Abstract

We propose hierarchical optical path cross-connect (HOXC) system architectures that utilize wavelength selective switches (WSSs) and waveband selective switches. They are very compactly implemented compared to single-layer optical cross-connect systems that use only WSSs. We have developed a prototype of one of the proposed HOXC architectures and experimentally confirmed its feasibility.

© 2011 OSA

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  3. K. Harada, K. Shimizu, T. Kudou, and T. Ozeki, "Hierarchical optical path cross-connect systems for large scale WDM networks," Proc. OFC/IOOC 1999, 1999, San Diego, pp. 356‒358.
  4. L. Noirie, C. Blaizot, and E. Dotaro, "Multi-granularity optical crossconnect," Proc. ECOC 2000, 2000, Munich, 9.2.4.
  5. X. Cao, V. Anand, and C. Qiao, "Waveband switching in optical networks," IEEE Commun. Mag. 41, (4), 105‒112 (2003).
  6. M. Li, W. Yao, and B. Ramamurthy, "Same-destination—intermediate grouping versus end-to-end grouping for waveband switching in WDM mesh networks," Proc. Int. Conf. Communication, Vol. 3, 2005, Seoul, pp. 1807‒1812.
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    [Crossref]
  8. Y. Yamada, H. Hasegawa, and K. Sato, "Hierarchical optical path network design algorithm considering waveband protection," J. Lightwave Technol. 27, (24), 5736‒5748 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  9. H.-C. Le, H. Hasegawa, and K. Sato, "Hierarchical optical path network design algorithm that can best utilize WSS/WBSS based cross-connects," Proc. Photonics in Switching 2009, 2009, Pisa, ThII2-3.
  10. S. Kakehashi, H. Hasegawa, and K. Sato, "Optical cross-connect switch architectures for hierarchical optical path networks," IEICE Trans. Commun. E91-B, 3174‒3184 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  11. R. Hirako, K. Ishii, H. Hasegawa, K. Sato, and O. Moriwaki, "Hierarchical optical cross-connect architecture that implements colorless waveband add/drop ratio restriction utilizing a novel wavelength multi/demultiplexers," Proc. Photonic in Switching 2009, 2009, Pisa, FrII2-2.
  12. R. Hirako, K. Ishii, H. Hasegawa, and K. Sato, "Development of compact hierarchical optical path cross-connect prototype utilizing integrated colorless multi/demultiplexers," Proc. ECOC 2010, 2010, Torino, We.8.A.5.
  13. O. Moriwaki, K. Noguchi, H. Takahashi, T. Sakamoto, K. Sato, H. Hasegawa, M. Okuno, and T. Ohmori, "Terabit-scale compact hierarchical optical cross-connect system employing PLC devices and optical backplane," Proc. OCF/NFOEC 2010, 2010, San Diego, PDPC9.
  14. K. Ishii, O. Moriwaki, H. Hasegawa, K. Sato, Y. Jinnouchi, M. Okuno, and H. Takahashi, "Development of hierarchical optical cross-connect system for ROADM-ring connection using PLC technologies," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, (7), 498‒500 (2010).
    [Crossref]
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  16. R. Shankar, M. Florjanczyk, T. J. Hall, A. Vukovic, and H. Hua, "Multi-degree ROADM based on wavelength selective switches: architectures and scalability," Opt. Commun. 279, (1), 94‒100 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  17. L. Zong, P. Ji, T. Wang, O. Matsuda, and M. Cvijetic, "Study on wavelength cross-connect realized with wavelength selective switches," Proc. OFC/NFOEC 2006, 2006, Anaheim, NThC3.
  18. J. Kelly, "Application of liquid crystal technology to telecommunication devices," Proc. OFC/NFOEC 2007, 2007, Anaheim, NThE1.
  19. G. Baxter, S. Frisken, D. Abakoumov, H. Zhou, I. Clarke, A. Bartos, and S. Poole, "Highly programmable wavelength selective switch based on liquid crystal on silicon switching elements," Proc. OFC/NFOEC 2006, 2006, Anaheim, OTuF2.
  20. D. M. Marom, D. T. Neilson, D. S. Greywall, C. Pai, N. R. Basavanhally, V. A. Aksyuk, D. O. López, F. Pardo, M. E. Simon, Y. Low, P. Kolodner, and C. A. Bolle, "Wavelength-selective 1×K switches using free-space optics and MEMS micromirrors: theory, design, and implementation," J. Lightwave Technol. 23, (4), 1620‒1630 (2005).
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  21. J. C. Tsai and M. C. Wu, "A High port-count wavelength-selective switch using a large scan-angle, high fill-factor, two-axis MEMS scanner array," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, (13), 1439‒1441 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  22. P. Wall, P. Colbourne, C. Reimer, and S. McLaughlin, "WSS switching engine technologies," Proc. OFC/NFOEC 2008, 2008, San Diego, OWC1.
  23. S. Mitsui, H. Hasegawa, and K. Sato, "Hierarchical optical path cross-connect node architecture using WSS/WBSS," Proc. Photonics in Switching 2008, 2008, Sapporo, S-04-1.
  24. S. Mitsui, H. Hasegawa, and K. Sato, "Low loss and cost-effective hierarchical optical path cross-connect switch architecture based on WSS/WBSS," Proc. Photonics in Switching 2009, 2009, Pisa, FrII2-3.
  25. S. Mitsui, H. Hasegawa, K. Sato, S. Kamei, H. Takahashi, and M. Okuno, "Demonstration of compact hierarchical optical path cross-connect utilizing wavelength/waveband selective switches," Proc. OFC/NFOEC 2010, 2010, San Diego, NThF4.
  26. K. Ishii, H. Hasegawa, K. Sato, S. Kamei, H. Takahashi, and M. Okuno, "Monolithically integrated waveband selective switch using cyclic AWGs," Proc. ECOC 2008, 2008, Brussels, Mo.4.C.5.
  27. V. Kaman, R. J. Helkey, and J. E. Bowers, "Multi-degree ROADM’s with agile add-drop access," Proc. Photonics in Switching 2007, 2007, San Francisco, TuA2.5.
  28. P. Roorda and B. Collings, "Evolution to colorless and directionless ROADM architectures," Proc. OFC/NFOEC 2008, 2008, San Diego, NWE2.
  29. X. J. Zhang, M. Birk, A. Chiu, R. Doverspike, M. D. Fuer, P. Magill, E. Mavrogiorgis, J. Pastor, S. L. Woodward, and J. Yates, "Bridge-and-roll demonstration in GRIPhoN (globally reconfigurable intelligent phonic networks)," Proc. OFC/NFOEC 2010, 2010, San Diego, NThA1.
  30. K. Mizutani, M. Sakauchi, and A. Tajima, "Demonstration of multi-degree color/direction-independent waveguide-based transponder-aggregator for flexible optical path networks," Proc. ECOC2010, 2010, Torino, P3.11.
  31. R. Jensen, A. Lord, and N. Parsons, "Colourless, directionless, contentionless ROADM architecture using low-loss optical matrix switches," Proc. ECOC2010, 2010, Torino, Mo.2.D.2.
  32. T. Watanabe, K. Suzuki, T. Goh, K. Hattori, A. Mori, T. Takahashi, T. Sakamoto, K. Morita, S. Sohma, and S. Kamei, "Compact PLC-based transponder aggregator for colorless, and directionless ROADM," Proc. OFC/NFOEC 2011, 2011, Los Angeles, OThAA1.
  33. R. Jensen, "Optical switch architectures for emerging colorless/directionless/contentionless ROADM networks," Proc. OFC/NFOEC 2011, 2011, Los Angeles, OThR3.
  34. F. Naruse, Y. Yamada, H. Hasegawa, and K. Sato, "Optical network design algorithms that consider optical path add/drop ratio restrictions for OXC hardware scale reduction," Proc. OFC/NFOEC 2011, 2011, Los Angeles, NThC3.
  35. K. Noguchi and M. Koga, "Reliability and lifetime estimation for large-scale photonic cross-connect switches of photonic networks," IEICE Trans. Commun. E86-B, 1530‒1538 (2003).
  36. K. Ishii, H. Hasegawa, K. Sato, M. Okuno, and H. Takahashi, "Ultracompact waveband cross-connect module using waveband selective switches: development and performance verification," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, (23), 1741‒1743 (2010).

2010 (2)

K. Ishii, O. Moriwaki, H. Hasegawa, K. Sato, Y. Jinnouchi, M. Okuno, and H. Takahashi, "Development of hierarchical optical cross-connect system for ROADM-ring connection using PLC technologies," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, (7), 498‒500 (2010).
[Crossref]

K. Ishii, H. Hasegawa, K. Sato, M. Okuno, and H. Takahashi, "Ultracompact waveband cross-connect module using waveband selective switches: development and performance verification," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, (23), 1741‒1743 (2010).

2009 (1)

2008 (2)

S. Kakehashi, H. Hasegawa, and K. Sato, "Optical cross-connect switch architectures for hierarchical optical path networks," IEICE Trans. Commun. E91-B, 3174‒3184 (2008).
[Crossref]

I. Yagyu, H. Hasegawa, and K. Sato, "An efficient hierarchical optical path network design algorithm based on a traffic demand expression in a Cartesian product space," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 26, (6), 22‒31 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

K. Sato and H. Hasegawa, "Prospects and challenges of multi-layer optical networks," IEICE Trans. Commun. E90-B, 1890‒1902 (2007).
[Crossref]

R. Shankar, M. Florjanczyk, T. J. Hall, A. Vukovic, and H. Hua, "Multi-degree ROADM based on wavelength selective switches: architectures and scalability," Opt. Commun. 279, (1), 94‒100 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

J. C. Tsai and M. C. Wu, "A High port-count wavelength-selective switch using a large scan-angle, high fill-factor, two-axis MEMS scanner array," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, (13), 1439‒1441 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

2003 (2)

K. Noguchi and M. Koga, "Reliability and lifetime estimation for large-scale photonic cross-connect switches of photonic networks," IEICE Trans. Commun. E86-B, 1530‒1538 (2003).

X. Cao, V. Anand, and C. Qiao, "Waveband switching in optical networks," IEEE Commun. Mag. 41, (4), 105‒112 (2003).

Abakoumov, D.

G. Baxter, S. Frisken, D. Abakoumov, H. Zhou, I. Clarke, A. Bartos, and S. Poole, "Highly programmable wavelength selective switch based on liquid crystal on silicon switching elements," Proc. OFC/NFOEC 2006, 2006, Anaheim, OTuF2.

Aksyuk, V. A.

Anand, V.

X. Cao, V. Anand, and C. Qiao, "Waveband switching in optical networks," IEEE Commun. Mag. 41, (4), 105‒112 (2003).

Bartos, A.

G. Baxter, S. Frisken, D. Abakoumov, H. Zhou, I. Clarke, A. Bartos, and S. Poole, "Highly programmable wavelength selective switch based on liquid crystal on silicon switching elements," Proc. OFC/NFOEC 2006, 2006, Anaheim, OTuF2.

Basavanhally, N. R.

Baxter, G.

G. Baxter, S. Frisken, D. Abakoumov, H. Zhou, I. Clarke, A. Bartos, and S. Poole, "Highly programmable wavelength selective switch based on liquid crystal on silicon switching elements," Proc. OFC/NFOEC 2006, 2006, Anaheim, OTuF2.

Birk, M.

X. J. Zhang, M. Birk, A. Chiu, R. Doverspike, M. D. Fuer, P. Magill, E. Mavrogiorgis, J. Pastor, S. L. Woodward, and J. Yates, "Bridge-and-roll demonstration in GRIPhoN (globally reconfigurable intelligent phonic networks)," Proc. OFC/NFOEC 2010, 2010, San Diego, NThA1.

Blaizot, C.

L. Noirie, C. Blaizot, and E. Dotaro, "Multi-granularity optical crossconnect," Proc. ECOC 2000, 2000, Munich, 9.2.4.

Bolle, C. A.

Bowers, J. E.

V. Kaman, R. J. Helkey, and J. E. Bowers, "Multi-degree ROADM’s with agile add-drop access," Proc. Photonics in Switching 2007, 2007, San Francisco, TuA2.5.

Cao, X.

X. Cao, V. Anand, and C. Qiao, "Waveband switching in optical networks," IEEE Commun. Mag. 41, (4), 105‒112 (2003).

Chiu, A.

X. J. Zhang, M. Birk, A. Chiu, R. Doverspike, M. D. Fuer, P. Magill, E. Mavrogiorgis, J. Pastor, S. L. Woodward, and J. Yates, "Bridge-and-roll demonstration in GRIPhoN (globally reconfigurable intelligent phonic networks)," Proc. OFC/NFOEC 2010, 2010, San Diego, NThA1.

Clarke, I.

G. Baxter, S. Frisken, D. Abakoumov, H. Zhou, I. Clarke, A. Bartos, and S. Poole, "Highly programmable wavelength selective switch based on liquid crystal on silicon switching elements," Proc. OFC/NFOEC 2006, 2006, Anaheim, OTuF2.

Colbourne, P.

P. Wall, P. Colbourne, C. Reimer, and S. McLaughlin, "WSS switching engine technologies," Proc. OFC/NFOEC 2008, 2008, San Diego, OWC1.

Collings, B.

P. Roorda and B. Collings, "Evolution to colorless and directionless ROADM architectures," Proc. OFC/NFOEC 2008, 2008, San Diego, NWE2.

Collings, B. C.

B. C. Collings, "Wavelength selective switches and future photonic network applications," Proc. Photonics in Switching 2009, 2009, Pisa, FRII2-4.

Cvijetic, M.

L. Zong, P. Ji, T. Wang, O. Matsuda, and M. Cvijetic, "Study on wavelength cross-connect realized with wavelength selective switches," Proc. OFC/NFOEC 2006, 2006, Anaheim, NThC3.

Dotaro, E.

L. Noirie, C. Blaizot, and E. Dotaro, "Multi-granularity optical crossconnect," Proc. ECOC 2000, 2000, Munich, 9.2.4.

Doverspike, R.

X. J. Zhang, M. Birk, A. Chiu, R. Doverspike, M. D. Fuer, P. Magill, E. Mavrogiorgis, J. Pastor, S. L. Woodward, and J. Yates, "Bridge-and-roll demonstration in GRIPhoN (globally reconfigurable intelligent phonic networks)," Proc. OFC/NFOEC 2010, 2010, San Diego, NThA1.

Florjanczyk, M.

R. Shankar, M. Florjanczyk, T. J. Hall, A. Vukovic, and H. Hua, "Multi-degree ROADM based on wavelength selective switches: architectures and scalability," Opt. Commun. 279, (1), 94‒100 (2007).
[Crossref]

Frisken, S.

G. Baxter, S. Frisken, D. Abakoumov, H. Zhou, I. Clarke, A. Bartos, and S. Poole, "Highly programmable wavelength selective switch based on liquid crystal on silicon switching elements," Proc. OFC/NFOEC 2006, 2006, Anaheim, OTuF2.

Fuer, M. D.

X. J. Zhang, M. Birk, A. Chiu, R. Doverspike, M. D. Fuer, P. Magill, E. Mavrogiorgis, J. Pastor, S. L. Woodward, and J. Yates, "Bridge-and-roll demonstration in GRIPhoN (globally reconfigurable intelligent phonic networks)," Proc. OFC/NFOEC 2010, 2010, San Diego, NThA1.

Goh, T.

T. Watanabe, K. Suzuki, T. Goh, K. Hattori, A. Mori, T. Takahashi, T. Sakamoto, K. Morita, S. Sohma, and S. Kamei, "Compact PLC-based transponder aggregator for colorless, and directionless ROADM," Proc. OFC/NFOEC 2011, 2011, Los Angeles, OThAA1.

Greywall, D. S.

Hall, T. J.

R. Shankar, M. Florjanczyk, T. J. Hall, A. Vukovic, and H. Hua, "Multi-degree ROADM based on wavelength selective switches: architectures and scalability," Opt. Commun. 279, (1), 94‒100 (2007).
[Crossref]

Harada, K.

K. Harada, K. Shimizu, T. Kudou, and T. Ozeki, "Hierarchical optical path cross-connect systems for large scale WDM networks," Proc. OFC/IOOC 1999, 1999, San Diego, pp. 356‒358.

Hasegawa, H.

K. Ishii, O. Moriwaki, H. Hasegawa, K. Sato, Y. Jinnouchi, M. Okuno, and H. Takahashi, "Development of hierarchical optical cross-connect system for ROADM-ring connection using PLC technologies," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, (7), 498‒500 (2010).
[Crossref]

K. Ishii, H. Hasegawa, K. Sato, M. Okuno, and H. Takahashi, "Ultracompact waveband cross-connect module using waveband selective switches: development and performance verification," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, (23), 1741‒1743 (2010).

Y. Yamada, H. Hasegawa, and K. Sato, "Hierarchical optical path network design algorithm considering waveband protection," J. Lightwave Technol. 27, (24), 5736‒5748 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. Kakehashi, H. Hasegawa, and K. Sato, "Optical cross-connect switch architectures for hierarchical optical path networks," IEICE Trans. Commun. E91-B, 3174‒3184 (2008).
[Crossref]

I. Yagyu, H. Hasegawa, and K. Sato, "An efficient hierarchical optical path network design algorithm based on a traffic demand expression in a Cartesian product space," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 26, (6), 22‒31 (2008).
[Crossref]

K. Sato and H. Hasegawa, "Prospects and challenges of multi-layer optical networks," IEICE Trans. Commun. E90-B, 1890‒1902 (2007).
[Crossref]

H.-C. Le, H. Hasegawa, and K. Sato, "Hierarchical optical path network design algorithm that can best utilize WSS/WBSS based cross-connects," Proc. Photonics in Switching 2009, 2009, Pisa, ThII2-3.

R. Hirako, K. Ishii, H. Hasegawa, K. Sato, and O. Moriwaki, "Hierarchical optical cross-connect architecture that implements colorless waveband add/drop ratio restriction utilizing a novel wavelength multi/demultiplexers," Proc. Photonic in Switching 2009, 2009, Pisa, FrII2-2.

R. Hirako, K. Ishii, H. Hasegawa, and K. Sato, "Development of compact hierarchical optical path cross-connect prototype utilizing integrated colorless multi/demultiplexers," Proc. ECOC 2010, 2010, Torino, We.8.A.5.

O. Moriwaki, K. Noguchi, H. Takahashi, T. Sakamoto, K. Sato, H. Hasegawa, M. Okuno, and T. Ohmori, "Terabit-scale compact hierarchical optical cross-connect system employing PLC devices and optical backplane," Proc. OCF/NFOEC 2010, 2010, San Diego, PDPC9.

F. Naruse, Y. Yamada, H. Hasegawa, and K. Sato, "Optical network design algorithms that consider optical path add/drop ratio restrictions for OXC hardware scale reduction," Proc. OFC/NFOEC 2011, 2011, Los Angeles, NThC3.

K. Ishii, H. Hasegawa, K. Sato, S. Kamei, H. Takahashi, and M. Okuno, "Monolithically integrated waveband selective switch using cyclic AWGs," Proc. ECOC 2008, 2008, Brussels, Mo.4.C.5.

S. Mitsui, H. Hasegawa, and K. Sato, "Hierarchical optical path cross-connect node architecture using WSS/WBSS," Proc. Photonics in Switching 2008, 2008, Sapporo, S-04-1.

S. Mitsui, H. Hasegawa, and K. Sato, "Low loss and cost-effective hierarchical optical path cross-connect switch architecture based on WSS/WBSS," Proc. Photonics in Switching 2009, 2009, Pisa, FrII2-3.

S. Mitsui, H. Hasegawa, K. Sato, S. Kamei, H. Takahashi, and M. Okuno, "Demonstration of compact hierarchical optical path cross-connect utilizing wavelength/waveband selective switches," Proc. OFC/NFOEC 2010, 2010, San Diego, NThF4.

Hattori, K.

T. Watanabe, K. Suzuki, T. Goh, K. Hattori, A. Mori, T. Takahashi, T. Sakamoto, K. Morita, S. Sohma, and S. Kamei, "Compact PLC-based transponder aggregator for colorless, and directionless ROADM," Proc. OFC/NFOEC 2011, 2011, Los Angeles, OThAA1.

Helkey, R. J.

V. Kaman, R. J. Helkey, and J. E. Bowers, "Multi-degree ROADM’s with agile add-drop access," Proc. Photonics in Switching 2007, 2007, San Francisco, TuA2.5.

Hirako, R.

R. Hirako, K. Ishii, H. Hasegawa, and K. Sato, "Development of compact hierarchical optical path cross-connect prototype utilizing integrated colorless multi/demultiplexers," Proc. ECOC 2010, 2010, Torino, We.8.A.5.

R. Hirako, K. Ishii, H. Hasegawa, K. Sato, and O. Moriwaki, "Hierarchical optical cross-connect architecture that implements colorless waveband add/drop ratio restriction utilizing a novel wavelength multi/demultiplexers," Proc. Photonic in Switching 2009, 2009, Pisa, FrII2-2.

Hua, H.

R. Shankar, M. Florjanczyk, T. J. Hall, A. Vukovic, and H. Hua, "Multi-degree ROADM based on wavelength selective switches: architectures and scalability," Opt. Commun. 279, (1), 94‒100 (2007).
[Crossref]

Ishii, K.

K. Ishii, O. Moriwaki, H. Hasegawa, K. Sato, Y. Jinnouchi, M. Okuno, and H. Takahashi, "Development of hierarchical optical cross-connect system for ROADM-ring connection using PLC technologies," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, (7), 498‒500 (2010).
[Crossref]

K. Ishii, H. Hasegawa, K. Sato, M. Okuno, and H. Takahashi, "Ultracompact waveband cross-connect module using waveband selective switches: development and performance verification," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, (23), 1741‒1743 (2010).

K. Ishii, H. Hasegawa, K. Sato, S. Kamei, H. Takahashi, and M. Okuno, "Monolithically integrated waveband selective switch using cyclic AWGs," Proc. ECOC 2008, 2008, Brussels, Mo.4.C.5.

R. Hirako, K. Ishii, H. Hasegawa, K. Sato, and O. Moriwaki, "Hierarchical optical cross-connect architecture that implements colorless waveband add/drop ratio restriction utilizing a novel wavelength multi/demultiplexers," Proc. Photonic in Switching 2009, 2009, Pisa, FrII2-2.

R. Hirako, K. Ishii, H. Hasegawa, and K. Sato, "Development of compact hierarchical optical path cross-connect prototype utilizing integrated colorless multi/demultiplexers," Proc. ECOC 2010, 2010, Torino, We.8.A.5.

Jensen, R.

R. Jensen, "Optical switch architectures for emerging colorless/directionless/contentionless ROADM networks," Proc. OFC/NFOEC 2011, 2011, Los Angeles, OThR3.

R. Jensen, A. Lord, and N. Parsons, "Colourless, directionless, contentionless ROADM architecture using low-loss optical matrix switches," Proc. ECOC2010, 2010, Torino, Mo.2.D.2.

Ji, P.

L. Zong, P. Ji, T. Wang, O. Matsuda, and M. Cvijetic, "Study on wavelength cross-connect realized with wavelength selective switches," Proc. OFC/NFOEC 2006, 2006, Anaheim, NThC3.

Jinnouchi, Y.

K. Ishii, O. Moriwaki, H. Hasegawa, K. Sato, Y. Jinnouchi, M. Okuno, and H. Takahashi, "Development of hierarchical optical cross-connect system for ROADM-ring connection using PLC technologies," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, (7), 498‒500 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kakehashi, S.

S. Kakehashi, H. Hasegawa, and K. Sato, "Optical cross-connect switch architectures for hierarchical optical path networks," IEICE Trans. Commun. E91-B, 3174‒3184 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kaman, V.

V. Kaman, R. J. Helkey, and J. E. Bowers, "Multi-degree ROADM’s with agile add-drop access," Proc. Photonics in Switching 2007, 2007, San Francisco, TuA2.5.

Kamei, S.

T. Watanabe, K. Suzuki, T. Goh, K. Hattori, A. Mori, T. Takahashi, T. Sakamoto, K. Morita, S. Sohma, and S. Kamei, "Compact PLC-based transponder aggregator for colorless, and directionless ROADM," Proc. OFC/NFOEC 2011, 2011, Los Angeles, OThAA1.

K. Ishii, H. Hasegawa, K. Sato, S. Kamei, H. Takahashi, and M. Okuno, "Monolithically integrated waveband selective switch using cyclic AWGs," Proc. ECOC 2008, 2008, Brussels, Mo.4.C.5.

S. Mitsui, H. Hasegawa, K. Sato, S. Kamei, H. Takahashi, and M. Okuno, "Demonstration of compact hierarchical optical path cross-connect utilizing wavelength/waveband selective switches," Proc. OFC/NFOEC 2010, 2010, San Diego, NThF4.

Kelly, J.

J. Kelly, "Application of liquid crystal technology to telecommunication devices," Proc. OFC/NFOEC 2007, 2007, Anaheim, NThE1.

Koga, M.

K. Noguchi and M. Koga, "Reliability and lifetime estimation for large-scale photonic cross-connect switches of photonic networks," IEICE Trans. Commun. E86-B, 1530‒1538 (2003).

Kolodner, P.

Kudou, T.

K. Harada, K. Shimizu, T. Kudou, and T. Ozeki, "Hierarchical optical path cross-connect systems for large scale WDM networks," Proc. OFC/IOOC 1999, 1999, San Diego, pp. 356‒358.

Le, H.-C.

H.-C. Le, H. Hasegawa, and K. Sato, "Hierarchical optical path network design algorithm that can best utilize WSS/WBSS based cross-connects," Proc. Photonics in Switching 2009, 2009, Pisa, ThII2-3.

Li, M.

M. Li, W. Yao, and B. Ramamurthy, "Same-destination—intermediate grouping versus end-to-end grouping for waveband switching in WDM mesh networks," Proc. Int. Conf. Communication, Vol. 3, 2005, Seoul, pp. 1807‒1812.

López, D. O.

Lord, A.

R. Jensen, A. Lord, and N. Parsons, "Colourless, directionless, contentionless ROADM architecture using low-loss optical matrix switches," Proc. ECOC2010, 2010, Torino, Mo.2.D.2.

Low, Y.

Magill, P.

X. J. Zhang, M. Birk, A. Chiu, R. Doverspike, M. D. Fuer, P. Magill, E. Mavrogiorgis, J. Pastor, S. L. Woodward, and J. Yates, "Bridge-and-roll demonstration in GRIPhoN (globally reconfigurable intelligent phonic networks)," Proc. OFC/NFOEC 2010, 2010, San Diego, NThA1.

Marom, D. M.

Matsuda, O.

L. Zong, P. Ji, T. Wang, O. Matsuda, and M. Cvijetic, "Study on wavelength cross-connect realized with wavelength selective switches," Proc. OFC/NFOEC 2006, 2006, Anaheim, NThC3.

Mavrogiorgis, E.

X. J. Zhang, M. Birk, A. Chiu, R. Doverspike, M. D. Fuer, P. Magill, E. Mavrogiorgis, J. Pastor, S. L. Woodward, and J. Yates, "Bridge-and-roll demonstration in GRIPhoN (globally reconfigurable intelligent phonic networks)," Proc. OFC/NFOEC 2010, 2010, San Diego, NThA1.

McLaughlin, S.

P. Wall, P. Colbourne, C. Reimer, and S. McLaughlin, "WSS switching engine technologies," Proc. OFC/NFOEC 2008, 2008, San Diego, OWC1.

Mitsui, S.

S. Mitsui, H. Hasegawa, and K. Sato, "Hierarchical optical path cross-connect node architecture using WSS/WBSS," Proc. Photonics in Switching 2008, 2008, Sapporo, S-04-1.

S. Mitsui, H. Hasegawa, and K. Sato, "Low loss and cost-effective hierarchical optical path cross-connect switch architecture based on WSS/WBSS," Proc. Photonics in Switching 2009, 2009, Pisa, FrII2-3.

S. Mitsui, H. Hasegawa, K. Sato, S. Kamei, H. Takahashi, and M. Okuno, "Demonstration of compact hierarchical optical path cross-connect utilizing wavelength/waveband selective switches," Proc. OFC/NFOEC 2010, 2010, San Diego, NThF4.

Mizutani, K.

K. Mizutani, M. Sakauchi, and A. Tajima, "Demonstration of multi-degree color/direction-independent waveguide-based transponder-aggregator for flexible optical path networks," Proc. ECOC2010, 2010, Torino, P3.11.

Mori, A.

T. Watanabe, K. Suzuki, T. Goh, K. Hattori, A. Mori, T. Takahashi, T. Sakamoto, K. Morita, S. Sohma, and S. Kamei, "Compact PLC-based transponder aggregator for colorless, and directionless ROADM," Proc. OFC/NFOEC 2011, 2011, Los Angeles, OThAA1.

Morita, K.

T. Watanabe, K. Suzuki, T. Goh, K. Hattori, A. Mori, T. Takahashi, T. Sakamoto, K. Morita, S. Sohma, and S. Kamei, "Compact PLC-based transponder aggregator for colorless, and directionless ROADM," Proc. OFC/NFOEC 2011, 2011, Los Angeles, OThAA1.

Moriwaki, O.

K. Ishii, O. Moriwaki, H. Hasegawa, K. Sato, Y. Jinnouchi, M. Okuno, and H. Takahashi, "Development of hierarchical optical cross-connect system for ROADM-ring connection using PLC technologies," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, (7), 498‒500 (2010).
[Crossref]

R. Hirako, K. Ishii, H. Hasegawa, K. Sato, and O. Moriwaki, "Hierarchical optical cross-connect architecture that implements colorless waveband add/drop ratio restriction utilizing a novel wavelength multi/demultiplexers," Proc. Photonic in Switching 2009, 2009, Pisa, FrII2-2.

O. Moriwaki, K. Noguchi, H. Takahashi, T. Sakamoto, K. Sato, H. Hasegawa, M. Okuno, and T. Ohmori, "Terabit-scale compact hierarchical optical cross-connect system employing PLC devices and optical backplane," Proc. OCF/NFOEC 2010, 2010, San Diego, PDPC9.

Naruse, F.

F. Naruse, Y. Yamada, H. Hasegawa, and K. Sato, "Optical network design algorithms that consider optical path add/drop ratio restrictions for OXC hardware scale reduction," Proc. OFC/NFOEC 2011, 2011, Los Angeles, NThC3.

Neilson, D. T.

Noguchi, K.

K. Noguchi and M. Koga, "Reliability and lifetime estimation for large-scale photonic cross-connect switches of photonic networks," IEICE Trans. Commun. E86-B, 1530‒1538 (2003).

O. Moriwaki, K. Noguchi, H. Takahashi, T. Sakamoto, K. Sato, H. Hasegawa, M. Okuno, and T. Ohmori, "Terabit-scale compact hierarchical optical cross-connect system employing PLC devices and optical backplane," Proc. OCF/NFOEC 2010, 2010, San Diego, PDPC9.

Noirie, L.

L. Noirie, C. Blaizot, and E. Dotaro, "Multi-granularity optical crossconnect," Proc. ECOC 2000, 2000, Munich, 9.2.4.

Ohmori, T.

O. Moriwaki, K. Noguchi, H. Takahashi, T. Sakamoto, K. Sato, H. Hasegawa, M. Okuno, and T. Ohmori, "Terabit-scale compact hierarchical optical cross-connect system employing PLC devices and optical backplane," Proc. OCF/NFOEC 2010, 2010, San Diego, PDPC9.

Okuno, M.

K. Ishii, O. Moriwaki, H. Hasegawa, K. Sato, Y. Jinnouchi, M. Okuno, and H. Takahashi, "Development of hierarchical optical cross-connect system for ROADM-ring connection using PLC technologies," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, (7), 498‒500 (2010).
[Crossref]

K. Ishii, H. Hasegawa, K. Sato, M. Okuno, and H. Takahashi, "Ultracompact waveband cross-connect module using waveband selective switches: development and performance verification," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, (23), 1741‒1743 (2010).

S. Mitsui, H. Hasegawa, K. Sato, S. Kamei, H. Takahashi, and M. Okuno, "Demonstration of compact hierarchical optical path cross-connect utilizing wavelength/waveband selective switches," Proc. OFC/NFOEC 2010, 2010, San Diego, NThF4.

K. Ishii, H. Hasegawa, K. Sato, S. Kamei, H. Takahashi, and M. Okuno, "Monolithically integrated waveband selective switch using cyclic AWGs," Proc. ECOC 2008, 2008, Brussels, Mo.4.C.5.

O. Moriwaki, K. Noguchi, H. Takahashi, T. Sakamoto, K. Sato, H. Hasegawa, M. Okuno, and T. Ohmori, "Terabit-scale compact hierarchical optical cross-connect system employing PLC devices and optical backplane," Proc. OCF/NFOEC 2010, 2010, San Diego, PDPC9.

Ozeki, T.

K. Harada, K. Shimizu, T. Kudou, and T. Ozeki, "Hierarchical optical path cross-connect systems for large scale WDM networks," Proc. OFC/IOOC 1999, 1999, San Diego, pp. 356‒358.

Pai, C.

Pardo, F.

Parsons, N.

R. Jensen, A. Lord, and N. Parsons, "Colourless, directionless, contentionless ROADM architecture using low-loss optical matrix switches," Proc. ECOC2010, 2010, Torino, Mo.2.D.2.

Pastor, J.

X. J. Zhang, M. Birk, A. Chiu, R. Doverspike, M. D. Fuer, P. Magill, E. Mavrogiorgis, J. Pastor, S. L. Woodward, and J. Yates, "Bridge-and-roll demonstration in GRIPhoN (globally reconfigurable intelligent phonic networks)," Proc. OFC/NFOEC 2010, 2010, San Diego, NThA1.

Poole, S.

G. Baxter, S. Frisken, D. Abakoumov, H. Zhou, I. Clarke, A. Bartos, and S. Poole, "Highly programmable wavelength selective switch based on liquid crystal on silicon switching elements," Proc. OFC/NFOEC 2006, 2006, Anaheim, OTuF2.

Qiao, C.

X. Cao, V. Anand, and C. Qiao, "Waveband switching in optical networks," IEEE Commun. Mag. 41, (4), 105‒112 (2003).

Ramamurthy, B.

M. Li, W. Yao, and B. Ramamurthy, "Same-destination—intermediate grouping versus end-to-end grouping for waveband switching in WDM mesh networks," Proc. Int. Conf. Communication, Vol. 3, 2005, Seoul, pp. 1807‒1812.

Reimer, C.

P. Wall, P. Colbourne, C. Reimer, and S. McLaughlin, "WSS switching engine technologies," Proc. OFC/NFOEC 2008, 2008, San Diego, OWC1.

Roorda, P.

P. Roorda and B. Collings, "Evolution to colorless and directionless ROADM architectures," Proc. OFC/NFOEC 2008, 2008, San Diego, NWE2.

Sakamoto, T.

T. Watanabe, K. Suzuki, T. Goh, K. Hattori, A. Mori, T. Takahashi, T. Sakamoto, K. Morita, S. Sohma, and S. Kamei, "Compact PLC-based transponder aggregator for colorless, and directionless ROADM," Proc. OFC/NFOEC 2011, 2011, Los Angeles, OThAA1.

O. Moriwaki, K. Noguchi, H. Takahashi, T. Sakamoto, K. Sato, H. Hasegawa, M. Okuno, and T. Ohmori, "Terabit-scale compact hierarchical optical cross-connect system employing PLC devices and optical backplane," Proc. OCF/NFOEC 2010, 2010, San Diego, PDPC9.

Sakauchi, M.

K. Mizutani, M. Sakauchi, and A. Tajima, "Demonstration of multi-degree color/direction-independent waveguide-based transponder-aggregator for flexible optical path networks," Proc. ECOC2010, 2010, Torino, P3.11.

Sato, K.

K. Ishii, H. Hasegawa, K. Sato, M. Okuno, and H. Takahashi, "Ultracompact waveband cross-connect module using waveband selective switches: development and performance verification," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, (23), 1741‒1743 (2010).

K. Ishii, O. Moriwaki, H. Hasegawa, K. Sato, Y. Jinnouchi, M. Okuno, and H. Takahashi, "Development of hierarchical optical cross-connect system for ROADM-ring connection using PLC technologies," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, (7), 498‒500 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. Yamada, H. Hasegawa, and K. Sato, "Hierarchical optical path network design algorithm considering waveband protection," J. Lightwave Technol. 27, (24), 5736‒5748 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. Kakehashi, H. Hasegawa, and K. Sato, "Optical cross-connect switch architectures for hierarchical optical path networks," IEICE Trans. Commun. E91-B, 3174‒3184 (2008).
[Crossref]

I. Yagyu, H. Hasegawa, and K. Sato, "An efficient hierarchical optical path network design algorithm based on a traffic demand expression in a Cartesian product space," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 26, (6), 22‒31 (2008).
[Crossref]

K. Sato and H. Hasegawa, "Prospects and challenges of multi-layer optical networks," IEICE Trans. Commun. E90-B, 1890‒1902 (2007).
[Crossref]

H.-C. Le, H. Hasegawa, and K. Sato, "Hierarchical optical path network design algorithm that can best utilize WSS/WBSS based cross-connects," Proc. Photonics in Switching 2009, 2009, Pisa, ThII2-3.

R. Hirako, K. Ishii, H. Hasegawa, and K. Sato, "Development of compact hierarchical optical path cross-connect prototype utilizing integrated colorless multi/demultiplexers," Proc. ECOC 2010, 2010, Torino, We.8.A.5.

R. Hirako, K. Ishii, H. Hasegawa, K. Sato, and O. Moriwaki, "Hierarchical optical cross-connect architecture that implements colorless waveband add/drop ratio restriction utilizing a novel wavelength multi/demultiplexers," Proc. Photonic in Switching 2009, 2009, Pisa, FrII2-2.

O. Moriwaki, K. Noguchi, H. Takahashi, T. Sakamoto, K. Sato, H. Hasegawa, M. Okuno, and T. Ohmori, "Terabit-scale compact hierarchical optical cross-connect system employing PLC devices and optical backplane," Proc. OCF/NFOEC 2010, 2010, San Diego, PDPC9.

F. Naruse, Y. Yamada, H. Hasegawa, and K. Sato, "Optical network design algorithms that consider optical path add/drop ratio restrictions for OXC hardware scale reduction," Proc. OFC/NFOEC 2011, 2011, Los Angeles, NThC3.

S. Mitsui, H. Hasegawa, and K. Sato, "Hierarchical optical path cross-connect node architecture using WSS/WBSS," Proc. Photonics in Switching 2008, 2008, Sapporo, S-04-1.

S. Mitsui, H. Hasegawa, and K. Sato, "Low loss and cost-effective hierarchical optical path cross-connect switch architecture based on WSS/WBSS," Proc. Photonics in Switching 2009, 2009, Pisa, FrII2-3.

S. Mitsui, H. Hasegawa, K. Sato, S. Kamei, H. Takahashi, and M. Okuno, "Demonstration of compact hierarchical optical path cross-connect utilizing wavelength/waveband selective switches," Proc. OFC/NFOEC 2010, 2010, San Diego, NThF4.

K. Ishii, H. Hasegawa, K. Sato, S. Kamei, H. Takahashi, and M. Okuno, "Monolithically integrated waveband selective switch using cyclic AWGs," Proc. ECOC 2008, 2008, Brussels, Mo.4.C.5.

Shankar, R.

R. Shankar, M. Florjanczyk, T. J. Hall, A. Vukovic, and H. Hua, "Multi-degree ROADM based on wavelength selective switches: architectures and scalability," Opt. Commun. 279, (1), 94‒100 (2007).
[Crossref]

Shimizu, K.

K. Harada, K. Shimizu, T. Kudou, and T. Ozeki, "Hierarchical optical path cross-connect systems for large scale WDM networks," Proc. OFC/IOOC 1999, 1999, San Diego, pp. 356‒358.

Simon, M. E.

Sohma, S.

T. Watanabe, K. Suzuki, T. Goh, K. Hattori, A. Mori, T. Takahashi, T. Sakamoto, K. Morita, S. Sohma, and S. Kamei, "Compact PLC-based transponder aggregator for colorless, and directionless ROADM," Proc. OFC/NFOEC 2011, 2011, Los Angeles, OThAA1.

Suzuki, K.

T. Watanabe, K. Suzuki, T. Goh, K. Hattori, A. Mori, T. Takahashi, T. Sakamoto, K. Morita, S. Sohma, and S. Kamei, "Compact PLC-based transponder aggregator for colorless, and directionless ROADM," Proc. OFC/NFOEC 2011, 2011, Los Angeles, OThAA1.

Tajima, A.

K. Mizutani, M. Sakauchi, and A. Tajima, "Demonstration of multi-degree color/direction-independent waveguide-based transponder-aggregator for flexible optical path networks," Proc. ECOC2010, 2010, Torino, P3.11.

Takahashi, H.

K. Ishii, H. Hasegawa, K. Sato, M. Okuno, and H. Takahashi, "Ultracompact waveband cross-connect module using waveband selective switches: development and performance verification," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, (23), 1741‒1743 (2010).

K. Ishii, O. Moriwaki, H. Hasegawa, K. Sato, Y. Jinnouchi, M. Okuno, and H. Takahashi, "Development of hierarchical optical cross-connect system for ROADM-ring connection using PLC technologies," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, (7), 498‒500 (2010).
[Crossref]

O. Moriwaki, K. Noguchi, H. Takahashi, T. Sakamoto, K. Sato, H. Hasegawa, M. Okuno, and T. Ohmori, "Terabit-scale compact hierarchical optical cross-connect system employing PLC devices and optical backplane," Proc. OCF/NFOEC 2010, 2010, San Diego, PDPC9.

K. Ishii, H. Hasegawa, K. Sato, S. Kamei, H. Takahashi, and M. Okuno, "Monolithically integrated waveband selective switch using cyclic AWGs," Proc. ECOC 2008, 2008, Brussels, Mo.4.C.5.

S. Mitsui, H. Hasegawa, K. Sato, S. Kamei, H. Takahashi, and M. Okuno, "Demonstration of compact hierarchical optical path cross-connect utilizing wavelength/waveband selective switches," Proc. OFC/NFOEC 2010, 2010, San Diego, NThF4.

Takahashi, T.

T. Watanabe, K. Suzuki, T. Goh, K. Hattori, A. Mori, T. Takahashi, T. Sakamoto, K. Morita, S. Sohma, and S. Kamei, "Compact PLC-based transponder aggregator for colorless, and directionless ROADM," Proc. OFC/NFOEC 2011, 2011, Los Angeles, OThAA1.

Tsai, J. C.

J. C. Tsai and M. C. Wu, "A High port-count wavelength-selective switch using a large scan-angle, high fill-factor, two-axis MEMS scanner array," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, (13), 1439‒1441 (2006).
[Crossref]

Vukovic, A.

R. Shankar, M. Florjanczyk, T. J. Hall, A. Vukovic, and H. Hua, "Multi-degree ROADM based on wavelength selective switches: architectures and scalability," Opt. Commun. 279, (1), 94‒100 (2007).
[Crossref]

Wall, P.

P. Wall, P. Colbourne, C. Reimer, and S. McLaughlin, "WSS switching engine technologies," Proc. OFC/NFOEC 2008, 2008, San Diego, OWC1.

Wang, T.

L. Zong, P. Ji, T. Wang, O. Matsuda, and M. Cvijetic, "Study on wavelength cross-connect realized with wavelength selective switches," Proc. OFC/NFOEC 2006, 2006, Anaheim, NThC3.

Watanabe, T.

T. Watanabe, K. Suzuki, T. Goh, K. Hattori, A. Mori, T. Takahashi, T. Sakamoto, K. Morita, S. Sohma, and S. Kamei, "Compact PLC-based transponder aggregator for colorless, and directionless ROADM," Proc. OFC/NFOEC 2011, 2011, Los Angeles, OThAA1.

Woodward, S. L.

X. J. Zhang, M. Birk, A. Chiu, R. Doverspike, M. D. Fuer, P. Magill, E. Mavrogiorgis, J. Pastor, S. L. Woodward, and J. Yates, "Bridge-and-roll demonstration in GRIPhoN (globally reconfigurable intelligent phonic networks)," Proc. OFC/NFOEC 2010, 2010, San Diego, NThA1.

Wu, M. C.

J. C. Tsai and M. C. Wu, "A High port-count wavelength-selective switch using a large scan-angle, high fill-factor, two-axis MEMS scanner array," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, (13), 1439‒1441 (2006).
[Crossref]

Yagyu, I.

I. Yagyu, H. Hasegawa, and K. Sato, "An efficient hierarchical optical path network design algorithm based on a traffic demand expression in a Cartesian product space," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 26, (6), 22‒31 (2008).
[Crossref]

Yamada, Y.

Y. Yamada, H. Hasegawa, and K. Sato, "Hierarchical optical path network design algorithm considering waveband protection," J. Lightwave Technol. 27, (24), 5736‒5748 (2009).
[Crossref]

F. Naruse, Y. Yamada, H. Hasegawa, and K. Sato, "Optical network design algorithms that consider optical path add/drop ratio restrictions for OXC hardware scale reduction," Proc. OFC/NFOEC 2011, 2011, Los Angeles, NThC3.

Yao, W.

M. Li, W. Yao, and B. Ramamurthy, "Same-destination—intermediate grouping versus end-to-end grouping for waveband switching in WDM mesh networks," Proc. Int. Conf. Communication, Vol. 3, 2005, Seoul, pp. 1807‒1812.

Yates, J.

X. J. Zhang, M. Birk, A. Chiu, R. Doverspike, M. D. Fuer, P. Magill, E. Mavrogiorgis, J. Pastor, S. L. Woodward, and J. Yates, "Bridge-and-roll demonstration in GRIPhoN (globally reconfigurable intelligent phonic networks)," Proc. OFC/NFOEC 2010, 2010, San Diego, NThA1.

Zhang, X. J.

X. J. Zhang, M. Birk, A. Chiu, R. Doverspike, M. D. Fuer, P. Magill, E. Mavrogiorgis, J. Pastor, S. L. Woodward, and J. Yates, "Bridge-and-roll demonstration in GRIPhoN (globally reconfigurable intelligent phonic networks)," Proc. OFC/NFOEC 2010, 2010, San Diego, NThA1.

Zhou, H.

G. Baxter, S. Frisken, D. Abakoumov, H. Zhou, I. Clarke, A. Bartos, and S. Poole, "Highly programmable wavelength selective switch based on liquid crystal on silicon switching elements," Proc. OFC/NFOEC 2006, 2006, Anaheim, OTuF2.

Zong, L.

L. Zong, P. Ji, T. Wang, O. Matsuda, and M. Cvijetic, "Study on wavelength cross-connect realized with wavelength selective switches," Proc. OFC/NFOEC 2006, 2006, Anaheim, NThC3.

IEEE Commun. Mag. (1)

X. Cao, V. Anand, and C. Qiao, "Waveband switching in optical networks," IEEE Commun. Mag. 41, (4), 105‒112 (2003).

IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. (1)

I. Yagyu, H. Hasegawa, and K. Sato, "An efficient hierarchical optical path network design algorithm based on a traffic demand expression in a Cartesian product space," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 26, (6), 22‒31 (2008).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

K. Ishii, O. Moriwaki, H. Hasegawa, K. Sato, Y. Jinnouchi, M. Okuno, and H. Takahashi, "Development of hierarchical optical cross-connect system for ROADM-ring connection using PLC technologies," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, (7), 498‒500 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. C. Tsai and M. C. Wu, "A High port-count wavelength-selective switch using a large scan-angle, high fill-factor, two-axis MEMS scanner array," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, (13), 1439‒1441 (2006).
[Crossref]

K. Ishii, H. Hasegawa, K. Sato, M. Okuno, and H. Takahashi, "Ultracompact waveband cross-connect module using waveband selective switches: development and performance verification," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, (23), 1741‒1743 (2010).

IEICE Trans. Commun. (3)

K. Noguchi and M. Koga, "Reliability and lifetime estimation for large-scale photonic cross-connect switches of photonic networks," IEICE Trans. Commun. E86-B, 1530‒1538 (2003).

K. Sato and H. Hasegawa, "Prospects and challenges of multi-layer optical networks," IEICE Trans. Commun. E90-B, 1890‒1902 (2007).
[Crossref]

S. Kakehashi, H. Hasegawa, and K. Sato, "Optical cross-connect switch architectures for hierarchical optical path networks," IEICE Trans. Commun. E91-B, 3174‒3184 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

Opt. Commun. (1)

R. Shankar, M. Florjanczyk, T. J. Hall, A. Vukovic, and H. Hua, "Multi-degree ROADM based on wavelength selective switches: architectures and scalability," Opt. Commun. 279, (1), 94‒100 (2007).
[Crossref]

Other (25)

L. Zong, P. Ji, T. Wang, O. Matsuda, and M. Cvijetic, "Study on wavelength cross-connect realized with wavelength selective switches," Proc. OFC/NFOEC 2006, 2006, Anaheim, NThC3.

J. Kelly, "Application of liquid crystal technology to telecommunication devices," Proc. OFC/NFOEC 2007, 2007, Anaheim, NThE1.

G. Baxter, S. Frisken, D. Abakoumov, H. Zhou, I. Clarke, A. Bartos, and S. Poole, "Highly programmable wavelength selective switch based on liquid crystal on silicon switching elements," Proc. OFC/NFOEC 2006, 2006, Anaheim, OTuF2.

H.-C. Le, H. Hasegawa, and K. Sato, "Hierarchical optical path network design algorithm that can best utilize WSS/WBSS based cross-connects," Proc. Photonics in Switching 2009, 2009, Pisa, ThII2-3.

B. C. Collings, "Wavelength selective switches and future photonic network applications," Proc. Photonics in Switching 2009, 2009, Pisa, FRII2-4.

R. Hirako, K. Ishii, H. Hasegawa, K. Sato, and O. Moriwaki, "Hierarchical optical cross-connect architecture that implements colorless waveband add/drop ratio restriction utilizing a novel wavelength multi/demultiplexers," Proc. Photonic in Switching 2009, 2009, Pisa, FrII2-2.

R. Hirako, K. Ishii, H. Hasegawa, and K. Sato, "Development of compact hierarchical optical path cross-connect prototype utilizing integrated colorless multi/demultiplexers," Proc. ECOC 2010, 2010, Torino, We.8.A.5.

O. Moriwaki, K. Noguchi, H. Takahashi, T. Sakamoto, K. Sato, H. Hasegawa, M. Okuno, and T. Ohmori, "Terabit-scale compact hierarchical optical cross-connect system employing PLC devices and optical backplane," Proc. OCF/NFOEC 2010, 2010, San Diego, PDPC9.

K. Harada, K. Shimizu, T. Kudou, and T. Ozeki, "Hierarchical optical path cross-connect systems for large scale WDM networks," Proc. OFC/IOOC 1999, 1999, San Diego, pp. 356‒358.

L. Noirie, C. Blaizot, and E. Dotaro, "Multi-granularity optical crossconnect," Proc. ECOC 2000, 2000, Munich, 9.2.4.

M. Li, W. Yao, and B. Ramamurthy, "Same-destination—intermediate grouping versus end-to-end grouping for waveband switching in WDM mesh networks," Proc. Int. Conf. Communication, Vol. 3, 2005, Seoul, pp. 1807‒1812.

"Parameter values for an expanded hierarchy of LSDI image formats for production and international program exchange," ITU-R Recommendation BT 1769, 2006.

P. Wall, P. Colbourne, C. Reimer, and S. McLaughlin, "WSS switching engine technologies," Proc. OFC/NFOEC 2008, 2008, San Diego, OWC1.

S. Mitsui, H. Hasegawa, and K. Sato, "Hierarchical optical path cross-connect node architecture using WSS/WBSS," Proc. Photonics in Switching 2008, 2008, Sapporo, S-04-1.

S. Mitsui, H. Hasegawa, and K. Sato, "Low loss and cost-effective hierarchical optical path cross-connect switch architecture based on WSS/WBSS," Proc. Photonics in Switching 2009, 2009, Pisa, FrII2-3.

S. Mitsui, H. Hasegawa, K. Sato, S. Kamei, H. Takahashi, and M. Okuno, "Demonstration of compact hierarchical optical path cross-connect utilizing wavelength/waveband selective switches," Proc. OFC/NFOEC 2010, 2010, San Diego, NThF4.

K. Ishii, H. Hasegawa, K. Sato, S. Kamei, H. Takahashi, and M. Okuno, "Monolithically integrated waveband selective switch using cyclic AWGs," Proc. ECOC 2008, 2008, Brussels, Mo.4.C.5.

V. Kaman, R. J. Helkey, and J. E. Bowers, "Multi-degree ROADM’s with agile add-drop access," Proc. Photonics in Switching 2007, 2007, San Francisco, TuA2.5.

P. Roorda and B. Collings, "Evolution to colorless and directionless ROADM architectures," Proc. OFC/NFOEC 2008, 2008, San Diego, NWE2.

X. J. Zhang, M. Birk, A. Chiu, R. Doverspike, M. D. Fuer, P. Magill, E. Mavrogiorgis, J. Pastor, S. L. Woodward, and J. Yates, "Bridge-and-roll demonstration in GRIPhoN (globally reconfigurable intelligent phonic networks)," Proc. OFC/NFOEC 2010, 2010, San Diego, NThA1.

K. Mizutani, M. Sakauchi, and A. Tajima, "Demonstration of multi-degree color/direction-independent waveguide-based transponder-aggregator for flexible optical path networks," Proc. ECOC2010, 2010, Torino, P3.11.

R. Jensen, A. Lord, and N. Parsons, "Colourless, directionless, contentionless ROADM architecture using low-loss optical matrix switches," Proc. ECOC2010, 2010, Torino, Mo.2.D.2.

T. Watanabe, K. Suzuki, T. Goh, K. Hattori, A. Mori, T. Takahashi, T. Sakamoto, K. Morita, S. Sohma, and S. Kamei, "Compact PLC-based transponder aggregator for colorless, and directionless ROADM," Proc. OFC/NFOEC 2011, 2011, Los Angeles, OThAA1.

R. Jensen, "Optical switch architectures for emerging colorless/directionless/contentionless ROADM networks," Proc. OFC/NFOEC 2011, 2011, Los Angeles, OThR3.

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Figures (19)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

WSS based single-layer OXC node architecture.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

WSS/WBSS based HOXC node architecture (1).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

WSS/WBSS based HOXC node architecture (2): separation of waveband drop function.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(Color online) Evaluation of switch scale for single-layer OXC and HOXC.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(Color online) Insertion loss comparison between HOXC (1) and HOXC (2) for four switch operations: HOXC ( 2 ) HOXC ( 1 ) .

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(Color online) Typical waveband arrangements. Continuous waveband (left) and interleaved waveband (right).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

WBSS logical architecture.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(Color online) Excess loss of test samples: (a) 1st cyclic AWG, (b) two cascaded AWGs (a), (c) 2nd cyclic AWG, and (d) cascaded AWGs (a) and (c).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(Color online) Fabricated WBSS chip.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

(Color online) Output channel spectra at output port 1 when waveband 1 (left) or waveband 2 (right) is routed.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

(Color online) Insertion loss versus channel number.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

(Color online) Center wavelength error versus channel number.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

(Color online) The developed prototype HOXC architecture.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

(Color online) The four switch operation states of the HOXC prototype.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Experimental configuration for bit error rate measurement.

Fig. 16
Fig. 16

(Color online) Bit error rate measurements for the four switch states.

Fig. 17
Fig. 17

(Color online) Transmission testbed.

Fig. 18
Fig. 18

(Color online) Bit error rate measurements for end-to-end connection.

Fig. 19
Fig. 19

(Color online) Power penalty at bit error rate of 10 9 . End-to-end connection (left) and with once intermediate grooming (right).

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table I Comparison of Cross-Connects in Terms of Mirror Steps and Number of WSSs and WBSSs

Tables Icon

Table II Transmission Characteristics of the Four Fabricated WBSSs