Abstract

In order to improve the fairness in terms of the number of hops for high-performance optical burst switching networks, we propose a method called hop-based burst-cluster transmission. In this method, bursts with different numbers of hops are assembled simultaneously, and a hop-based burst-cluster is generated so that the bursts within the cluster are arranged in order from the smallest to the largest number of hops. Then the hop-based burst-cluster is transmitted along with multiple control packets. Here, within the same cluster, a burst whose number of hops is small is transmitted before a burst whose number of hops is large. The control packets are processed according to the modified processing algorithm, and hence a burst whose number of hops is large has more chances in the wavelength reservation than a burst whose number of hops is small. As a result, the burst loss probability of many hops decreases and the burst loss probability of few hops increases, improving the fairness. In addition, hop-based burst-cluster transmission can also decrease the overall burst loss probability. We evaluate the performance of hop-based burst-cluster transmission for the 14-node NSFNET and ARPA2 with simulation. In numerical examples, we compare the performance of the proposed method with conventional burst transmission, and we investigate the impacts of the amount of traffic, the processing time of a control packet, the switching time of an optical switch, and the number of wavelengths. We show that the proposed method can not only improve the fairness but also decrease the overall burst loss probability in both the networks.

© 2011 OSA

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  1. C. Qiao and M. Yoo, "Optical burst switching—a new paradigm for an optical internet," J. High Speed Netw. 8, (1), 69‒84 (1999).
  2. T. Battestilli and H. Perros, "An introduction to optical burst switching," IEEE Commun. Mag. 41, (8), S10‒S15 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  3. T. Orawiwattanakul, Y. Ji, Y. Zhang, and J. Li, "Fair bandwidth allocation in optical burst switching networks," J. Lightwave Technol. 27, (16), 3370‒3380 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  4. T. Tachibana, "Burst-cluster transmission with probabilistic pre-emption for reliable data transfer in high-performance OBS networks," Photonic Network Commun. 17, (3), 245‒254 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  5. K. Nashimoto, N. Tanaka, M. LaBuda, D. Ritums, J. Dawley, M. Raj, D. Kudzuma, and T. Vo, "High-speed PLZT optical switches for burst and packet switching," Proc. 2nd Int. Conf. Broadband Networks, Oct. 2005, Boston, MA, USA, pp. 195‒200.
  6. X. Zhang, L. N. Bhuyan, and W. Feng, "Anatomy of UDP and M-VIA for cluster communications," J. Parallel Distrib. Comput. 65, (10), 1290‒1298 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. Y. Wei and R. I. McFarland, "Just-in-time signaling for WDM optical burst switching networks," J. Lightwave Technol. 18, (12), 2019‒2037 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. Ge and F. Callegati, "On optical burst switching and self-similar traffic," IEEE Commun. Lett. 4, (3), 98‒100 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  9. B. Zhou, M. A. Bassiouni, and G. Li, "Improving fairness in optical-burst-switching networks," J. Opt. Netw. 3, (4), 214‒228 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. Ueda, T. Tachibana, and S. Kasahara, "A last-hop preemptive scheme based on the number of hops for optical burst switching networks," J. Opt. Netw. 4, (10), 648‒660 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. Ueda, T. Tachibana, and S. Kasahara, "Intermediate-hop preemption to improve fairness in optical burst switching networks," IEICE Trans. Commun. E91-B, (3), 710‒721 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  12. X. Gao and M. A. Bassiouni, "Improving fairness with novel adaptive routing in optical burst-switched networks," J. Lightwave Technol. 27, (20), 4480‒4492 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  13. H. T. Lina and W. R. Chang, "CORNet: an OBS metro ring network with QoS support and fairness control," Comput. Netw. 52, (10), 2045‒2064 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  14. T. Tachibana and S. Kasahara, "Burst-cluster transmission: service differentiation mechanism for immediate reservation in optical burst switching networks," IEEE Commun. Mag. 44, (5), 46‒55 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  15. B. O. Nassar, T. Tachibana, and K. Sugimoto, "Random scheduling based on transmission delay and buffer size for hop-based burst-cluster transmission in OBS networks," Photonic Network Commun. 19, (3), 292‒300 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  16. R. Jain, D. Chiu, and W. Hawe, "A quantitative measure of fairness and discrimination for resource allocation in shared computer systems," DEC Research Report, TR-301, Sept. 1984, pp. 1‒37.
  17. K.-i. Sato, "Recent developments in and challenges of photonic networking technologies," IEICE Trans. Commun. E90-B, (3), 454‒467 (2007).
    [CrossRef]

2010

B. O. Nassar, T. Tachibana, and K. Sugimoto, "Random scheduling based on transmission delay and buffer size for hop-based burst-cluster transmission in OBS networks," Photonic Network Commun. 19, (3), 292‒300 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

2008

M. Ueda, T. Tachibana, and S. Kasahara, "Intermediate-hop preemption to improve fairness in optical burst switching networks," IEICE Trans. Commun. E91-B, (3), 710‒721 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. T. Lina and W. R. Chang, "CORNet: an OBS metro ring network with QoS support and fairness control," Comput. Netw. 52, (10), 2045‒2064 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

K.-i. Sato, "Recent developments in and challenges of photonic networking technologies," IEICE Trans. Commun. E90-B, (3), 454‒467 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

T. Tachibana and S. Kasahara, "Burst-cluster transmission: service differentiation mechanism for immediate reservation in optical burst switching networks," IEEE Commun. Mag. 44, (5), 46‒55 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

X. Zhang, L. N. Bhuyan, and W. Feng, "Anatomy of UDP and M-VIA for cluster communications," J. Parallel Distrib. Comput. 65, (10), 1290‒1298 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Ueda, T. Tachibana, and S. Kasahara, "A last-hop preemptive scheme based on the number of hops for optical burst switching networks," J. Opt. Netw. 4, (10), 648‒660 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

2003

T. Battestilli and H. Perros, "An introduction to optical burst switching," IEEE Commun. Mag. 41, (8), S10‒S15 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2000

A. Ge and F. Callegati, "On optical burst switching and self-similar traffic," IEEE Commun. Lett. 4, (3), 98‒100 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Y. Wei and R. I. McFarland, "Just-in-time signaling for WDM optical burst switching networks," J. Lightwave Technol. 18, (12), 2019‒2037 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

C. Qiao and M. Yoo, "Optical burst switching—a new paradigm for an optical internet," J. High Speed Netw. 8, (1), 69‒84 (1999).

Bassiouni, M. A.

Battestilli, T.

T. Battestilli and H. Perros, "An introduction to optical burst switching," IEEE Commun. Mag. 41, (8), S10‒S15 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bhuyan, L. N.

X. Zhang, L. N. Bhuyan, and W. Feng, "Anatomy of UDP and M-VIA for cluster communications," J. Parallel Distrib. Comput. 65, (10), 1290‒1298 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Callegati, F.

A. Ge and F. Callegati, "On optical burst switching and self-similar traffic," IEEE Commun. Lett. 4, (3), 98‒100 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chang, W. R.

H. T. Lina and W. R. Chang, "CORNet: an OBS metro ring network with QoS support and fairness control," Comput. Netw. 52, (10), 2045‒2064 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chiu, D.

R. Jain, D. Chiu, and W. Hawe, "A quantitative measure of fairness and discrimination for resource allocation in shared computer systems," DEC Research Report, TR-301, Sept. 1984, pp. 1‒37.

Dawley, J.

K. Nashimoto, N. Tanaka, M. LaBuda, D. Ritums, J. Dawley, M. Raj, D. Kudzuma, and T. Vo, "High-speed PLZT optical switches for burst and packet switching," Proc. 2nd Int. Conf. Broadband Networks, Oct. 2005, Boston, MA, USA, pp. 195‒200.

Feng, W.

X. Zhang, L. N. Bhuyan, and W. Feng, "Anatomy of UDP and M-VIA for cluster communications," J. Parallel Distrib. Comput. 65, (10), 1290‒1298 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gao, X.

Ge, A.

A. Ge and F. Callegati, "On optical burst switching and self-similar traffic," IEEE Commun. Lett. 4, (3), 98‒100 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hawe, W.

R. Jain, D. Chiu, and W. Hawe, "A quantitative measure of fairness and discrimination for resource allocation in shared computer systems," DEC Research Report, TR-301, Sept. 1984, pp. 1‒37.

Jain, R.

R. Jain, D. Chiu, and W. Hawe, "A quantitative measure of fairness and discrimination for resource allocation in shared computer systems," DEC Research Report, TR-301, Sept. 1984, pp. 1‒37.

Ji, Y.

Kasahara, S.

M. Ueda, T. Tachibana, and S. Kasahara, "Intermediate-hop preemption to improve fairness in optical burst switching networks," IEICE Trans. Commun. E91-B, (3), 710‒721 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Tachibana and S. Kasahara, "Burst-cluster transmission: service differentiation mechanism for immediate reservation in optical burst switching networks," IEEE Commun. Mag. 44, (5), 46‒55 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Ueda, T. Tachibana, and S. Kasahara, "A last-hop preemptive scheme based on the number of hops for optical burst switching networks," J. Opt. Netw. 4, (10), 648‒660 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kudzuma, D.

K. Nashimoto, N. Tanaka, M. LaBuda, D. Ritums, J. Dawley, M. Raj, D. Kudzuma, and T. Vo, "High-speed PLZT optical switches for burst and packet switching," Proc. 2nd Int. Conf. Broadband Networks, Oct. 2005, Boston, MA, USA, pp. 195‒200.

LaBuda, M.

K. Nashimoto, N. Tanaka, M. LaBuda, D. Ritums, J. Dawley, M. Raj, D. Kudzuma, and T. Vo, "High-speed PLZT optical switches for burst and packet switching," Proc. 2nd Int. Conf. Broadband Networks, Oct. 2005, Boston, MA, USA, pp. 195‒200.

Li, G.

Li, J.

Lina, H. T.

H. T. Lina and W. R. Chang, "CORNet: an OBS metro ring network with QoS support and fairness control," Comput. Netw. 52, (10), 2045‒2064 (2008).
[CrossRef]

McFarland, R. I.

Nashimoto, K.

K. Nashimoto, N. Tanaka, M. LaBuda, D. Ritums, J. Dawley, M. Raj, D. Kudzuma, and T. Vo, "High-speed PLZT optical switches for burst and packet switching," Proc. 2nd Int. Conf. Broadband Networks, Oct. 2005, Boston, MA, USA, pp. 195‒200.

Nassar, B. O.

B. O. Nassar, T. Tachibana, and K. Sugimoto, "Random scheduling based on transmission delay and buffer size for hop-based burst-cluster transmission in OBS networks," Photonic Network Commun. 19, (3), 292‒300 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Orawiwattanakul, T.

Perros, H.

T. Battestilli and H. Perros, "An introduction to optical burst switching," IEEE Commun. Mag. 41, (8), S10‒S15 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Qiao, C.

C. Qiao and M. Yoo, "Optical burst switching—a new paradigm for an optical internet," J. High Speed Netw. 8, (1), 69‒84 (1999).

Raj, M.

K. Nashimoto, N. Tanaka, M. LaBuda, D. Ritums, J. Dawley, M. Raj, D. Kudzuma, and T. Vo, "High-speed PLZT optical switches for burst and packet switching," Proc. 2nd Int. Conf. Broadband Networks, Oct. 2005, Boston, MA, USA, pp. 195‒200.

Ritums, D.

K. Nashimoto, N. Tanaka, M. LaBuda, D. Ritums, J. Dawley, M. Raj, D. Kudzuma, and T. Vo, "High-speed PLZT optical switches for burst and packet switching," Proc. 2nd Int. Conf. Broadband Networks, Oct. 2005, Boston, MA, USA, pp. 195‒200.

Sato, K.-i.

K.-i. Sato, "Recent developments in and challenges of photonic networking technologies," IEICE Trans. Commun. E90-B, (3), 454‒467 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sugimoto, K.

B. O. Nassar, T. Tachibana, and K. Sugimoto, "Random scheduling based on transmission delay and buffer size for hop-based burst-cluster transmission in OBS networks," Photonic Network Commun. 19, (3), 292‒300 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tachibana, T.

B. O. Nassar, T. Tachibana, and K. Sugimoto, "Random scheduling based on transmission delay and buffer size for hop-based burst-cluster transmission in OBS networks," Photonic Network Commun. 19, (3), 292‒300 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Tachibana, "Burst-cluster transmission with probabilistic pre-emption for reliable data transfer in high-performance OBS networks," Photonic Network Commun. 17, (3), 245‒254 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Ueda, T. Tachibana, and S. Kasahara, "Intermediate-hop preemption to improve fairness in optical burst switching networks," IEICE Trans. Commun. E91-B, (3), 710‒721 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Tachibana and S. Kasahara, "Burst-cluster transmission: service differentiation mechanism for immediate reservation in optical burst switching networks," IEEE Commun. Mag. 44, (5), 46‒55 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Ueda, T. Tachibana, and S. Kasahara, "A last-hop preemptive scheme based on the number of hops for optical burst switching networks," J. Opt. Netw. 4, (10), 648‒660 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, N.

K. Nashimoto, N. Tanaka, M. LaBuda, D. Ritums, J. Dawley, M. Raj, D. Kudzuma, and T. Vo, "High-speed PLZT optical switches for burst and packet switching," Proc. 2nd Int. Conf. Broadband Networks, Oct. 2005, Boston, MA, USA, pp. 195‒200.

Ueda, M.

M. Ueda, T. Tachibana, and S. Kasahara, "Intermediate-hop preemption to improve fairness in optical burst switching networks," IEICE Trans. Commun. E91-B, (3), 710‒721 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Ueda, T. Tachibana, and S. Kasahara, "A last-hop preemptive scheme based on the number of hops for optical burst switching networks," J. Opt. Netw. 4, (10), 648‒660 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Vo, T.

K. Nashimoto, N. Tanaka, M. LaBuda, D. Ritums, J. Dawley, M. Raj, D. Kudzuma, and T. Vo, "High-speed PLZT optical switches for burst and packet switching," Proc. 2nd Int. Conf. Broadband Networks, Oct. 2005, Boston, MA, USA, pp. 195‒200.

Wei, J. Y.

Yoo, M.

C. Qiao and M. Yoo, "Optical burst switching—a new paradigm for an optical internet," J. High Speed Netw. 8, (1), 69‒84 (1999).

Zhang, X.

X. Zhang, L. N. Bhuyan, and W. Feng, "Anatomy of UDP and M-VIA for cluster communications," J. Parallel Distrib. Comput. 65, (10), 1290‒1298 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y.

Zhou, B.

Comput. Netw.

H. T. Lina and W. R. Chang, "CORNet: an OBS metro ring network with QoS support and fairness control," Comput. Netw. 52, (10), 2045‒2064 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Commun. Lett.

A. Ge and F. Callegati, "On optical burst switching and self-similar traffic," IEEE Commun. Lett. 4, (3), 98‒100 (2000).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Commun. Mag.

T. Battestilli and H. Perros, "An introduction to optical burst switching," IEEE Commun. Mag. 41, (8), S10‒S15 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Tachibana and S. Kasahara, "Burst-cluster transmission: service differentiation mechanism for immediate reservation in optical burst switching networks," IEEE Commun. Mag. 44, (5), 46‒55 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEICE Trans. Commun.

K.-i. Sato, "Recent developments in and challenges of photonic networking technologies," IEICE Trans. Commun. E90-B, (3), 454‒467 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Ueda, T. Tachibana, and S. Kasahara, "Intermediate-hop preemption to improve fairness in optical burst switching networks," IEICE Trans. Commun. E91-B, (3), 710‒721 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. High Speed Netw.

C. Qiao and M. Yoo, "Optical burst switching—a new paradigm for an optical internet," J. High Speed Netw. 8, (1), 69‒84 (1999).

J. Lightwave Technol.

J. Opt. Netw.

J. Parallel Distrib. Comput.

X. Zhang, L. N. Bhuyan, and W. Feng, "Anatomy of UDP and M-VIA for cluster communications," J. Parallel Distrib. Comput. 65, (10), 1290‒1298 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Photonic Network Commun.

T. Tachibana, "Burst-cluster transmission with probabilistic pre-emption for reliable data transfer in high-performance OBS networks," Photonic Network Commun. 17, (3), 245‒254 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. O. Nassar, T. Tachibana, and K. Sugimoto, "Random scheduling based on transmission delay and buffer size for hop-based burst-cluster transmission in OBS networks," Photonic Network Commun. 19, (3), 292‒300 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Other

R. Jain, D. Chiu, and W. Hawe, "A quantitative measure of fairness and discrimination for resource allocation in shared computer systems," DEC Research Report, TR-301, Sept. 1984, pp. 1‒37.

K. Nashimoto, N. Tanaka, M. LaBuda, D. Ritums, J. Dawley, M. Raj, D. Kudzuma, and T. Vo, "High-speed PLZT optical switches for burst and packet switching," Proc. 2nd Int. Conf. Broadband Networks, Oct. 2005, Boston, MA, USA, pp. 195‒200.

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Figures (21)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Relationship between output links and egress nodes.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(Color online) Edge node architecture for hop-based burst-cluster transmission.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(Color online) Hop-based burst-cluster.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(Color online) Transmission of a hop-based burst-cluster along with control packets.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Processing mechanism of the control packet.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(Color online) Burst-cluster transmission in a case without a void.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(Color online) Burst-cluster transmission in a case with a void.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(Color online) Burst transmission from an ingress node in the case where timer/threshold-based algorithm is used.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

The 14-node NSFNET.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

(Color online) Overall burst loss probability versus arrival rate of IP packets.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

(Color online) Burst loss probability for each number of hops.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

(Color online) Fairness index versus arrival rate of IP packets.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

(Color online) Overall burst loss probability versus the processing time of a control packet.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

(Color online) Fairness index versus the processing time of a control packet.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

(Color online) Overall burst loss probability versus the switching time.

Fig. 16
Fig. 16

(Color online) Fairness index versus the switching time.

Fig. 17
Fig. 17

(Color online) Overall burst loss probability versus number of wavelengths.

Fig. 18
Fig. 18

(Color online) Fairness index versus number of wavelengths.

Fig. 19
Fig. 19

ARPA2 network.

Fig. 20
Fig. 20

(Color online) Overall burst loss probability versus arrival rate in cases 1 and 2.

Fig. 21
Fig. 21

(Color online) Fairness index versus number of wavelengths in cases 1 and 2.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table I Number of Wavelengths at Each Link in Case 2