Abstract

We propose and experimentally demonstrate overlaying an independent channel on a gigabit passive optical network (GPON). This has application to carry data collected from wireless sensor networks used for environmental monitoring on a public network. The overlaid channel, which utilizes highly stretched pulses to carry the low-rate sensor data, is unnoticeable in the presence of ordinary data channels. This overlaid channel can provide security for the sensor data because of its ultralow signal amplitude. Our experiment demonstrates that the GPON transmission experiences minimal performance degradation from the overlaid channel, indicating the feasibility of our approach. A cost-effective system architecture is proposed, and theoretical analysis shows the effect of the sensor data signal on the GPON data transmission performance.

© 2011 OSA

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  1. I. F. Akyildiz and M. Can Vuran, Wireless Sensor Networks, Wiley, 2010.
  2. C. S. Raghavendra, K. M. Sivalingam, and T. Znati, Wireless Sensor Networks, Springer, 2006.
  3. K. Holger and A. Willig, Protocols and Architectures for Wireless Sensor Networks, Wiley, 2005.
  4. F. Zhao and L. Guibasb, Wireless Sensor Networks: An Information Processing Approach, Elsevier, 2004.
  5. M. Ivester and A. Lim, "Interactive and extensible framework for execution and monitoring of wireless sensor networks," 1st Int. Conf. on Communication Systems Software and Middleware, 2006, IEEE/ACM, New Delhi.
  6. L. G. Kazovsky, W.-T. Shaw, D. Gutierrez, N. Cheng, and S.-W. Wong, "Next-generation optical access networks," J. Lightwave. Technol. 25, 3428‒3442 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  7. B. Wu and E. E. Narimanov, "A method for secure communications over a public fiber-optical network," Opt. Express 14, 3738‒3751 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. B. Wu, A. Agrawal, I. Glesk, E. Narimanov, S. Etemad, and P. Prucnal, "Steganographic fiber-optic transmission using coherent spectral-phase-encoded optical CDMA," CLEO/QELS, 2008, CFF5.
  9. K. Kravtsov, B. Wu, I. Glesk, P. R. Prucnal, and E. Narimanov, "Stealth transmission over a WDM network with detection based on an all-optical thresholder," 20th Annu. Meeting of the IEEE LEOS, 2007, pp. 480‒481.
  10. M. P. Fok and P. R. Prucnal, "A compact and low-latency scheme for optical steganography using chirped fiber Bragg gratings," Electron. Lett. 45, 179‒180 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  11. G. P. Agrawal, Fiber-Optic Communication Systems, 3rd ed., Wiley-Interscience, New York, 2002, ch. 4.

2009

M. P. Fok and P. R. Prucnal, "A compact and low-latency scheme for optical steganography using chirped fiber Bragg gratings," Electron. Lett. 45, 179‒180 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2006

2005

L. G. Kazovsky, W.-T. Shaw, D. Gutierrez, N. Cheng, and S.-W. Wong, "Next-generation optical access networks," J. Lightwave. Technol. 25, 3428‒3442 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Agrawal, A.

B. Wu, A. Agrawal, I. Glesk, E. Narimanov, S. Etemad, and P. Prucnal, "Steganographic fiber-optic transmission using coherent spectral-phase-encoded optical CDMA," CLEO/QELS, 2008, CFF5.

Agrawal, G. P.

G. P. Agrawal, Fiber-Optic Communication Systems, 3rd ed., Wiley-Interscience, New York, 2002, ch. 4.

Akyildiz, I. F.

I. F. Akyildiz and M. Can Vuran, Wireless Sensor Networks, Wiley, 2010.

Can Vuran, M.

I. F. Akyildiz and M. Can Vuran, Wireless Sensor Networks, Wiley, 2010.

Cheng, N.

L. G. Kazovsky, W.-T. Shaw, D. Gutierrez, N. Cheng, and S.-W. Wong, "Next-generation optical access networks," J. Lightwave. Technol. 25, 3428‒3442 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Etemad, S.

B. Wu, A. Agrawal, I. Glesk, E. Narimanov, S. Etemad, and P. Prucnal, "Steganographic fiber-optic transmission using coherent spectral-phase-encoded optical CDMA," CLEO/QELS, 2008, CFF5.

Fok, M. P.

M. P. Fok and P. R. Prucnal, "A compact and low-latency scheme for optical steganography using chirped fiber Bragg gratings," Electron. Lett. 45, 179‒180 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Glesk, I.

K. Kravtsov, B. Wu, I. Glesk, P. R. Prucnal, and E. Narimanov, "Stealth transmission over a WDM network with detection based on an all-optical thresholder," 20th Annu. Meeting of the IEEE LEOS, 2007, pp. 480‒481.

B. Wu, A. Agrawal, I. Glesk, E. Narimanov, S. Etemad, and P. Prucnal, "Steganographic fiber-optic transmission using coherent spectral-phase-encoded optical CDMA," CLEO/QELS, 2008, CFF5.

Guibasb, L.

F. Zhao and L. Guibasb, Wireless Sensor Networks: An Information Processing Approach, Elsevier, 2004.

Gutierrez, D.

L. G. Kazovsky, W.-T. Shaw, D. Gutierrez, N. Cheng, and S.-W. Wong, "Next-generation optical access networks," J. Lightwave. Technol. 25, 3428‒3442 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Holger, K.

K. Holger and A. Willig, Protocols and Architectures for Wireless Sensor Networks, Wiley, 2005.

Ivester, M.

M. Ivester and A. Lim, "Interactive and extensible framework for execution and monitoring of wireless sensor networks," 1st Int. Conf. on Communication Systems Software and Middleware, 2006, IEEE/ACM, New Delhi.

Kazovsky, L. G.

L. G. Kazovsky, W.-T. Shaw, D. Gutierrez, N. Cheng, and S.-W. Wong, "Next-generation optical access networks," J. Lightwave. Technol. 25, 3428‒3442 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kravtsov, K.

K. Kravtsov, B. Wu, I. Glesk, P. R. Prucnal, and E. Narimanov, "Stealth transmission over a WDM network with detection based on an all-optical thresholder," 20th Annu. Meeting of the IEEE LEOS, 2007, pp. 480‒481.

Lim, A.

M. Ivester and A. Lim, "Interactive and extensible framework for execution and monitoring of wireless sensor networks," 1st Int. Conf. on Communication Systems Software and Middleware, 2006, IEEE/ACM, New Delhi.

Narimanov, E.

B. Wu, A. Agrawal, I. Glesk, E. Narimanov, S. Etemad, and P. Prucnal, "Steganographic fiber-optic transmission using coherent spectral-phase-encoded optical CDMA," CLEO/QELS, 2008, CFF5.

K. Kravtsov, B. Wu, I. Glesk, P. R. Prucnal, and E. Narimanov, "Stealth transmission over a WDM network with detection based on an all-optical thresholder," 20th Annu. Meeting of the IEEE LEOS, 2007, pp. 480‒481.

Narimanov, E. E.

Prucnal, P.

B. Wu, A. Agrawal, I. Glesk, E. Narimanov, S. Etemad, and P. Prucnal, "Steganographic fiber-optic transmission using coherent spectral-phase-encoded optical CDMA," CLEO/QELS, 2008, CFF5.

Prucnal, P. R.

M. P. Fok and P. R. Prucnal, "A compact and low-latency scheme for optical steganography using chirped fiber Bragg gratings," Electron. Lett. 45, 179‒180 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Kravtsov, B. Wu, I. Glesk, P. R. Prucnal, and E. Narimanov, "Stealth transmission over a WDM network with detection based on an all-optical thresholder," 20th Annu. Meeting of the IEEE LEOS, 2007, pp. 480‒481.

Raghavendra, C. S.

C. S. Raghavendra, K. M. Sivalingam, and T. Znati, Wireless Sensor Networks, Springer, 2006.

Shaw, W.-T.

L. G. Kazovsky, W.-T. Shaw, D. Gutierrez, N. Cheng, and S.-W. Wong, "Next-generation optical access networks," J. Lightwave. Technol. 25, 3428‒3442 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sivalingam, K. M.

C. S. Raghavendra, K. M. Sivalingam, and T. Znati, Wireless Sensor Networks, Springer, 2006.

Willig, A.

K. Holger and A. Willig, Protocols and Architectures for Wireless Sensor Networks, Wiley, 2005.

Wong, S.-W.

L. G. Kazovsky, W.-T. Shaw, D. Gutierrez, N. Cheng, and S.-W. Wong, "Next-generation optical access networks," J. Lightwave. Technol. 25, 3428‒3442 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wu, B.

B. Wu and E. E. Narimanov, "A method for secure communications over a public fiber-optical network," Opt. Express 14, 3738‒3751 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Wu, A. Agrawal, I. Glesk, E. Narimanov, S. Etemad, and P. Prucnal, "Steganographic fiber-optic transmission using coherent spectral-phase-encoded optical CDMA," CLEO/QELS, 2008, CFF5.

K. Kravtsov, B. Wu, I. Glesk, P. R. Prucnal, and E. Narimanov, "Stealth transmission over a WDM network with detection based on an all-optical thresholder," 20th Annu. Meeting of the IEEE LEOS, 2007, pp. 480‒481.

Zhao, F.

F. Zhao and L. Guibasb, Wireless Sensor Networks: An Information Processing Approach, Elsevier, 2004.

Znati, T.

C. S. Raghavendra, K. M. Sivalingam, and T. Znati, Wireless Sensor Networks, Springer, 2006.

Electron. Lett.

M. P. Fok and P. R. Prucnal, "A compact and low-latency scheme for optical steganography using chirped fiber Bragg gratings," Electron. Lett. 45, 179‒180 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave. Technol.

L. G. Kazovsky, W.-T. Shaw, D. Gutierrez, N. Cheng, and S.-W. Wong, "Next-generation optical access networks," J. Lightwave. Technol. 25, 3428‒3442 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Other

B. Wu, A. Agrawal, I. Glesk, E. Narimanov, S. Etemad, and P. Prucnal, "Steganographic fiber-optic transmission using coherent spectral-phase-encoded optical CDMA," CLEO/QELS, 2008, CFF5.

K. Kravtsov, B. Wu, I. Glesk, P. R. Prucnal, and E. Narimanov, "Stealth transmission over a WDM network with detection based on an all-optical thresholder," 20th Annu. Meeting of the IEEE LEOS, 2007, pp. 480‒481.

I. F. Akyildiz and M. Can Vuran, Wireless Sensor Networks, Wiley, 2010.

C. S. Raghavendra, K. M. Sivalingam, and T. Znati, Wireless Sensor Networks, Springer, 2006.

K. Holger and A. Willig, Protocols and Architectures for Wireless Sensor Networks, Wiley, 2005.

F. Zhao and L. Guibasb, Wireless Sensor Networks: An Information Processing Approach, Elsevier, 2004.

M. Ivester and A. Lim, "Interactive and extensible framework for execution and monitoring of wireless sensor networks," 1st Int. Conf. on Communication Systems Software and Middleware, 2006, IEEE/ACM, New Delhi.

G. P. Agrawal, Fiber-Optic Communication Systems, 3rd ed., Wiley-Interscience, New York, 2002, ch. 4.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(Color online) Schematic illustration of building a sensor data channel overlaying a GPON.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(Color online) Schematic diagram of the experiment and temporal results. (f) Only the sensor data signal after 6 km SMF transmission. (j) Only the ONU data signal, without the sensor data signal. MLL: mode-locked laser; DDF: dispersion decreasing fiber; MOD: intensity modulator; EDFA: erbium-doped fiber amplifier; ATT: attenuator; DCF: dispersion compensating fiber.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(Color online) Optical spectra of the simulated GPON signal, the sensor signal, and the combined signal.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(Color online) (a) BER measurement of the ONU transmission; (b) packet loss rate measurement of the sensor data transmission.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(Color online) Schematic diagram of the modified sensor data overlay networks.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

The sensor data packet sending in the GPON system. q represents the rate of bit 1 in a sensor packet period T.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(Color online) Theoretical BER curves of the ONU transmission with (a) different P S and (b) different q values.

Equations (8)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I 1 = 2 R P O N U , I 0 = 0 , I S = R P S / q ,
q = T 0 N / 2 T .
σ S = M P O N U , σ 1 = σ S 2 + σ T 2 , σ 0 = σ T ,
BER = 1 4 e r f c I 1 I D σ 1 2 + erfc I D σ 0 2 ,
I D = σ 0 I 1 σ 1 + σ 0 ,
BER = 1 4 erfc I 1 I D σ 1 2 + erfc I D σ 0 2 ,
I D = σ 0 I 1 σ 1 + σ 0 + I S .
BER a l l = q BER + ( 1 q ) BER .