Science (CLEO/QELS 2008), 2008, pp. 1‒2.

Xia, F.

S. Assefa, F. Xia, W. M. J. Green, C. L. Schow, A. V. Rylyakov, and Y. A. Vlasov, "CMOS-integrated optical receivers for on-chip interconnects," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 1376‒1385 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Xie, N.

N. Xie, T. Hashimoto, and K. Utaka, "Ultimate-low-power-consumption, polarization-independent, and high-speed polymer Mach–Zehnder thermo-optic switch," OFC 2009, 22–26 Mar. 2009, pp. 1‒3.

Yang, Q.

Yin, T.

A. Alduino, L. Liao, R. Jones, M. Morse, B. Kim, W. Lo, J. Basak, B. Koch, H. Liu, H. Rong, M. Sysak, C. Krause, R. Saba, D. Lazar, L. Horwitz, R. Bar, S. Litski, A. Liu, K. Sullivan, O. Dosunmu, N. Na, T. Yin, F. Haubensack, I. Hsieh, J. Heck, R. Beatty, H. Park, J. Bovington, S. Lee, H. Nguyen, H. Au, K. Nguyen, P. Merani, M. Hakami, and M. Paniccia, "Demonstration of a high speed 4-channel integrated silicon photonics WDM link with hybrid silicon lasers," Photonics in Switching 2010 (PDIWI5), 25–28 July 2010.

Yoshida, S.

Y. Kai, K. Sone, S. Yoshida, Y. Aoki, G. Nakagawa, and S. Kinoshita, "A compact and lossless 8×8 SOA gate switch subsystem for WDM optical packet interconnections," ECOC 2008, 21–25 Sept. 2008, pp. 1‒2.

Yu, S.

R. Varrazza, I. B. Djordjevic, and S. Yu, "Active vertical-coupler-based optical crosspoint switch matrix for optical packet-switching applications," J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 2034‒2042 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Yu, M. Owen, R. Varrazza, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, "Demonstration of high-speed optical packet routing using vertical coupler crosspoint space switch array," Electron. Lett. 36, 556‒558 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, A.

A. Zhang, K. T. Chan, M. S. Demokan, V. W. C. Chan, P. C. H. Chan, H. S. Kwok, and A. H. P. Chan, "Integrated liquid crystal optical switch based on total internal reflection," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, (21), 211108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

A. Zhang, K. T. Chan, M. S. Demokan, V. W. C. Chan, P. C. H. Chan, H. S. Kwok, and A. H. P. Chan, "Integrated liquid crystal optical switch based on total internal reflection," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, (21), 211108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (6)

P. J. Duthie and M. J. Wale, "16∗16 single chip optical switch array in lithium niobate," Electron. Lett. 27, (14), 1265‒1266 (1991).
[CrossRef]

K. Hamamoto, T. Anan, K. Komatsu, M. Sugimoto, and I. Mito, "First 8∗8 semiconductor optical matrix switches using GaAs/AlGaAs electro-optic guided-wave directional couplers," Electron. Lett. 28, 441‒443 (1992).
[CrossRef]

I. H. White, J. J. S. Watts, J. E. Carroll, C. J. Armistead, D. J. Moole, and J. A. Champelovier, "InGaAsP 400 ∗ 200 µm active crosspoint switch operating at 1.5 µm using novel reflective Y-coupler components," Electron. Lett. 26, 617‒618 (1990).
[CrossRef]

A. Ajisawa, M. Fujiwara, J. Shimizu, M. Sugimoto, M. Uchida, and Y. Ohta, "Monolithically integrated optical gate 2×2 matrix switch using GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum well structure," Electron. Lett. 23, 1121‒1122 (1987).
[CrossRef]

S. Yu, M. Owen, R. Varrazza, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, "Demonstration of high-speed optical packet routing using vertical coupler crosspoint space switch array," Electron. Lett. 36, 556‒558 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Gustavsson, B. Lagerstrom, L. Thylen, M. Janson, L. Lundgren, A. C. Morner, M. Rask, and B. Stoltz, "Monolithically integrated 4∗4 InGaAsP/InP laser amplifier gate switch arrays," Electron. Lett. 28, 2223‒2225 (1992).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Commun. Mag. (1)

D. K. Hunter, M. H. M. Nizam, M. C. Chia, I. Andonovic, K. M. Guild, A. Tzanakaki, M. J. O’Mahony, J. D. Bainbridge, M. F. C. Stephens, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, "WASPNET: a wavelength switched packet network," IEEE Commun. Mag. 37, (3), 120‒129 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

J. D. Burton, P. J. Fiddyment, M. J. Robertson, and P. Sully, "Monolithic InGaAsP-InP laser amplifier gate switch matrix," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 2023‒2027 (1993).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. (1)

L. Dittmann, C. Develder, D. Chiaroni, F. Neri, F. Callegati, W. Koerber, A. Stavdas, M. Renaud, A. Rafel, J. Sole-Pareta, W. Cerroni, N. Leligou, L. Dembeck, B. Mortensen, M. Pickavet, N. Le Sauze, M. Mahony, B. Berde, and G. Eilenberger, "The European IST project DAVID: a viable approach toward optical packet switching," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 21, 1026‒1040 (2003).
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IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (5)

R. S. Tucker, "Green optical communications—part II: energy limitations in networks," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, (2), 261‒274 (2011).
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M. Lipson, "Compact electro-optic modulators on a silicon chip," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1520‒1526 (2006).
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S. Assefa, F. Xia, W. M. J. Green, C. L. Schow, A. V. Rylyakov, and Y. A. Vlasov, "CMOS-integrated optical receivers for on-chip interconnects," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 1376‒1385 (2010).
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B. G. Lee, A. Biberman, J. Chan, and K. Bergman, "High-performance modulators and switches for silicon photonic networks-on-chip," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, (1), 6‒22 (2010).
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M. Renaud, M. Bachmann, and M. Erman, "Semiconductor optical space switches," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 277‒288 (1996).
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A. Shacham and K. Bergman, "Building ultralow-latency interconnection networks using photonic integration," IEEE Micro 27, 6‒20 (2007).
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V. A. Aksyuk, S. Arney, N. R. Basavanhally, D. J. Bishop, C. A. Bolle, C. C. Chang, R. Frahm, A. Gasparyan, J. V. Gates, R. George, C. R. Giles, J. Kim, P. R. Kolodner, T. M. Lee, D. T. Neilson, C. Nijander, C. J. Nuzman, M. Paczkowski, A. R. Papazian, F. Pardo, D. A. Ramsey, R. Ryf, R. E. Scotti, H. Shea, and M. E. Simon, "238×238 micromechanical optical cross connect," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 587‒589 (2003).
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G. A. Fish, B. Mason, L. A. Coldren, and S. P. DenBaars, "Compact, 4×4 InGaAsP-InP optical crossconnect with a scaleable architecture," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1256‒1258 (1998).
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IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (1)

A. Shacham, B. G. Lee, and K. Bergman, "A wide-band nonblocking 2×2 switching node for a SPINet network," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17, 2742‒2744 (2005).
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J.-H. Song, H.-S. Kim, E. D. Shim, J.-W. Park, and Y. S. Baek, "Monolithically integrated 4×4 InGaAsP/InP laser amplifier gate switch matrix based on buried ridge stripe waveguides," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, L18‒L20 (2004).
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L. A. Barroso and U. Hölzle, "The datacenter as a computer: an introduction to the design of warehouse-scale machines," Synthesis Lectures on Computer Architecture, Morgan & Claypool, 2009.

A. Alduino, L. Liao, R. Jones, M. Morse, B. Kim, W. Lo, J. Basak, B. Koch, H. Liu, H. Rong, M. Sysak, C. Krause, R. Saba, D. Lazar, L. Horwitz, R. Bar, S. Litski, A. Liu, K. Sullivan, O. Dosunmu, N. Na, T. Yin, F. Haubensack, I. Hsieh, J. Heck, R. Beatty, H. Park, J. Bovington, S. Lee, H. Nguyen, H. Au, K. Nguyen, P. Merani, M. Hakami, and M. Paniccia, "Demonstration of a high speed 4-channel integrated silicon photonics WDM link with hybrid silicon lasers," Photonics in Switching 2010 (PDIWI5), 25–28 July 2010.

N. Xie, T. Hashimoto, and K. Utaka, "Ultimate-low-power-consumption, polarization-independent, and high-speed polymer Mach–Zehnder thermo-optic switch," OFC 2009, 22–26 Mar. 2009, pp. 1‒3.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(Color online) This figure shows racks of servers, each connected to a switch in the rack. Each of these rack switches is connected via a higher bandwidth connection to a high performance cluster switch, which in turn is connected to a high performance IP router and to the external Internet.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(Color online) Architectural schematic of the optical switch showing two end points with data and control signals and the switch fabric, with arbitration, routing and driver control. The dashed lines represent the out of band control signals, with the dotted lines representing the multiple wavelength high data-rate path.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(Color online) Schematic of the hybrid Clos–tree architecture of the 16 × 16 port switch showing a 4 × 4 tree switching element and the Clos architecture of the full 16 × 16 port switch fabric.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(Color online) (A) Enlarged photograph of a 4 × 4 port tree based switching element. (B) Photograph of the fabricated 16 × 16 port switch fabric, constructed from 12 of the 4 × 4 switching elements and with additional shuffle networks.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(Color online) This figure shows a representation of the epitaxial structure of the switch fabric (top) and a schematic of part of the switch, with a waveguide beam splitter formed by a linear tapered input waveguide from 2 µm to 4 µm with a total internal reflection mirror at 45°. The two outputs are from a 2 µm straight waveguide (output 1) and a second waveguide at 90°, tapering from 3.3 µm to 2 µm wide (output 2).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(Color online) Switch facet-to-facet gain as a function of wavelength (top) and output power for the shortest path, an intermediate path and the longest path through the switch.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(Color online) (A) Bit error ratios of 10 Gb/s data transmission through representative paths across the switch, and (B) eye diagrams for back-to-back (1) measurement, the shortest (2), intermediate (3) and longest (4) paths through the switch.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(Color online) Switching of a 10 Gb/s signal with nanoseconds rise/fall time.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table I Comparison of Switch Architectures for 16 × 16 Port Count