Abstract

This paper presents experiments on a testbed based on ultra-scalable switches realized using off-the-shelf optical and electronic components. The scalability of this switching architecture, a direct outcome of the deployment of pipeline forwarding, results—in addition to much lower cost—in the need for a smaller amount of components, and, consequently, lower power dissipation, which is key to a “greening” of the Internet. Although an all-optical architecture is demonstrated, we reached the conclusion that, given the current state of the art, a hybrid electro-optical architecture is the “best-of-breed” switch solution.

© 2011 OSA

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. Cisco Systems, Inc., "Hyperconnectivity and the approaching zettabyte era," 2June2 June 2010, [Online]. Available: http://www.cisco.com/en/US/solutions/collateral/ns341/ns525/ns537/ns705/ns827/VNI_Hyperconnectivity_WP.html
  2. I. Vaishnavi, P. Cesar, D. Bulterman, and O. Friedrich, "From IPTV services to shared experiences: challenges in architecture design," IEEE Int. Conf. on Multimedia and Expo (ICME 2010), July 2010, Singapore, pp. 1511‒1516.
  3. M. Gupta and S. Singh, "Greening of the Internet," ACM SIGCOMM 2003, Aug. 2003, Karlsruhe, Germany.
  4. K. Christensen, B. Nordman, and R. Brown, "Power management in networked devices," IEEE Comput. Mag. 37, (8), 91‒93 (2004).
  5. M. Guenach, C. Nuzman, J. Maes, and M. Peeters, "On power optimization in DSL systems," IEEE Int. Workshop on Green Communications (GreenComm) at ICC 2009, June 2009, Dresden, Germany.
  6. R. Ramaswami and K. N. Sivarajan, Optical Networks: A Practical Perspective, 2nd ed., Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, 2001, ch. 8, 9, 10, 11.
  7. A. Pattavina and R. Zanzottera, "Non-blocking WDM switches based on arrayed waveguide grating and shared wavelength conversion," IEEE Conf. on Computer Communications (INFOCOM 2006), Apr. 2006, Barcelona, Spain.
  8. C. Qiao and M. Yoo, "Optical Burst Switching (OBS)—a new paradigm for an optical internet," J. High Speed Netw. 8, (1), 69‒84 (1999).
  9. H. C. Cankaya, S. Charcranoon, and T. S. El-Bawab, "A preemptive scheduling technique for OBS networks with service differentiation," IEEE Int. Conf. on Global Communications (GLOBECOM 2003), Dec. 2003, San Francisco, CA.
  10. T. Tachibana and S. Kasahara, "Burst cluster transmission: service differentiation mechanism for immediate reservation in Optical Burst Switching networks," IEEE Commun. Mag. 44, (5), 46‒55 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  11. W.-S. Park, M. Shin, H.-W. Lee, and S. Chong, "A joint design of congestion control and burst contention resolution for optical burst switching networks," J. Lightwave Technol. 27, (17), 3820‒3830 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  12. T. Orawiwattanakul, Y. Ji, and N. Sonehara, "Fair bandwidth allocation with distance fairness provisioning in optical burst switching networks," IEEE Int. Conf. on Global Communications (GLOBECOM 2010), Dec. 2010, pp. 1‒5.
  13. M. Baldi and Y. Ofek, "Fractional lambda switching—principles of operation and performance issues," SIMULATION: Trans. Soc. Model. Simul. Int. 80, (10), 527‒544 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  14. V. T. Nguyen, R. Lo Cigno, and Y. Ofek, "Tunable laser-based design and analysis for fractional lambda switches," IEEE Trans. Commun. 56, (6), 957‒967 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  15. J. D. Angelopoulos, K. Kanonakis, G. Koukouvakis, H. C. Leligou, C. Matrakidis, T. Orphanoudakis, and A. Stavdas, "An optical network architecture with distributed switching inside node clusters features improved loss, efficiency and cost," J. Lightwave Technol. 25, (5), 1138‒1146 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  16. A. Stavdas, T. G. Orphanoudakis, A. Lord, H. C. Leligou, K. Kanonakis, C. Matrakidis, A. Drakos, and J. D. Angelopoulos, "Dynamic CANON: a scalable multi-domain core network," IEEE Commun. Mag. 46, (6), 138‒144 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  17. J. Ramamirtham and J. Turner, "Time sliced optical burst switching," IEEE Int. Conf. on Computer and Communications (INFOCOM 2003), Apr. 2003, pp. 2030‒2038.
  18. C.-S. Li, Y. Ofek, and M. Yung, "Time-driven priority flow control for real-time heterogeneous internetworking," IEEE Int. Conf. on Computer Communications (INFOCOM 1996), Mar. 1996, San Francisco, CA.
  19. C.-S. Li, Y. Ofek, A. Segall, and K. Sohraby, "Pseudo-isochronous cell forwarding," Comput. Netw. ISDN Syst. 30, (24), 2359‒2372 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  20. Y. Ofek, "Generating a fault tolerant global clock using high-speed control signals for the MetaNet architecture," IEEE Trans. Commun. 42, (5), 2179‒2188 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  21. IEEE Instrumentation and Measurement Society, "IEEE Standard for a Precision Clock Synchronization Protocol for Networked Measurement and Control Systems," IEEE Std. 1588 (Revision), July 2008.
  22. W. Gibbs, "Computing at the speed of light," Sci. Am. 291, (5), 80‒87 (2004).
    [PubMed]
  23. L. Pavesi and D. J. Lockwood, ed., Silicon Photonics, Springer-Verlag, 2004.
  24. L. R. Goke and G. J. Lipovski, "Banyan networks for partitioning multiprocessor systems," ACM Annu. Symp. on Computer Architecture (ISCA 1973), Dec. 1973, New York, NY.
  25. Mindspeed Technologies, Inc., [Online]. Available: http://www.mindspeed.com
  26. E. Masala, A. Vesco, M. Baldi, and J. C. De Martin, "Optimized H.264 video encoding and packetization for video transmission over pipeline forwarding networks," IEEE Trans. Multimedia 11, (5), 972‒985 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  27. Tekelec Systemes, [Online]. Available: http://www.tekelec-systemes.com
  28. Opal Kelly, Inc., [Online]. Available: http://www.opalkelly.com
  29. M. Baldi, G. Marchetto, G. Galante, F. Risso, R. Scopigno, and F. Stirano, "Time driven priority router implementation and first experiments," IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications (ICC 2006), June 2006, Istanbul, Turkey.
  30. T.-H. Truong, M. Baldi, and Y. Ofek, "Efficient scheduling for heterogeneous fractional lambda switching (FλS) networks," IEEE Int. Conf. on Global Communications (IEEE GLOBECOM 2007), Nov. 2007, Washington, DC.
  31. Symmetricom, Inc., [Online]. Available: http://www.symmttm.com
  32. IEEE 802.3 Working Group, "Part 3: carrier sense multiple access with collision detection (CSMA/CD) access method and physical layer specifications," IEEE Std 802.3 2000 Edition, 2000.

2009 (2)

E. Masala, A. Vesco, M. Baldi, and J. C. De Martin, "Optimized H.264 video encoding and packetization for video transmission over pipeline forwarding networks," IEEE Trans. Multimedia 11, (5), 972‒985 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W.-S. Park, M. Shin, H.-W. Lee, and S. Chong, "A joint design of congestion control and burst contention resolution for optical burst switching networks," J. Lightwave Technol. 27, (17), 3820‒3830 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

V. T. Nguyen, R. Lo Cigno, and Y. Ofek, "Tunable laser-based design and analysis for fractional lambda switches," IEEE Trans. Commun. 56, (6), 957‒967 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Stavdas, T. G. Orphanoudakis, A. Lord, H. C. Leligou, K. Kanonakis, C. Matrakidis, A. Drakos, and J. D. Angelopoulos, "Dynamic CANON: a scalable multi-domain core network," IEEE Commun. Mag. 46, (6), 138‒144 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

2006 (1)

T. Tachibana and S. Kasahara, "Burst cluster transmission: service differentiation mechanism for immediate reservation in Optical Burst Switching networks," IEEE Commun. Mag. 44, (5), 46‒55 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

W. Gibbs, "Computing at the speed of light," Sci. Am. 291, (5), 80‒87 (2004).
[PubMed]

M. Baldi and Y. Ofek, "Fractional lambda switching—principles of operation and performance issues," SIMULATION: Trans. Soc. Model. Simul. Int. 80, (10), 527‒544 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Christensen, B. Nordman, and R. Brown, "Power management in networked devices," IEEE Comput. Mag. 37, (8), 91‒93 (2004).

1999 (1)

C. Qiao and M. Yoo, "Optical Burst Switching (OBS)—a new paradigm for an optical internet," J. High Speed Netw. 8, (1), 69‒84 (1999).

1998 (1)

C.-S. Li, Y. Ofek, A. Segall, and K. Sohraby, "Pseudo-isochronous cell forwarding," Comput. Netw. ISDN Syst. 30, (24), 2359‒2372 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

Y. Ofek, "Generating a fault tolerant global clock using high-speed control signals for the MetaNet architecture," IEEE Trans. Commun. 42, (5), 2179‒2188 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Angelopoulos, J. D.

A. Stavdas, T. G. Orphanoudakis, A. Lord, H. C. Leligou, K. Kanonakis, C. Matrakidis, A. Drakos, and J. D. Angelopoulos, "Dynamic CANON: a scalable multi-domain core network," IEEE Commun. Mag. 46, (6), 138‒144 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Angelopoulos, K. Kanonakis, G. Koukouvakis, H. C. Leligou, C. Matrakidis, T. Orphanoudakis, and A. Stavdas, "An optical network architecture with distributed switching inside node clusters features improved loss, efficiency and cost," J. Lightwave Technol. 25, (5), 1138‒1146 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Baldi, M.

E. Masala, A. Vesco, M. Baldi, and J. C. De Martin, "Optimized H.264 video encoding and packetization for video transmission over pipeline forwarding networks," IEEE Trans. Multimedia 11, (5), 972‒985 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Baldi and Y. Ofek, "Fractional lambda switching—principles of operation and performance issues," SIMULATION: Trans. Soc. Model. Simul. Int. 80, (10), 527‒544 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T.-H. Truong, M. Baldi, and Y. Ofek, "Efficient scheduling for heterogeneous fractional lambda switching (FλS) networks," IEEE Int. Conf. on Global Communications (IEEE GLOBECOM 2007), Nov. 2007, Washington, DC.

M. Baldi, G. Marchetto, G. Galante, F. Risso, R. Scopigno, and F. Stirano, "Time driven priority router implementation and first experiments," IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications (ICC 2006), June 2006, Istanbul, Turkey.

Brown, R.

K. Christensen, B. Nordman, and R. Brown, "Power management in networked devices," IEEE Comput. Mag. 37, (8), 91‒93 (2004).

Bulterman, D.

I. Vaishnavi, P. Cesar, D. Bulterman, and O. Friedrich, "From IPTV services to shared experiences: challenges in architecture design," IEEE Int. Conf. on Multimedia and Expo (ICME 2010), July 2010, Singapore, pp. 1511‒1516.

Cankaya, H. C.

H. C. Cankaya, S. Charcranoon, and T. S. El-Bawab, "A preemptive scheduling technique for OBS networks with service differentiation," IEEE Int. Conf. on Global Communications (GLOBECOM 2003), Dec. 2003, San Francisco, CA.

Cesar, P.

I. Vaishnavi, P. Cesar, D. Bulterman, and O. Friedrich, "From IPTV services to shared experiences: challenges in architecture design," IEEE Int. Conf. on Multimedia and Expo (ICME 2010), July 2010, Singapore, pp. 1511‒1516.

Charcranoon, S.

H. C. Cankaya, S. Charcranoon, and T. S. El-Bawab, "A preemptive scheduling technique for OBS networks with service differentiation," IEEE Int. Conf. on Global Communications (GLOBECOM 2003), Dec. 2003, San Francisco, CA.

Chong, S.

Christensen, K.

K. Christensen, B. Nordman, and R. Brown, "Power management in networked devices," IEEE Comput. Mag. 37, (8), 91‒93 (2004).

De Martin, J. C.

E. Masala, A. Vesco, M. Baldi, and J. C. De Martin, "Optimized H.264 video encoding and packetization for video transmission over pipeline forwarding networks," IEEE Trans. Multimedia 11, (5), 972‒985 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Drakos, A.

A. Stavdas, T. G. Orphanoudakis, A. Lord, H. C. Leligou, K. Kanonakis, C. Matrakidis, A. Drakos, and J. D. Angelopoulos, "Dynamic CANON: a scalable multi-domain core network," IEEE Commun. Mag. 46, (6), 138‒144 (2008).
[CrossRef]

El-Bawab, T. S.

H. C. Cankaya, S. Charcranoon, and T. S. El-Bawab, "A preemptive scheduling technique for OBS networks with service differentiation," IEEE Int. Conf. on Global Communications (GLOBECOM 2003), Dec. 2003, San Francisco, CA.

Friedrich, O.

I. Vaishnavi, P. Cesar, D. Bulterman, and O. Friedrich, "From IPTV services to shared experiences: challenges in architecture design," IEEE Int. Conf. on Multimedia and Expo (ICME 2010), July 2010, Singapore, pp. 1511‒1516.

Galante, G.

M. Baldi, G. Marchetto, G. Galante, F. Risso, R. Scopigno, and F. Stirano, "Time driven priority router implementation and first experiments," IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications (ICC 2006), June 2006, Istanbul, Turkey.

Gibbs, W.

W. Gibbs, "Computing at the speed of light," Sci. Am. 291, (5), 80‒87 (2004).
[PubMed]

Goke, L. R.

L. R. Goke and G. J. Lipovski, "Banyan networks for partitioning multiprocessor systems," ACM Annu. Symp. on Computer Architecture (ISCA 1973), Dec. 1973, New York, NY.

Guenach, M.

M. Guenach, C. Nuzman, J. Maes, and M. Peeters, "On power optimization in DSL systems," IEEE Int. Workshop on Green Communications (GreenComm) at ICC 2009, June 2009, Dresden, Germany.

Gupta, M.

M. Gupta and S. Singh, "Greening of the Internet," ACM SIGCOMM 2003, Aug. 2003, Karlsruhe, Germany.

Ji, Y.

T. Orawiwattanakul, Y. Ji, and N. Sonehara, "Fair bandwidth allocation with distance fairness provisioning in optical burst switching networks," IEEE Int. Conf. on Global Communications (GLOBECOM 2010), Dec. 2010, pp. 1‒5.

Kanonakis, K.

A. Stavdas, T. G. Orphanoudakis, A. Lord, H. C. Leligou, K. Kanonakis, C. Matrakidis, A. Drakos, and J. D. Angelopoulos, "Dynamic CANON: a scalable multi-domain core network," IEEE Commun. Mag. 46, (6), 138‒144 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Angelopoulos, K. Kanonakis, G. Koukouvakis, H. C. Leligou, C. Matrakidis, T. Orphanoudakis, and A. Stavdas, "An optical network architecture with distributed switching inside node clusters features improved loss, efficiency and cost," J. Lightwave Technol. 25, (5), 1138‒1146 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kasahara, S.

T. Tachibana and S. Kasahara, "Burst cluster transmission: service differentiation mechanism for immediate reservation in Optical Burst Switching networks," IEEE Commun. Mag. 44, (5), 46‒55 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Koukouvakis, G.

Lee, H.-W.

Leligou, H. C.

A. Stavdas, T. G. Orphanoudakis, A. Lord, H. C. Leligou, K. Kanonakis, C. Matrakidis, A. Drakos, and J. D. Angelopoulos, "Dynamic CANON: a scalable multi-domain core network," IEEE Commun. Mag. 46, (6), 138‒144 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Angelopoulos, K. Kanonakis, G. Koukouvakis, H. C. Leligou, C. Matrakidis, T. Orphanoudakis, and A. Stavdas, "An optical network architecture with distributed switching inside node clusters features improved loss, efficiency and cost," J. Lightwave Technol. 25, (5), 1138‒1146 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Li, C.-S.

C.-S. Li, Y. Ofek, A. Segall, and K. Sohraby, "Pseudo-isochronous cell forwarding," Comput. Netw. ISDN Syst. 30, (24), 2359‒2372 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C.-S. Li, Y. Ofek, and M. Yung, "Time-driven priority flow control for real-time heterogeneous internetworking," IEEE Int. Conf. on Computer Communications (INFOCOM 1996), Mar. 1996, San Francisco, CA.

Lipovski, G. J.

L. R. Goke and G. J. Lipovski, "Banyan networks for partitioning multiprocessor systems," ACM Annu. Symp. on Computer Architecture (ISCA 1973), Dec. 1973, New York, NY.

Lo Cigno, R.

V. T. Nguyen, R. Lo Cigno, and Y. Ofek, "Tunable laser-based design and analysis for fractional lambda switches," IEEE Trans. Commun. 56, (6), 957‒967 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lord, A.

A. Stavdas, T. G. Orphanoudakis, A. Lord, H. C. Leligou, K. Kanonakis, C. Matrakidis, A. Drakos, and J. D. Angelopoulos, "Dynamic CANON: a scalable multi-domain core network," IEEE Commun. Mag. 46, (6), 138‒144 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Maes, J.

M. Guenach, C. Nuzman, J. Maes, and M. Peeters, "On power optimization in DSL systems," IEEE Int. Workshop on Green Communications (GreenComm) at ICC 2009, June 2009, Dresden, Germany.

Marchetto, G.

M. Baldi, G. Marchetto, G. Galante, F. Risso, R. Scopigno, and F. Stirano, "Time driven priority router implementation and first experiments," IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications (ICC 2006), June 2006, Istanbul, Turkey.

Masala, E.

E. Masala, A. Vesco, M. Baldi, and J. C. De Martin, "Optimized H.264 video encoding and packetization for video transmission over pipeline forwarding networks," IEEE Trans. Multimedia 11, (5), 972‒985 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Matrakidis, C.

A. Stavdas, T. G. Orphanoudakis, A. Lord, H. C. Leligou, K. Kanonakis, C. Matrakidis, A. Drakos, and J. D. Angelopoulos, "Dynamic CANON: a scalable multi-domain core network," IEEE Commun. Mag. 46, (6), 138‒144 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Angelopoulos, K. Kanonakis, G. Koukouvakis, H. C. Leligou, C. Matrakidis, T. Orphanoudakis, and A. Stavdas, "An optical network architecture with distributed switching inside node clusters features improved loss, efficiency and cost," J. Lightwave Technol. 25, (5), 1138‒1146 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nguyen, V. T.

V. T. Nguyen, R. Lo Cigno, and Y. Ofek, "Tunable laser-based design and analysis for fractional lambda switches," IEEE Trans. Commun. 56, (6), 957‒967 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nordman, B.

K. Christensen, B. Nordman, and R. Brown, "Power management in networked devices," IEEE Comput. Mag. 37, (8), 91‒93 (2004).

Nuzman, C.

M. Guenach, C. Nuzman, J. Maes, and M. Peeters, "On power optimization in DSL systems," IEEE Int. Workshop on Green Communications (GreenComm) at ICC 2009, June 2009, Dresden, Germany.

Ofek, Y.

V. T. Nguyen, R. Lo Cigno, and Y. Ofek, "Tunable laser-based design and analysis for fractional lambda switches," IEEE Trans. Commun. 56, (6), 957‒967 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Baldi and Y. Ofek, "Fractional lambda switching—principles of operation and performance issues," SIMULATION: Trans. Soc. Model. Simul. Int. 80, (10), 527‒544 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C.-S. Li, Y. Ofek, A. Segall, and K. Sohraby, "Pseudo-isochronous cell forwarding," Comput. Netw. ISDN Syst. 30, (24), 2359‒2372 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ofek, "Generating a fault tolerant global clock using high-speed control signals for the MetaNet architecture," IEEE Trans. Commun. 42, (5), 2179‒2188 (1994).
[CrossRef]

C.-S. Li, Y. Ofek, and M. Yung, "Time-driven priority flow control for real-time heterogeneous internetworking," IEEE Int. Conf. on Computer Communications (INFOCOM 1996), Mar. 1996, San Francisco, CA.

T.-H. Truong, M. Baldi, and Y. Ofek, "Efficient scheduling for heterogeneous fractional lambda switching (FλS) networks," IEEE Int. Conf. on Global Communications (IEEE GLOBECOM 2007), Nov. 2007, Washington, DC.

Orawiwattanakul, T.

T. Orawiwattanakul, Y. Ji, and N. Sonehara, "Fair bandwidth allocation with distance fairness provisioning in optical burst switching networks," IEEE Int. Conf. on Global Communications (GLOBECOM 2010), Dec. 2010, pp. 1‒5.

Orphanoudakis, T.

Orphanoudakis, T. G.

A. Stavdas, T. G. Orphanoudakis, A. Lord, H. C. Leligou, K. Kanonakis, C. Matrakidis, A. Drakos, and J. D. Angelopoulos, "Dynamic CANON: a scalable multi-domain core network," IEEE Commun. Mag. 46, (6), 138‒144 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Park, W.-S.

Pattavina, A.

A. Pattavina and R. Zanzottera, "Non-blocking WDM switches based on arrayed waveguide grating and shared wavelength conversion," IEEE Conf. on Computer Communications (INFOCOM 2006), Apr. 2006, Barcelona, Spain.

Peeters, M.

M. Guenach, C. Nuzman, J. Maes, and M. Peeters, "On power optimization in DSL systems," IEEE Int. Workshop on Green Communications (GreenComm) at ICC 2009, June 2009, Dresden, Germany.

Qiao, C.

C. Qiao and M. Yoo, "Optical Burst Switching (OBS)—a new paradigm for an optical internet," J. High Speed Netw. 8, (1), 69‒84 (1999).

Ramamirtham, J.

J. Ramamirtham and J. Turner, "Time sliced optical burst switching," IEEE Int. Conf. on Computer and Communications (INFOCOM 2003), Apr. 2003, pp. 2030‒2038.

Ramaswami, R.

R. Ramaswami and K. N. Sivarajan, Optical Networks: A Practical Perspective, 2nd ed., Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, 2001, ch. 8, 9, 10, 11.

Risso, F.

M. Baldi, G. Marchetto, G. Galante, F. Risso, R. Scopigno, and F. Stirano, "Time driven priority router implementation and first experiments," IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications (ICC 2006), June 2006, Istanbul, Turkey.

Scopigno, R.

M. Baldi, G. Marchetto, G. Galante, F. Risso, R. Scopigno, and F. Stirano, "Time driven priority router implementation and first experiments," IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications (ICC 2006), June 2006, Istanbul, Turkey.

Segall, A.

C.-S. Li, Y. Ofek, A. Segall, and K. Sohraby, "Pseudo-isochronous cell forwarding," Comput. Netw. ISDN Syst. 30, (24), 2359‒2372 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Shin, M.

Singh, S.

M. Gupta and S. Singh, "Greening of the Internet," ACM SIGCOMM 2003, Aug. 2003, Karlsruhe, Germany.

Sivarajan, K. N.

R. Ramaswami and K. N. Sivarajan, Optical Networks: A Practical Perspective, 2nd ed., Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, 2001, ch. 8, 9, 10, 11.

Sohraby, K.

C.-S. Li, Y. Ofek, A. Segall, and K. Sohraby, "Pseudo-isochronous cell forwarding," Comput. Netw. ISDN Syst. 30, (24), 2359‒2372 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sonehara, N.

T. Orawiwattanakul, Y. Ji, and N. Sonehara, "Fair bandwidth allocation with distance fairness provisioning in optical burst switching networks," IEEE Int. Conf. on Global Communications (GLOBECOM 2010), Dec. 2010, pp. 1‒5.

Stavdas, A.

A. Stavdas, T. G. Orphanoudakis, A. Lord, H. C. Leligou, K. Kanonakis, C. Matrakidis, A. Drakos, and J. D. Angelopoulos, "Dynamic CANON: a scalable multi-domain core network," IEEE Commun. Mag. 46, (6), 138‒144 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Angelopoulos, K. Kanonakis, G. Koukouvakis, H. C. Leligou, C. Matrakidis, T. Orphanoudakis, and A. Stavdas, "An optical network architecture with distributed switching inside node clusters features improved loss, efficiency and cost," J. Lightwave Technol. 25, (5), 1138‒1146 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Stirano, F.

M. Baldi, G. Marchetto, G. Galante, F. Risso, R. Scopigno, and F. Stirano, "Time driven priority router implementation and first experiments," IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications (ICC 2006), June 2006, Istanbul, Turkey.

Tachibana, T.

T. Tachibana and S. Kasahara, "Burst cluster transmission: service differentiation mechanism for immediate reservation in Optical Burst Switching networks," IEEE Commun. Mag. 44, (5), 46‒55 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Truong, T.-H.

T.-H. Truong, M. Baldi, and Y. Ofek, "Efficient scheduling for heterogeneous fractional lambda switching (FλS) networks," IEEE Int. Conf. on Global Communications (IEEE GLOBECOM 2007), Nov. 2007, Washington, DC.

Turner, J.

J. Ramamirtham and J. Turner, "Time sliced optical burst switching," IEEE Int. Conf. on Computer and Communications (INFOCOM 2003), Apr. 2003, pp. 2030‒2038.

Vaishnavi, I.

I. Vaishnavi, P. Cesar, D. Bulterman, and O. Friedrich, "From IPTV services to shared experiences: challenges in architecture design," IEEE Int. Conf. on Multimedia and Expo (ICME 2010), July 2010, Singapore, pp. 1511‒1516.

Vesco, A.

E. Masala, A. Vesco, M. Baldi, and J. C. De Martin, "Optimized H.264 video encoding and packetization for video transmission over pipeline forwarding networks," IEEE Trans. Multimedia 11, (5), 972‒985 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yoo, M.

C. Qiao and M. Yoo, "Optical Burst Switching (OBS)—a new paradigm for an optical internet," J. High Speed Netw. 8, (1), 69‒84 (1999).

Yung, M.

C.-S. Li, Y. Ofek, and M. Yung, "Time-driven priority flow control for real-time heterogeneous internetworking," IEEE Int. Conf. on Computer Communications (INFOCOM 1996), Mar. 1996, San Francisco, CA.

Zanzottera, R.

A. Pattavina and R. Zanzottera, "Non-blocking WDM switches based on arrayed waveguide grating and shared wavelength conversion," IEEE Conf. on Computer Communications (INFOCOM 2006), Apr. 2006, Barcelona, Spain.

Comput. Netw. ISDN Syst. (1)

C.-S. Li, Y. Ofek, A. Segall, and K. Sohraby, "Pseudo-isochronous cell forwarding," Comput. Netw. ISDN Syst. 30, (24), 2359‒2372 (1998).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Commun. Mag. (2)

A. Stavdas, T. G. Orphanoudakis, A. Lord, H. C. Leligou, K. Kanonakis, C. Matrakidis, A. Drakos, and J. D. Angelopoulos, "Dynamic CANON: a scalable multi-domain core network," IEEE Commun. Mag. 46, (6), 138‒144 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Tachibana and S. Kasahara, "Burst cluster transmission: service differentiation mechanism for immediate reservation in Optical Burst Switching networks," IEEE Commun. Mag. 44, (5), 46‒55 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Comput. Mag. (1)

K. Christensen, B. Nordman, and R. Brown, "Power management in networked devices," IEEE Comput. Mag. 37, (8), 91‒93 (2004).

IEEE Trans. Commun. (2)

V. T. Nguyen, R. Lo Cigno, and Y. Ofek, "Tunable laser-based design and analysis for fractional lambda switches," IEEE Trans. Commun. 56, (6), 957‒967 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ofek, "Generating a fault tolerant global clock using high-speed control signals for the MetaNet architecture," IEEE Trans. Commun. 42, (5), 2179‒2188 (1994).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Multimedia (1)

E. Masala, A. Vesco, M. Baldi, and J. C. De Martin, "Optimized H.264 video encoding and packetization for video transmission over pipeline forwarding networks," IEEE Trans. Multimedia 11, (5), 972‒985 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. High Speed Netw. (1)

C. Qiao and M. Yoo, "Optical Burst Switching (OBS)—a new paradigm for an optical internet," J. High Speed Netw. 8, (1), 69‒84 (1999).

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

Sci. Am. (1)

W. Gibbs, "Computing at the speed of light," Sci. Am. 291, (5), 80‒87 (2004).
[PubMed]

SIMULATION: Trans. Soc. Model. Simul. Int. (1)

M. Baldi and Y. Ofek, "Fractional lambda switching—principles of operation and performance issues," SIMULATION: Trans. Soc. Model. Simul. Int. 80, (10), 527‒544 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Other (20)

H. C. Cankaya, S. Charcranoon, and T. S. El-Bawab, "A preemptive scheduling technique for OBS networks with service differentiation," IEEE Int. Conf. on Global Communications (GLOBECOM 2003), Dec. 2003, San Francisco, CA.

T. Orawiwattanakul, Y. Ji, and N. Sonehara, "Fair bandwidth allocation with distance fairness provisioning in optical burst switching networks," IEEE Int. Conf. on Global Communications (GLOBECOM 2010), Dec. 2010, pp. 1‒5.

M. Guenach, C. Nuzman, J. Maes, and M. Peeters, "On power optimization in DSL systems," IEEE Int. Workshop on Green Communications (GreenComm) at ICC 2009, June 2009, Dresden, Germany.

R. Ramaswami and K. N. Sivarajan, Optical Networks: A Practical Perspective, 2nd ed., Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, 2001, ch. 8, 9, 10, 11.

A. Pattavina and R. Zanzottera, "Non-blocking WDM switches based on arrayed waveguide grating and shared wavelength conversion," IEEE Conf. on Computer Communications (INFOCOM 2006), Apr. 2006, Barcelona, Spain.

L. Pavesi and D. J. Lockwood, ed., Silicon Photonics, Springer-Verlag, 2004.

L. R. Goke and G. J. Lipovski, "Banyan networks for partitioning multiprocessor systems," ACM Annu. Symp. on Computer Architecture (ISCA 1973), Dec. 1973, New York, NY.

Mindspeed Technologies, Inc., [Online]. Available: http://www.mindspeed.com

IEEE Instrumentation and Measurement Society, "IEEE Standard for a Precision Clock Synchronization Protocol for Networked Measurement and Control Systems," IEEE Std. 1588 (Revision), July 2008.

J. Ramamirtham and J. Turner, "Time sliced optical burst switching," IEEE Int. Conf. on Computer and Communications (INFOCOM 2003), Apr. 2003, pp. 2030‒2038.

C.-S. Li, Y. Ofek, and M. Yung, "Time-driven priority flow control for real-time heterogeneous internetworking," IEEE Int. Conf. on Computer Communications (INFOCOM 1996), Mar. 1996, San Francisco, CA.

Tekelec Systemes, [Online]. Available: http://www.tekelec-systemes.com

Opal Kelly, Inc., [Online]. Available: http://www.opalkelly.com

M. Baldi, G. Marchetto, G. Galante, F. Risso, R. Scopigno, and F. Stirano, "Time driven priority router implementation and first experiments," IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications (ICC 2006), June 2006, Istanbul, Turkey.

T.-H. Truong, M. Baldi, and Y. Ofek, "Efficient scheduling for heterogeneous fractional lambda switching (FλS) networks," IEEE Int. Conf. on Global Communications (IEEE GLOBECOM 2007), Nov. 2007, Washington, DC.

Symmetricom, Inc., [Online]. Available: http://www.symmttm.com

IEEE 802.3 Working Group, "Part 3: carrier sense multiple access with collision detection (CSMA/CD) access method and physical layer specifications," IEEE Std 802.3 2000 Edition, 2000.

Cisco Systems, Inc., "Hyperconnectivity and the approaching zettabyte era," 2June2 June 2010, [Online]. Available: http://www.cisco.com/en/US/solutions/collateral/ns341/ns525/ns537/ns705/ns827/VNI_Hyperconnectivity_WP.html

I. Vaishnavi, P. Cesar, D. Bulterman, and O. Friedrich, "From IPTV services to shared experiences: challenges in architecture design," IEEE Int. Conf. on Multimedia and Expo (ICME 2010), July 2010, Singapore, pp. 1511‒1516.

M. Gupta and S. Singh, "Greening of the Internet," ACM SIGCOMM 2003, Aug. 2003, Karlsruhe, Germany.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Common time reference structure.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

10 Tb/s switching module with M21151/M21156 implemented in the current testbed.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(Color online) Architecture for deploying pipeline forwarding.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(Color online) Block diagram of FλS switch: 2-stage Banyan implemented with M21151/M21156 cross-point switches.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Block diagram of the switch control card.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(Color online) Initial testbed set-up without “stopping” the bits.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(Color online) Eye patterns at (a) location 1 and (b) location 4 in Fig. 6.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(Color online) 100 km, 6-node metropolitan network (actually realized using only two FλS switches).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(Color online) Eye patterns at locations (i), (ii), and (iii) in Fig. 8.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

(Color online) Testbed set-up for testing the interoperability of all-optical and electrical FλS switches.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

(Color online) Implementation of an all-optical switch including a diagnostic and testing subsystem.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table I End-to-End Delay Jitter