Abstract

We propose and experimentally demonstrate a transparent optical-code-division multiplexing (OCDM) overlay public dense wavelength-division multiplexing (DWDM) network architecture enabled by a passive spectral notch filter for extracting and detecting a secure OCDM signal, which employs a time domain spectral phase encoding/decoding scheme that can simultaneously generate differential-phase-shift-keying (DPSK) data and optical code patterns using only a single phase modulator. The time domain encoded OCDM signal has been scrambled bit-by-bit by a prime hopping pattern and concealed in the public DWDM channels to significantly improve the OCDM channel security. The effect of optical code patterns, the channel number, and bandwidth of the spectral notch filters on the system performance has been theoretically simulated and experimentally validated. In the experiment, error-free transmission of a 2.5-Gb/s time domain spectral phase encoded DPSK–OCDM signal with three 8-chip, 20-Gchip/s optical codes and a scrambled code pattern in the transparent OCDM overlay two-channel 10-Gb/s DWDM network has been successfully demonstrated.

© 2011 OSA

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References

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  1. A. Stok and E. H. Sargent, "The role of optical CDMA in access networks," IEEE Commun. Mag. 40, (9), 83‒87 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. P. Heritage and A. M. Weiner, "Advances in spectral optical code-division multiple-access," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 13, (5), 1351‒1369 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  3. T. H. Shake, "Confidentiality performance of spectral-phase-encoded optical CDMA," J. Lightwave Technol. 23, (4), 1652‒1663 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  4. X. Wang and K. Kitayama, "Analysis of beat noise in coherent and incoherent time-spreading OCDMA," J. Lightwave Technol. 22, (10), 2226‒2235 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. J. Essiambre, G. J. Foschini, G. Kramer, and P. J. Winzer, "Capacity limits of information transport in fiber-optic networks," Phys. Rev. Lett 101, 163901 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. J. Kani, K. Iwatsuki, and T. Imai, "Optical multiplexing technologies for access area applications," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, (4), 661‒668 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  7. K. Kitayama, X. Wang, and N. Wada, "OCDMA over WDM PON-solution path to gigabit-symmetric FTTH," J. Lightwave Technol. 24, (4), 1654‒1662 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  8. S. Galli, R. Menendez, P. Toliver, T. Banwell, J. Jackel, J. Young, and S. Etemad, "Experimental results on the simultaneous transmission of two 2.5 Gbps optical-CDMA channels and a 10 Gbps OOK channel within the same WDM window," Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2005, OWB3.
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  10. S. Galli, R. Menendez, P. Toliver, T. Banwell, J. Jackel, J. Young, and S. Etemad, "Novel results on the coexistence of spectrally phase encoded OCDMA and DWDM," IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications (ICC), May 16–20, 2005, Seoul, South Korea, pp. 1608‒1612.
  11. M. Yoshino, N. Miki, N. Yoshimoto, and M. Tsubokawa, "Simultaneous OCDM signal transmission over multiple WDM channels using Mach–Zehnder interferometric selector," Electron. Lett. 44, (22), 1319‒1320 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  12. K. Kravtsov, B. Wu, I. Glesk, P. R. Prucnal, and E. Narimanov, "Stealth transmission over a WDM network with detection based on an all-optical thresholder," IEEE/LEOS Annual Meeting, 2007, pp. 480‒481.
  13. B. Wu, P. R. Prucnal, and E. E. Narimanov, "Secure transmission over an existing public WDM lightwave network," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, (17), 1870‒1872 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  14. B. B. Wu and E. E. Narimanov, "A method for secure communications over a public fiber-optical network," Opt. Express 14, (9), 3738‒3751 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. X. Hong, D. Wang, L. Xu, and S. He, "Demonstration of optical steganography transmission using temporal phase coded optical signals with spectral notch filtering," Opt. Express 18, (12), 12415‒12420 (2010).
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    [CrossRef]
  17. H. Sotobayashi, W. Chujo, and K. Kitayama, "Transparent virtual optical code/wavelength path network," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 8, (3), 699‒704 (2002).
  18. X. Wang and N. Wada, "Spectral phase encoding of ultra-short optical pulse in time domain for OCDMA application," Opt. Express 15, (12), 7319‒7326 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. V. J. Hernandez, Y. Du, W. Cong, R. P. Scott, K. Li, J. P. Heritage, Z. Ding, B. H. Kolner, and S. J. Ben Yoo, "Spectral phase-encoded time spreading (SPECTS) optical code-division multiple access for terabit optical access networks," J. Lightwave Technol. 22, (11), 2671‒2679 (2004).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011

Z. Wang and P. R. Prucnal, "Optical steganography over public DPSK channel with asynchronous detection," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, (1), 48‒50 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

2008

M. Yoshino, N. Miki, N. Yoshimoto, and M. Tsubokawa, "Simultaneous OCDM signal transmission over multiple WDM channels using Mach–Zehnder interferometric selector," Electron. Lett. 44, (22), 1319‒1320 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Essiambre, G. J. Foschini, G. Kramer, and P. J. Winzer, "Capacity limits of information transport in fiber-optic networks," Phys. Rev. Lett 101, 163901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

J. P. Heritage and A. M. Weiner, "Advances in spectral optical code-division multiple-access," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 13, (5), 1351‒1369 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. Wang and N. Wada, "Spectral phase encoding of ultra-short optical pulse in time domain for OCDMA application," Opt. Express 15, (12), 7319‒7326 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

J. Kani, K. Iwatsuki, and T. Imai, "Optical multiplexing technologies for access area applications," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, (4), 661‒668 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Kitayama, X. Wang, and N. Wada, "OCDMA over WDM PON-solution path to gigabit-symmetric FTTH," J. Lightwave Technol. 24, (4), 1654‒1662 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. Wu, P. R. Prucnal, and E. E. Narimanov, "Secure transmission over an existing public WDM lightwave network," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, (17), 1870‒1872 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. B. Wu and E. E. Narimanov, "A method for secure communications over a public fiber-optical network," Opt. Express 14, (9), 3738‒3751 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

2004

2002

H. Sotobayashi, W. Chujo, and K. Kitayama, "Transparent virtual optical code/wavelength path network," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 8, (3), 699‒704 (2002).

A. Stok and E. H. Sargent, "The role of optical CDMA in access networks," IEEE Commun. Mag. 40, (9), 83‒87 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Banwell, T.

S. Galli, R. Menendez, P. Toliver, T. Banwell, J. Jackel, J. Young, and S. Etemad, "Experimental results on the simultaneous transmission of two 2.5 Gbps optical-CDMA channels and a 10 Gbps OOK channel within the same WDM window," Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2005, OWB3.

S. Galli, R. Menendez, P. Toliver, T. Banwell, J. Jackel, J. Young, and S. Etemad, "DWDM-compatible spectrally phase encoded O-CDMA," IEEE Global Telecommunications Conf. (GLOBECOM), 2004, Dallas, TX, USA, pp. 1888‒1894.

S. Galli, R. Menendez, P. Toliver, T. Banwell, J. Jackel, J. Young, and S. Etemad, "Novel results on the coexistence of spectrally phase encoded OCDMA and DWDM," IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications (ICC), May 16–20, 2005, Seoul, South Korea, pp. 1608‒1612.

Ben Yoo, S. J.

Chujo, W.

H. Sotobayashi, W. Chujo, and K. Kitayama, "Transparent virtual optical code/wavelength path network," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 8, (3), 699‒704 (2002).

Cong, W.

Ding, Z.

Du, Y.

Essiambre, R. J.

R. J. Essiambre, G. J. Foschini, G. Kramer, and P. J. Winzer, "Capacity limits of information transport in fiber-optic networks," Phys. Rev. Lett 101, 163901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Etemad, S.

S. Galli, R. Menendez, P. Toliver, T. Banwell, J. Jackel, J. Young, and S. Etemad, "DWDM-compatible spectrally phase encoded O-CDMA," IEEE Global Telecommunications Conf. (GLOBECOM), 2004, Dallas, TX, USA, pp. 1888‒1894.

S. Galli, R. Menendez, P. Toliver, T. Banwell, J. Jackel, J. Young, and S. Etemad, "Experimental results on the simultaneous transmission of two 2.5 Gbps optical-CDMA channels and a 10 Gbps OOK channel within the same WDM window," Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2005, OWB3.

S. Galli, R. Menendez, P. Toliver, T. Banwell, J. Jackel, J. Young, and S. Etemad, "Novel results on the coexistence of spectrally phase encoded OCDMA and DWDM," IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications (ICC), May 16–20, 2005, Seoul, South Korea, pp. 1608‒1612.

Foschini, G. J.

R. J. Essiambre, G. J. Foschini, G. Kramer, and P. J. Winzer, "Capacity limits of information transport in fiber-optic networks," Phys. Rev. Lett 101, 163901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Galli, S.

S. Galli, R. Menendez, P. Toliver, T. Banwell, J. Jackel, J. Young, and S. Etemad, "DWDM-compatible spectrally phase encoded O-CDMA," IEEE Global Telecommunications Conf. (GLOBECOM), 2004, Dallas, TX, USA, pp. 1888‒1894.

S. Galli, R. Menendez, P. Toliver, T. Banwell, J. Jackel, J. Young, and S. Etemad, "Experimental results on the simultaneous transmission of two 2.5 Gbps optical-CDMA channels and a 10 Gbps OOK channel within the same WDM window," Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2005, OWB3.

S. Galli, R. Menendez, P. Toliver, T. Banwell, J. Jackel, J. Young, and S. Etemad, "Novel results on the coexistence of spectrally phase encoded OCDMA and DWDM," IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications (ICC), May 16–20, 2005, Seoul, South Korea, pp. 1608‒1612.

Gao, Z.

Glesk, I.

K. Kravtsov, B. Wu, I. Glesk, P. R. Prucnal, and E. Narimanov, "Stealth transmission over a WDM network with detection based on an all-optical thresholder," IEEE/LEOS Annual Meeting, 2007, pp. 480‒481.

He, S.

Heritage, J. P.

Hernandez, V. J.

Hong, X.

Imai, T.

J. Kani, K. Iwatsuki, and T. Imai, "Optical multiplexing technologies for access area applications," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, (4), 661‒668 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Iwatsuki, K.

J. Kani, K. Iwatsuki, and T. Imai, "Optical multiplexing technologies for access area applications," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, (4), 661‒668 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jackel, J.

S. Galli, R. Menendez, P. Toliver, T. Banwell, J. Jackel, J. Young, and S. Etemad, "Novel results on the coexistence of spectrally phase encoded OCDMA and DWDM," IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications (ICC), May 16–20, 2005, Seoul, South Korea, pp. 1608‒1612.

S. Galli, R. Menendez, P. Toliver, T. Banwell, J. Jackel, J. Young, and S. Etemad, "DWDM-compatible spectrally phase encoded O-CDMA," IEEE Global Telecommunications Conf. (GLOBECOM), 2004, Dallas, TX, USA, pp. 1888‒1894.

S. Galli, R. Menendez, P. Toliver, T. Banwell, J. Jackel, J. Young, and S. Etemad, "Experimental results on the simultaneous transmission of two 2.5 Gbps optical-CDMA channels and a 10 Gbps OOK channel within the same WDM window," Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2005, OWB3.

Kani, J.

J. Kani, K. Iwatsuki, and T. Imai, "Optical multiplexing technologies for access area applications," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, (4), 661‒668 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kataoka, N.

Kitayama, K.

Kolner, B. H.

Kramer, G.

R. J. Essiambre, G. J. Foschini, G. Kramer, and P. J. Winzer, "Capacity limits of information transport in fiber-optic networks," Phys. Rev. Lett 101, 163901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kravtsov, K.

K. Kravtsov, B. Wu, I. Glesk, P. R. Prucnal, and E. Narimanov, "Stealth transmission over a WDM network with detection based on an all-optical thresholder," IEEE/LEOS Annual Meeting, 2007, pp. 480‒481.

Li, K.

Menendez, R.

S. Galli, R. Menendez, P. Toliver, T. Banwell, J. Jackel, J. Young, and S. Etemad, "Experimental results on the simultaneous transmission of two 2.5 Gbps optical-CDMA channels and a 10 Gbps OOK channel within the same WDM window," Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2005, OWB3.

S. Galli, R. Menendez, P. Toliver, T. Banwell, J. Jackel, J. Young, and S. Etemad, "DWDM-compatible spectrally phase encoded O-CDMA," IEEE Global Telecommunications Conf. (GLOBECOM), 2004, Dallas, TX, USA, pp. 1888‒1894.

S. Galli, R. Menendez, P. Toliver, T. Banwell, J. Jackel, J. Young, and S. Etemad, "Novel results on the coexistence of spectrally phase encoded OCDMA and DWDM," IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications (ICC), May 16–20, 2005, Seoul, South Korea, pp. 1608‒1612.

Miki, N.

M. Yoshino, N. Miki, N. Yoshimoto, and M. Tsubokawa, "Simultaneous OCDM signal transmission over multiple WDM channels using Mach–Zehnder interferometric selector," Electron. Lett. 44, (22), 1319‒1320 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Narimanov, E.

K. Kravtsov, B. Wu, I. Glesk, P. R. Prucnal, and E. Narimanov, "Stealth transmission over a WDM network with detection based on an all-optical thresholder," IEEE/LEOS Annual Meeting, 2007, pp. 480‒481.

Narimanov, E. E.

B. Wu, P. R. Prucnal, and E. E. Narimanov, "Secure transmission over an existing public WDM lightwave network," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, (17), 1870‒1872 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. B. Wu and E. E. Narimanov, "A method for secure communications over a public fiber-optical network," Opt. Express 14, (9), 3738‒3751 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prucnal, P. R.

Z. Wang and P. R. Prucnal, "Optical steganography over public DPSK channel with asynchronous detection," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, (1), 48‒50 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. Wu, P. R. Prucnal, and E. E. Narimanov, "Secure transmission over an existing public WDM lightwave network," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, (17), 1870‒1872 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Kravtsov, B. Wu, I. Glesk, P. R. Prucnal, and E. Narimanov, "Stealth transmission over a WDM network with detection based on an all-optical thresholder," IEEE/LEOS Annual Meeting, 2007, pp. 480‒481.

Sargent, E. H.

A. Stok and E. H. Sargent, "The role of optical CDMA in access networks," IEEE Commun. Mag. 40, (9), 83‒87 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Scott, R. P.

Shake, T. H.

Sotobayashi, H.

H. Sotobayashi, W. Chujo, and K. Kitayama, "Transparent virtual optical code/wavelength path network," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 8, (3), 699‒704 (2002).

Stok, A.

A. Stok and E. H. Sargent, "The role of optical CDMA in access networks," IEEE Commun. Mag. 40, (9), 83‒87 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Toliver, P.

S. Galli, R. Menendez, P. Toliver, T. Banwell, J. Jackel, J. Young, and S. Etemad, "Novel results on the coexistence of spectrally phase encoded OCDMA and DWDM," IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications (ICC), May 16–20, 2005, Seoul, South Korea, pp. 1608‒1612.

S. Galli, R. Menendez, P. Toliver, T. Banwell, J. Jackel, J. Young, and S. Etemad, "DWDM-compatible spectrally phase encoded O-CDMA," IEEE Global Telecommunications Conf. (GLOBECOM), 2004, Dallas, TX, USA, pp. 1888‒1894.

S. Galli, R. Menendez, P. Toliver, T. Banwell, J. Jackel, J. Young, and S. Etemad, "Experimental results on the simultaneous transmission of two 2.5 Gbps optical-CDMA channels and a 10 Gbps OOK channel within the same WDM window," Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2005, OWB3.

Tsubokawa, M.

M. Yoshino, N. Miki, N. Yoshimoto, and M. Tsubokawa, "Simultaneous OCDM signal transmission over multiple WDM channels using Mach–Zehnder interferometric selector," Electron. Lett. 44, (22), 1319‒1320 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wada, N.

Wang, D.

Wang, X.

Wang, Z.

Z. Wang and P. R. Prucnal, "Optical steganography over public DPSK channel with asynchronous detection," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, (1), 48‒50 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Weiner, A. M.

J. P. Heritage and A. M. Weiner, "Advances in spectral optical code-division multiple-access," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 13, (5), 1351‒1369 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Winzer, P. J.

R. J. Essiambre, G. J. Foschini, G. Kramer, and P. J. Winzer, "Capacity limits of information transport in fiber-optic networks," Phys. Rev. Lett 101, 163901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, B.

B. Wu, P. R. Prucnal, and E. E. Narimanov, "Secure transmission over an existing public WDM lightwave network," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, (17), 1870‒1872 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Kravtsov, B. Wu, I. Glesk, P. R. Prucnal, and E. Narimanov, "Stealth transmission over a WDM network with detection based on an all-optical thresholder," IEEE/LEOS Annual Meeting, 2007, pp. 480‒481.

Wu, B. B.

Xu, L.

Yoshimoto, N.

M. Yoshino, N. Miki, N. Yoshimoto, and M. Tsubokawa, "Simultaneous OCDM signal transmission over multiple WDM channels using Mach–Zehnder interferometric selector," Electron. Lett. 44, (22), 1319‒1320 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yoshino, M.

M. Yoshino, N. Miki, N. Yoshimoto, and M. Tsubokawa, "Simultaneous OCDM signal transmission over multiple WDM channels using Mach–Zehnder interferometric selector," Electron. Lett. 44, (22), 1319‒1320 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Young, J.

S. Galli, R. Menendez, P. Toliver, T. Banwell, J. Jackel, J. Young, and S. Etemad, "Experimental results on the simultaneous transmission of two 2.5 Gbps optical-CDMA channels and a 10 Gbps OOK channel within the same WDM window," Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2005, OWB3.

S. Galli, R. Menendez, P. Toliver, T. Banwell, J. Jackel, J. Young, and S. Etemad, "DWDM-compatible spectrally phase encoded O-CDMA," IEEE Global Telecommunications Conf. (GLOBECOM), 2004, Dallas, TX, USA, pp. 1888‒1894.

S. Galli, R. Menendez, P. Toliver, T. Banwell, J. Jackel, J. Young, and S. Etemad, "Novel results on the coexistence of spectrally phase encoded OCDMA and DWDM," IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications (ICC), May 16–20, 2005, Seoul, South Korea, pp. 1608‒1612.

Electron. Lett.

M. Yoshino, N. Miki, N. Yoshimoto, and M. Tsubokawa, "Simultaneous OCDM signal transmission over multiple WDM channels using Mach–Zehnder interferometric selector," Electron. Lett. 44, (22), 1319‒1320 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Commun. Mag.

A. Stok and E. H. Sargent, "The role of optical CDMA in access networks," IEEE Commun. Mag. 40, (9), 83‒87 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

J. P. Heritage and A. M. Weiner, "Advances in spectral optical code-division multiple-access," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 13, (5), 1351‒1369 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun.

H. Sotobayashi, W. Chujo, and K. Kitayama, "Transparent virtual optical code/wavelength path network," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 8, (3), 699‒704 (2002).

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

J. Kani, K. Iwatsuki, and T. Imai, "Optical multiplexing technologies for access area applications," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, (4), 661‒668 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

B. Wu, P. R. Prucnal, and E. E. Narimanov, "Secure transmission over an existing public WDM lightwave network," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, (17), 1870‒1872 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Z. Wang and P. R. Prucnal, "Optical steganography over public DPSK channel with asynchronous detection," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, (1), 48‒50 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

Opt. Express

Phys. Rev. Lett

R. J. Essiambre, G. J. Foschini, G. Kramer, and P. J. Winzer, "Capacity limits of information transport in fiber-optic networks," Phys. Rev. Lett 101, 163901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

S. Galli, R. Menendez, P. Toliver, T. Banwell, J. Jackel, J. Young, and S. Etemad, "Experimental results on the simultaneous transmission of two 2.5 Gbps optical-CDMA channels and a 10 Gbps OOK channel within the same WDM window," Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2005, OWB3.

S. Galli, R. Menendez, P. Toliver, T. Banwell, J. Jackel, J. Young, and S. Etemad, "DWDM-compatible spectrally phase encoded O-CDMA," IEEE Global Telecommunications Conf. (GLOBECOM), 2004, Dallas, TX, USA, pp. 1888‒1894.

S. Galli, R. Menendez, P. Toliver, T. Banwell, J. Jackel, J. Young, and S. Etemad, "Novel results on the coexistence of spectrally phase encoded OCDMA and DWDM," IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications (ICC), May 16–20, 2005, Seoul, South Korea, pp. 1608‒1612.

K. Kravtsov, B. Wu, I. Glesk, P. R. Prucnal, and E. Narimanov, "Stealth transmission over a WDM network with detection based on an all-optical thresholder," IEEE/LEOS Annual Meeting, 2007, pp. 480‒481.

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(Color online) Schematic diagram of the proposed transparent secure OCDM channel over a public DWDM network.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(Color online) Operation principle of time domain SPE/D-OCDMA.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(Color online) Experimental setup of the proposed time domain SPE/SPD-OCDM system spectrally overlaid on a two-channel DWDM network.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(Color online) (a)–(d) and (e)–(h) are the encoded spectra and corresponding decoded waveforms with four different kinds of notch filters.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(Color online) BER performance and peak amplitude of the decoded pulse versus the bandwidth of the notch filter for different codes.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(Color online) (a) BER performance and (b) Q factor versus the notch filtering bandwidth at different center wavelengths.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(Color online) (a) and (b) are the spectrum and waveform of the OCDM signal after the LCFBG, (c) is the spectrum of the combined DWDM and OCDM signals, (d) and (e) are the eye diagrams for the DWDM signal without and with OCDM signal.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(Color online) Decoded spectra after the notch filter (upper row), decoded waveforms (middle row), and corresponding eye diagrams (lower row) for different code patterns.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(Color online) (a) and (b) are the waveform and corresponding eye diagram for the correctly decoded scrambled OCDM signal; (c) and (d) are the waveform and eye diagram for an incorrectly decoded signal.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

(a) BER performances for the OCDM signal with different codes; (b) and (c) are the BER performances of WDM channels 1 and 2, respectively.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

(Color online) (a) BER performance and normalized intensity versus channel number for a CS of 0.8 nm and 0.3 nm, respectively; (b) power penalty versus channel number.