Abstract

Hybrid optical switching (HOS) is a switching paradigm that aims to combine optical circuit switching, optical burst switching, and optical packet switching on the same network. This paper proposes a novel integrated control plane for an HOS core node. The control plane makes use of a unified control packet able to carry the control information for all the different data formats and employs an appropriate scheduling algorithm for each incoming data type. Three possible node architectures are presented and an analytical model is introduced to analyze their power consumption. Also, the concept of increase in power efficiency is introduced to compare the considered architectures. The performance and power consumption analysis of the node have been carried out through the use of a simulation model developed specifically for the scope. The obtained results show the effectiveness of HOS networks.

© 2011 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  25. J. Xu, C. Qiao, J. Li, and G. Xu, "Efficient channel scheduling algorithms in optical burst switched networks," 22nd Annu. Joint Conf. IEEE Computer and Communications (INFOCOM 2003), Vol. 3, 2003, pp. 2268‒2278.
  26. S. Aleksic, "Power consumption of hybrid optical switches," Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. (OFC 2010), Mar. 2010, San Diego, CA, OThP6.
  27. S. Aleksic and N. Ferhatovic, "Requirements and limitations of optical interconnects for high-capacity networks elements," 12th Int. Conf. Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON 2010), 2010, pp. 1‒4.

2011

X. Wang, W. Hou, L. Guo, J. Cao, and D. Jiang, "Energy saving and cost reduction in multi-granularity green optical networks," Comput. Netw. 55, (3), 676‒688 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W. Hou, L. Gou, J. Wu, and L. Hao, "Green multicast grooming based on optical bypass technology," Opt. Fiber Technol. 17, (2), 111‒119 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2009

2005

2004

Y. Chen, C. Qiao, and X. Yu, "Optical burst switching (OBS): a new area in optical networking research," IEEE Netw. 18, (3), 16‒23 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

B. Chen and J. Wang, "Hybrid switching and P-routing for optical hybrid switching networks," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 21, (7), 1071‒1080 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001

K. Dozer, C. Gauager, J. Spath, and S. Bodamer, "Evaluation of reservation mechanism for optical burst switching," AEU Int. J. Electron. Commun. 55, (1), 18‒26 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

Y. Xiong, M. Vandenhoute, and H. C. Cankaya, "Control architecture in optical burst-switched WDM networks," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 18, (10), 1838‒1851 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

J. S. Turner, "Terabit burst switching," J. High Speed Netw. 8, (1), 3‒16 (1999).

1998

Aleksic, S.

S. Aleksic, "Analysis of power consumption in future high-capacity network nodes," J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 1, (3), 245‒258 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Aleksic, "Power consumption of hybrid optical switches," Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC 2010), 2010, San Diego, CA, OThP6.

C. Raffaelli, S. Aleksic, F. Callegati, W. Cerroni, A. Pattavina, and M. Savi, J. Aracil and F. Callegati, ed., "Optical packet switching," Enabling Optical Internet With Advanced Network Technologies, Springer, London, UK, 2009, pp. 31‒85.

S. Aleksic, "Power consumption of hybrid optical switches," Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. (OFC 2010), Mar. 2010, San Diego, CA, OThP6.

S. Aleksic and V. Krajinovic, "Comparison of optical code correlators for all-optical MPLS networks," 28th European Conf. Optical Communication (ECOC 2002), Sept. 2002, Copenhagen, Denmark, pp. 1‒2.

S. Aleksic and N. Ferhatovic, "Requirements and limitations of optical interconnects for high-capacity networks elements," 12th Int. Conf. Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON 2010), 2010, pp. 1‒4.

Andonovic, I.

Banky, T.

A. Martinez, D. Pastor, J. Company, D. Ortega, P. Fonjallaz, M. Popov, T. Berceli, and T. Banky, "Experimental demonstration of sub-carrier multiplexed optical label swapping featuring 20 Gb/s payload and 622 Mb/s header conveyed at 18.3 GHz," 31st European Conf. Optical Communication (ECOC 2005), 2005, pp. 959‒966.

Bauknecht, R.

Berceli, T.

A. Martinez, D. Pastor, J. Company, D. Ortega, P. Fonjallaz, M. Popov, T. Berceli, and T. Banky, "Experimental demonstration of sub-carrier multiplexed optical label swapping featuring 20 Gb/s payload and 622 Mb/s header conveyed at 18.3 GHz," 31st European Conf. Optical Communication (ECOC 2005), 2005, pp. 959‒966.

Bilgrami, S. M. H.

Bodamer, S.

K. Dozer, C. Gauager, J. Spath, and S. Bodamer, "Evaluation of reservation mechanism for optical burst switching," AEU Int. J. Electron. Commun. 55, (1), 18‒26 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bostica, B.

Boustead, P.

C. T. Chou, F. Safaei, P. Boustead, and I. Ouveysi, "A hybrid optical network architecture consisting of optical cross connects and optical burst switches," 12th Int. Conf. Computer Communications and Networks (ICCCN 2003), 2003, pp. 53‒58.

Burzio, M.

Buysse, J.

M. De Leenheer, C. Develder, J. Buysse, B. Dhoedt, and P. Demeester, "Dimensioning of combined OBS/OCS networks," Proc. Int. Workshop on Optical Burst/Packet Switching (WOBS), 2008.

Callegati, F.

Cankaya, H. C.

Y. Xiong, M. Vandenhoute, and H. C. Cankaya, "Control architecture in optical burst-switched WDM networks," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 18, (10), 1838‒1851 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Cao, J.

X. Wang, W. Hou, L. Guo, J. Cao, and D. Jiang, "Energy saving and cost reduction in multi-granularity green optical networks," Comput. Netw. 55, (3), 676‒688 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Casoni, M.

Cerroni, W.

C. Raffaelli, S. Aleksic, F. Callegati, W. Cerroni, A. Pattavina, and M. Savi, J. Aracil and F. Callegati, ed., "Optical packet switching," Enabling Optical Internet With Advanced Network Technologies, Springer, London, UK, 2009, pp. 31‒85.

Chan, C.

N. Deng, Y. Yang, C. Chan, L. Chen, and W. Hung, "All-optical OOK label swapping on OFSK payload in optical packet networks," Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC 2004), Vol. 2, 2004, p. 3.

Chen, B.

B. Chen and J. Wang, "Hybrid switching and P-routing for optical hybrid switching networks," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 21, (7), 1071‒1080 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L.

N. Deng, Y. Yang, C. Chan, L. Chen, and W. Hung, "All-optical OOK label swapping on OFSK payload in optical packet networks," Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC 2004), Vol. 2, 2004, p. 3.

Chen, Y.

Y. Chen, C. Qiao, and X. Yu, "Optical burst switching (OBS): a new area in optical networking research," IEEE Netw. 18, (3), 16‒23 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chiaroni, D.

Chou, C. T.

C. T. Chou, F. Safaei, P. Boustead, and I. Ouveysi, "A hybrid optical network architecture consisting of optical cross connects and optical burst switches," 12th Int. Conf. Computer Communications and Networks (ICCCN 2003), 2003, pp. 53‒58.

Clerot, F.

Company, J.

A. Martinez, D. Pastor, J. Company, D. Ortega, P. Fonjallaz, M. Popov, T. Berceli, and T. Banky, "Experimental demonstration of sub-carrier multiplexed optical label swapping featuring 20 Gb/s payload and 622 Mb/s header conveyed at 18.3 GHz," 31st European Conf. Optical Communication (ECOC 2005), 2005, pp. 959‒966.

Danielsen, S. L.

De Leenheer, M.

M. De Leenheer, C. Develder, J. Buysse, B. Dhoedt, and P. Demeester, "Dimensioning of combined OBS/OCS networks," Proc. Int. Workshop on Optical Burst/Packet Switching (WOBS), 2008.

Demeester, P.

M. De Leenheer, C. Develder, J. Buysse, B. Dhoedt, and P. Demeester, "Dimensioning of combined OBS/OCS networks," Proc. Int. Workshop on Optical Burst/Packet Switching (WOBS), 2008.

Deng, N.

N. Deng, Y. Yang, C. Chan, L. Chen, and W. Hung, "All-optical OOK label swapping on OFSK payload in optical packet networks," Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC 2004), Vol. 2, 2004, p. 3.

Develder, C.

M. De Leenheer, C. Develder, J. Buysse, B. Dhoedt, and P. Demeester, "Dimensioning of combined OBS/OCS networks," Proc. Int. Workshop on Optical Burst/Packet Switching (WOBS), 2008.

Dhoedt, B.

M. De Leenheer, C. Develder, J. Buysse, B. Dhoedt, and P. Demeester, "Dimensioning of combined OBS/OCS networks," Proc. Int. Workshop on Optical Burst/Packet Switching (WOBS), 2008.

Dixit, S.

C. Xin, C. Qiao, Y. Ye, and S. Dixit, "A hybrid optical switch approach," Global Telecommunications Conf. (GLOBECOM 03), Vol. 7, 2003, pp. 3808‒3812.

Dorgeuille, F.

Dozer, K.

K. Dozer, C. Gauager, J. Spath, and S. Bodamer, "Evaluation of reservation mechanism for optical burst switching," AEU Int. J. Electron. Commun. 55, (1), 18‒26 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Dupas, A.

Farahmand, F.

M. Hasan, F. Farahmand, and J. Jue, "Energy-awareness in dynamic traffic grooming," Conf. Optical Fiber Communication (OFC/NFOEC 2010), 2010, pp. 1‒6.

Ferhatovic, N.

S. Aleksic and N. Ferhatovic, "Requirements and limitations of optical interconnects for high-capacity networks elements," 12th Int. Conf. Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON 2010), 2010, pp. 1‒4.

Fonjallaz, P.

A. Martinez, D. Pastor, J. Company, D. Ortega, P. Fonjallaz, M. Popov, T. Berceli, and T. Banky, "Experimental demonstration of sub-carrier multiplexed optical label swapping featuring 20 Gb/s payload and 622 Mb/s header conveyed at 18.3 GHz," 31st European Conf. Optical Communication (ECOC 2005), 2005, pp. 959‒966.

Franzen, A.

Gambini, P.

Gauager, C.

K. Dozer, C. Gauager, J. Spath, and S. Bodamer, "Evaluation of reservation mechanism for optical burst switching," AEU Int. J. Electron. Commun. 55, (1), 18‒26 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gou, L.

W. Hou, L. Gou, J. Wu, and L. Hao, "Green multicast grooming based on optical bypass technology," Opt. Fiber Technol. 17, (2), 111‒119 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Guillemot, C.

Guo, L.

X. Wang, W. Hou, L. Guo, J. Cao, and D. Jiang, "Energy saving and cost reduction in multi-granularity green optical networks," Comput. Netw. 55, (3), 676‒688 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hansen, P. B.

Hao, L.

W. Hou, L. Gou, J. Wu, and L. Hao, "Green multicast grooming based on optical bypass technology," Opt. Fiber Technol. 17, (2), 111‒119 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hasan, M.

M. Hasan, F. Farahmand, and J. Jue, "Energy-awareness in dynamic traffic grooming," Conf. Optical Fiber Communication (OFC/NFOEC 2010), 2010, pp. 1‒6.

Hou, W.

W. Hou, L. Gou, J. Wu, and L. Hao, "Green multicast grooming based on optical bypass technology," Opt. Fiber Technol. 17, (2), 111‒119 (2011).
[CrossRef]

X. Wang, W. Hou, L. Guo, J. Cao, and D. Jiang, "Energy saving and cost reduction in multi-granularity green optical networks," Comput. Netw. 55, (3), 676‒688 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hung, W.

N. Deng, Y. Yang, C. Chan, L. Chen, and W. Hung, "All-optical OOK label swapping on OFSK payload in optical packet networks," Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC 2004), Vol. 2, 2004, p. 3.

Hunter, D. K.

Imaizumi, H.

M. Takagi, H. Li, K. Watabe, H. Imaizumi, T. Tanemura, Y. Nakano, and H. Morikawa, "400 Gb/s hybrid optical switching demonstration combining multi-wavelength OPS and OCS with dynamic resource allocation," Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC 2009), 2009, OTuA-6.

Ishikawa, H.

N. Takenouchi, R. Urata, T. Nakahara, T. Segawa, H. Ishikawa, and R. Takahashi, "First demonstration of a prototype hybrid optoelectronic router," 35th European Conf. Optical Communication (ECOC 2009), 2009, Vienna, Austria, pp. 1‒2.

Janz, C.

Jiang, D.

X. Wang, W. Hou, L. Guo, J. Cao, and D. Jiang, "Energy saving and cost reduction in multi-granularity green optical networks," Comput. Netw. 55, (3), 676‒688 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jue, J.

M. Hasan, F. Farahmand, and J. Jue, "Energy-awareness in dynamic traffic grooming," Conf. Optical Fiber Communication (OFC/NFOEC 2010), 2010, pp. 1‒6.

Kloch, A.

Krähenbühl, R.

Krajinovic, V.

S. Aleksic and V. Krajinovic, "Comparison of optical code correlators for all-optical MPLS networks," 28th European Conf. Optical Communication (ECOC 2002), Sept. 2002, Copenhagen, Denmark, pp. 1‒2.

Lavigne, B.

Le Corre, A.

Le Vu, H.

Li, H.

M. Takagi, H. Li, K. Watabe, H. Imaizumi, T. Tanemura, Y. Nakano, and H. Morikawa, "400 Gb/s hybrid optical switching demonstration combining multi-wavelength OPS and OCS with dynamic resource allocation," Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC 2009), 2009, OTuA-6.

Li, J.

J. Xu, C. Qiao, J. Li, and G. Xu, "Efficient channel scheduling algorithms in optical burst switched networks," 22nd Annu. Joint Conf. IEEE Computer and Communications (INFOCOM 2003), Vol. 3, 2003, pp. 2268‒2278.

Martinez, A.

A. Martinez, D. Pastor, J. Company, D. Ortega, P. Fonjallaz, M. Popov, T. Berceli, and T. Banky, "Experimental demonstration of sub-carrier multiplexed optical label swapping featuring 20 Gb/s payload and 622 Mb/s header conveyed at 18.3 GHz," 31st European Conf. Optical Communication (ECOC 2005), 2005, pp. 959‒966.

Morikawa, H.

M. Takagi, H. Li, K. Watabe, H. Imaizumi, T. Tanemura, Y. Nakano, and H. Morikawa, "400 Gb/s hybrid optical switching demonstration combining multi-wavelength OPS and OCS with dynamic resource allocation," Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC 2009), 2009, OTuA-6.

Nakahara, T.

N. Takenouchi, R. Urata, T. Nakahara, T. Segawa, H. Ishikawa, and R. Takahashi, "First demonstration of a prototype hybrid optoelectronic router," 35th European Conf. Optical Communication (ECOC 2009), 2009, Vienna, Austria, pp. 1‒2.

Nakano, Y.

M. Takagi, H. Li, K. Watabe, H. Imaizumi, T. Tanemura, Y. Nakano, and H. Morikawa, "400 Gb/s hybrid optical switching demonstration combining multi-wavelength OPS and OCS with dynamic resource allocation," Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC 2009), 2009, OTuA-6.

Nejabati, R.

D. Simeonidou, G. Zervas, and R. Nejabati, "Design consideration for photonic routers supporting application-driven bandwidth reservations at sub-wavelength granularity," 3rd Int. Conf. Broadband Communications, Networks and Systems (BROADNETS 2006), 2006, pp. 1‒3.

Ortega, D.

A. Martinez, D. Pastor, J. Company, D. Ortega, P. Fonjallaz, M. Popov, T. Berceli, and T. Banky, "Experimental demonstration of sub-carrier multiplexed optical label swapping featuring 20 Gb/s payload and 622 Mb/s header conveyed at 18.3 GHz," 31st European Conf. Optical Communication (ECOC 2005), 2005, pp. 959‒966.

Ouveysi, I.

C. T. Chou, F. Safaei, P. Boustead, and I. Ouveysi, "A hybrid optical network architecture consisting of optical cross connects and optical burst switches," 12th Int. Conf. Computer Communications and Networks (ICCCN 2003), 2003, pp. 53‒58.

Pastor, D.

A. Martinez, D. Pastor, J. Company, D. Ortega, P. Fonjallaz, M. Popov, T. Berceli, and T. Banky, "Experimental demonstration of sub-carrier multiplexed optical label swapping featuring 20 Gb/s payload and 622 Mb/s header conveyed at 18.3 GHz," 31st European Conf. Optical Communication (ECOC 2005), 2005, pp. 959‒966.

Pattavina, A.

C. Raffaelli, S. Aleksic, F. Callegati, W. Cerroni, A. Pattavina, and M. Savi, J. Aracil and F. Callegati, ed., "Optical packet switching," Enabling Optical Internet With Advanced Network Technologies, Springer, London, UK, 2009, pp. 31‒85.

Popov, M.

A. Martinez, D. Pastor, J. Company, D. Ortega, P. Fonjallaz, M. Popov, T. Berceli, and T. Banky, "Experimental demonstration of sub-carrier multiplexed optical label swapping featuring 20 Gb/s payload and 622 Mb/s header conveyed at 18.3 GHz," 31st European Conf. Optical Communication (ECOC 2005), 2005, pp. 959‒966.

Qiao, C.

Y. Chen, C. Qiao, and X. Yu, "Optical burst switching (OBS): a new area in optical networking research," IEEE Netw. 18, (3), 16‒23 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Xu, C. Qiao, J. Li, and G. Xu, "Efficient channel scheduling algorithms in optical burst switched networks," 22nd Annu. Joint Conf. IEEE Computer and Communications (INFOCOM 2003), Vol. 3, 2003, pp. 2268‒2278.

C. Xin, C. Qiao, Y. Ye, and S. Dixit, "A hybrid optical switch approach," Global Telecommunications Conf. (GLOBECOM 03), Vol. 7, 2003, pp. 3808‒3812.

Raffaelli, C.

Renaud, M.

Rosberg, Z.

Rouskas, G.

E. Yetginer and G. Rouskas, "Power efficient traffic grooming in optical WDM networks," Global Telecommunications Conf. (GLOBECOM 2009), 2009, pp. 1‒6.

Safaei, F.

C. T. Chou, F. Safaei, P. Boustead, and I. Ouveysi, "A hybrid optical network architecture consisting of optical cross connects and optical burst switches," 12th Int. Conf. Computer Communications and Networks (ICCCN 2003), 2003, pp. 53‒58.

Savi, M.

C. Raffaelli, S. Aleksic, F. Callegati, W. Cerroni, A. Pattavina, and M. Savi, J. Aracil and F. Callegati, ed., "Optical packet switching," Enabling Optical Internet With Advanced Network Technologies, Springer, London, UK, 2009, pp. 31‒85.

Schilling, M.

Segawa, T.

N. Takenouchi, R. Urata, T. Nakahara, T. Segawa, H. Ishikawa, and R. Takahashi, "First demonstration of a prototype hybrid optoelectronic router," 35th European Conf. Optical Communication (ECOC 2009), 2009, Vienna, Austria, pp. 1‒2.

Shen, G.

Simeonidou, D.

D. Simeonidou, G. Zervas, and R. Nejabati, "Design consideration for photonic routers supporting application-driven bandwidth reservations at sub-wavelength granularity," 3rd Int. Conf. Broadband Communications, Networks and Systems (BROADNETS 2006), 2006, pp. 1‒3.

Simon, J.-C.

Spath, J.

K. Dozer, C. Gauager, J. Spath, and S. Bodamer, "Evaluation of reservation mechanism for optical burst switching," AEU Int. J. Electron. Commun. 55, (1), 18‒26 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Takagi, M.

M. Takagi, H. Li, K. Watabe, H. Imaizumi, T. Tanemura, Y. Nakano, and H. Morikawa, "400 Gb/s hybrid optical switching demonstration combining multi-wavelength OPS and OCS with dynamic resource allocation," Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC 2009), 2009, OTuA-6.

Takahashi, R.

N. Takenouchi, R. Urata, T. Nakahara, T. Segawa, H. Ishikawa, and R. Takahashi, "First demonstration of a prototype hybrid optoelectronic router," 35th European Conf. Optical Communication (ECOC 2009), 2009, Vienna, Austria, pp. 1‒2.

Takenouchi, N.

N. Takenouchi, R. Urata, T. Nakahara, T. Segawa, H. Ishikawa, and R. Takahashi, "First demonstration of a prototype hybrid optoelectronic router," 35th European Conf. Optical Communication (ECOC 2009), 2009, Vienna, Austria, pp. 1‒2.

Tanemura, T.

M. Takagi, H. Li, K. Watabe, H. Imaizumi, T. Tanemura, Y. Nakano, and H. Morikawa, "400 Gb/s hybrid optical switching demonstration combining multi-wavelength OPS and OCS with dynamic resource allocation," Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC 2009), 2009, OTuA-6.

Tucker, R.

Tucker, R. S.

Turner, J. S.

J. S. Turner, "Terabit burst switching," J. High Speed Netw. 8, (1), 3‒16 (1999).

Urata, R.

N. Takenouchi, R. Urata, T. Nakahara, T. Segawa, H. Ishikawa, and R. Takahashi, "First demonstration of a prototype hybrid optoelectronic router," 35th European Conf. Optical Communication (ECOC 2009), 2009, Vienna, Austria, pp. 1‒2.

Vandenhoute, M.

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N. Deng, Y. Yang, C. Chan, L. Chen, and W. Hung, "All-optical OOK label swapping on OFSK payload in optical packet networks," Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC 2004), Vol. 2, 2004, p. 3.

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D. Simeonidou, G. Zervas, and R. Nejabati, "Design consideration for photonic routers supporting application-driven bandwidth reservations at sub-wavelength granularity," 3rd Int. Conf. Broadband Communications, Networks and Systems (BROADNETS 2006), 2006, pp. 1‒3.

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M. Takagi, H. Li, K. Watabe, H. Imaizumi, T. Tanemura, Y. Nakano, and H. Morikawa, "400 Gb/s hybrid optical switching demonstration combining multi-wavelength OPS and OCS with dynamic resource allocation," Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC 2009), 2009, OTuA-6.

N. Takenouchi, R. Urata, T. Nakahara, T. Segawa, H. Ishikawa, and R. Takahashi, "First demonstration of a prototype hybrid optoelectronic router," 35th European Conf. Optical Communication (ECOC 2009), 2009, Vienna, Austria, pp. 1‒2.

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(Color online) Control packet format.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(Color online) All-optical hybrid architecture. OA (optical amplifier), WC (wavelength converter), CIE/R (control information extraction/reinsertion).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(Color online) Optical/electronic hybrid architecture. OA (optical amplifier), WC (wavelength converter), CIE/R (control information extraction/reinsertion).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(Color online) All-electronic architecture. OA (optical amplifier), WC (wavelength converter), CIE/R (control information extraction/reinsertion).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(Color online) Example of a Clos network.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(Color online) Block diagram of a fast electronic line card.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Packet and burst loss probabilities as a function of the offered load for two burst scheduling algorithms (FFUC-VF and BF-VF) as well as with and without fiber delay lines (FDLs) for contention resolution.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Increase of efficiency between all-optical hybrid and optical/electronic hybrid and increase of efficiency between optical/electronic hybrid and all-electronic architectures as a function of the input load.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Loss probabilities as a function of the percentage of traffic reserved for circuits. The FFUC-VF algorithm is considered for burst scheduling with no FDLs for packet contention resolution.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Increase in efficiency between all-optical hybrid and optical/electronic hybrid architectures as a function of the traffic pattern.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Increase in efficiency between optical/electronic hybrid and all-electronic architectures as a function of the traffic pattern.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Power consumption of the considered node architectures as a function of the aggregate node capacity.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table I Power Consumption of Active Components

Tables Icon

Table II Power Consumption of a Unidirectional Line Card at 40 Gbps