Abstract

The basic principle of waveband switching (WBS) is to group multiple wavelengths together as a band or fiber and switch the group using a single port whenever possible. To support waveband grouping in WBS networks, multi-granular optical cross-connects (MG-OXCs) are introduced to switch the traffic at the fiber, band, and wavelength layers. One important goal in WBS networks is to minimize the number of ports at the MG-OXCs. For WBS networks with dynamic or on-line traffic, both the port consumption and call blocking probability should be considered during the process of accommodating unpredictable traffic demands with limited resources. Call blocking can be caused by port insufficiency as well as wavelength shortage in WBS networks with dynamic traffic. Our study in this work starts with an analysis of a reconfigurable MG-OXC architecture and various cases of port consumption on this architecture. We then analyze the lower/upper bounds for the design parameter of the reconfigurable MG-OXC architecture. Based on the insights obtained from the analysis, we propose a new algorithm, namely, weighted graph-based waveband assignment (WGB), which employs an auxiliary weighted graph technique to make efficient dynamic routing and waveband assignment. The proposed algorithm is simulated in WBS networks with fully dynamic or incremental traffic patterns. Our results show that the proposed scheme can satisfy up to 40% more lightpath requests than the existing scheme, maximum overlap ratio (MOR), before a certain blocking ratio is observed in the network. Our study also shows that with limited resources, WBS can obtain port savings by limiting the design parameter while achieving an allowable blocking probability.

© 2011 OSA

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. R. Ramaswami, K. N. Sivarajan, and G. Sasaki, Optical Networks: A Practical Perspective, Morgan Kaufmann, 2009.
  2. B. Mukherjee, Optical Communication Networks, Springer-Verlag, New York, 2006.
  3. X. Cao, V. Anand, Y. Xiong, and C. Qiao, "A study of waveband switching with multi-layer multi-granular optical cross-connects," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 21, (7), 1081‒1095 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. C. Varsou, S. Ganguly, and R. Izmailov, "Waveband protection mechanisms in hierarchical optical networks," Proc. High Performance Switching and Routing, June 2003, pp. 317‒322.
  5. P. Ho, H. T. Mouftah, and J. Wu, "Scalable design of multi-granularity optical cross-connects for the next-generation optical internet," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 21, 1133‒1142 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  6. R. Parthiban, R. Tucker, and C. Leckie, "Waveband grooming and IP aggregation in optical networks," J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 2476‒2488 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  7. X. Cao, V. Anand, and C. Qiao, "A waveband switching architecture and algorithm for dynamic traffic," IEEE Commun. Lett. 7, (8), 397‒399 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  8. R. Izmailov, S. Ganguly, V. Kleptsyn, and A. Varsou, "Non-uniform waveband hierarchy in hybrid optical networks," Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, Vol. II, 2003, pp. 1344‒1354.
  9. S. Varma and J. Jue, "Protection in multi-granular waveband networks," Proc. IEEE GLOBECOM, Nov./Dec. 2004, pp. 1759‒1763.
  10. L. Chen, P. Saengudomlert, and E. Modiano, "Uniform vs. non-uniform band switching in WDM networks," Proc. BROADNETS, 2005, pp. 204‒213.
  11. M. Li and B. Ramamurthy, "Heterogeneous waveband switching in wavelength division multiplexed networks based on autonomous clustering architecture [invited]," J. Opt. Netw. 5, (9), 667‒680 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  12. I. Yagyu, H. Hasegawa, and K. Sato, "An efficient hierarchical optical path network design algorithm based on a traffic demand expression in a Cartesian product space," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 26, 22‒31 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  13. M. Iyer, G. N. Rouskas, and R. Dutta, "A hierarchical model for multigranular optical networks," Proc. BROADNETS, Sept. 2008, pp. 444‒451.
  14. O. Turkcu and S. Subramaniam, "Optimal waveband switching in optical ring networks," Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, 2010, pp. 596‒604.
  15. I. Chlamtac, A. Ganz, and G. Karmi, "Lightpath communications: an approach to high bandwidth optical WAN’s," IEEE Trans. Commun. 40, (7), 1171‒1182 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  16. M. Lee, J. Yu, Y. Kim, C. Kang, and J. Park, "Design of hierarchical crossconnect WDM networks employing a two-stage multiplexing scheme of waveband and wavelength," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 20, (1), 166‒171 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  17. Y. Wang and X. Cao, "A new hierarchical waveband assignment algorithm for multi-granular optical networks," Proc. IEEE ICCCN, 2009, pp. 1‒6.
  18. X. Cao, V. Anand, and C. Qiao, "Waveband switching for dynamic traffic demands in multigranular optical networks," IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 15, 957‒968 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  19. X. Cao, V. Anand, and C. Qiao, "Multi-layer versus single-layer optical cross-connect architectures for waveband switching," Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, 2004, pp. 1830‒1840.
  20. H. E. Escobar and L. R. Marshall, "All-optical wavelength band conversion enables new scalable and efficient optical network architectures," Optical Fiber Communications Conf., 2002, WH2.
  21. M. Li and B. Ramamurthy, "Dynamic waveband switching in WDM mesh networks based on a generic auxiliary graph model," Photonic Netw. Commun. 10, (3), 309‒331 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  22. M. Li, W. Yao, and B. Ramamurthy, "Same-destination-intermediate grouping vs. end-to-end grouping for waveband switching in WDM mesh networks," Proc. IEEE ICC, Vol. 3, 2005, pp. 1807‒1812.
  23. X. Wang, L. Guo, C. Yu, D. Wang, W. Hou, Y. Li, C. Wang, and X. Liu, "A new heuristic protection algorithm based on survivable integrated auxiliary graph in waveband switching optical networks," Comput. Commun. 32, 1000‒1005 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  24. X. Cao, V. Anand, and C. Qiao, "Framework for waveband switching in multigranular optical networks: part I—multigranular cross-connect architectures [Invited]," J. Opt. Netw. 5, (12), 1043‒1055 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  25. J. Yen, "Finding the k shortest loopless paths in a network," Manage. Sci. 17, (11), 712‒716 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  26. Y. Wang and X. Cao, "Distributive waveband assignment in multi-granular optical networks," Proc. IEEE IPDPS’09, pp. 1‒9.
  27. A. Birman, "Computing approximate blocking probabilities for a class of all-optical networks," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 14, 852‒857 (1996).
    [CrossRef]

2009 (1)

X. Wang, L. Guo, C. Yu, D. Wang, W. Hou, Y. Li, C. Wang, and X. Liu, "A new heuristic protection algorithm based on survivable integrated auxiliary graph in waveband switching optical networks," Comput. Commun. 32, 1000‒1005 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

I. Yagyu, H. Hasegawa, and K. Sato, "An efficient hierarchical optical path network design algorithm based on a traffic demand expression in a Cartesian product space," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 26, 22‒31 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

X. Cao, V. Anand, and C. Qiao, "Waveband switching for dynamic traffic demands in multigranular optical networks," IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 15, 957‒968 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

2005 (1)

M. Li and B. Ramamurthy, "Dynamic waveband switching in WDM mesh networks based on a generic auxiliary graph model," Photonic Netw. Commun. 10, (3), 309‒331 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (4)

X. Cao, V. Anand, Y. Xiong, and C. Qiao, "A study of waveband switching with multi-layer multi-granular optical cross-connects," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 21, (7), 1081‒1095 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Ho, H. T. Mouftah, and J. Wu, "Scalable design of multi-granularity optical cross-connects for the next-generation optical internet," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 21, 1133‒1142 (2003).
[CrossRef]

X. Cao, V. Anand, and C. Qiao, "A waveband switching architecture and algorithm for dynamic traffic," IEEE Commun. Lett. 7, (8), 397‒399 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Parthiban, R. Tucker, and C. Leckie, "Waveband grooming and IP aggregation in optical networks," J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 2476‒2488 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

M. Lee, J. Yu, Y. Kim, C. Kang, and J. Park, "Design of hierarchical crossconnect WDM networks employing a two-stage multiplexing scheme of waveband and wavelength," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 20, (1), 166‒171 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

A. Birman, "Computing approximate blocking probabilities for a class of all-optical networks," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 14, 852‒857 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

I. Chlamtac, A. Ganz, and G. Karmi, "Lightpath communications: an approach to high bandwidth optical WAN’s," IEEE Trans. Commun. 40, (7), 1171‒1182 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1971 (1)

J. Yen, "Finding the k shortest loopless paths in a network," Manage. Sci. 17, (11), 712‒716 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Anand, V.

X. Cao, V. Anand, and C. Qiao, "Waveband switching for dynamic traffic demands in multigranular optical networks," IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 15, 957‒968 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. Cao, V. Anand, and C. Qiao, "Framework for waveband switching in multigranular optical networks: part I—multigranular cross-connect architectures [Invited]," J. Opt. Netw. 5, (12), 1043‒1055 (2006).
[CrossRef]

X. Cao, V. Anand, Y. Xiong, and C. Qiao, "A study of waveband switching with multi-layer multi-granular optical cross-connects," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 21, (7), 1081‒1095 (2003).
[CrossRef]

X. Cao, V. Anand, and C. Qiao, "A waveband switching architecture and algorithm for dynamic traffic," IEEE Commun. Lett. 7, (8), 397‒399 (2003).
[CrossRef]

X. Cao, V. Anand, and C. Qiao, "Multi-layer versus single-layer optical cross-connect architectures for waveband switching," Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, 2004, pp. 1830‒1840.

Birman, A.

A. Birman, "Computing approximate blocking probabilities for a class of all-optical networks," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 14, 852‒857 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Cao, X.

X. Cao, V. Anand, and C. Qiao, "Waveband switching for dynamic traffic demands in multigranular optical networks," IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 15, 957‒968 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. Cao, V. Anand, and C. Qiao, "Framework for waveband switching in multigranular optical networks: part I—multigranular cross-connect architectures [Invited]," J. Opt. Netw. 5, (12), 1043‒1055 (2006).
[CrossRef]

X. Cao, V. Anand, Y. Xiong, and C. Qiao, "A study of waveband switching with multi-layer multi-granular optical cross-connects," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 21, (7), 1081‒1095 (2003).
[CrossRef]

X. Cao, V. Anand, and C. Qiao, "A waveband switching architecture and algorithm for dynamic traffic," IEEE Commun. Lett. 7, (8), 397‒399 (2003).
[CrossRef]

X. Cao, V. Anand, and C. Qiao, "Multi-layer versus single-layer optical cross-connect architectures for waveband switching," Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, 2004, pp. 1830‒1840.

Y. Wang and X. Cao, "A new hierarchical waveband assignment algorithm for multi-granular optical networks," Proc. IEEE ICCCN, 2009, pp. 1‒6.

Y. Wang and X. Cao, "Distributive waveband assignment in multi-granular optical networks," Proc. IEEE IPDPS’09, pp. 1‒9.

Chen, L.

L. Chen, P. Saengudomlert, and E. Modiano, "Uniform vs. non-uniform band switching in WDM networks," Proc. BROADNETS, 2005, pp. 204‒213.

Chlamtac, I.

I. Chlamtac, A. Ganz, and G. Karmi, "Lightpath communications: an approach to high bandwidth optical WAN’s," IEEE Trans. Commun. 40, (7), 1171‒1182 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Dutta, R.

M. Iyer, G. N. Rouskas, and R. Dutta, "A hierarchical model for multigranular optical networks," Proc. BROADNETS, Sept. 2008, pp. 444‒451.

Escobar, H. E.

H. E. Escobar and L. R. Marshall, "All-optical wavelength band conversion enables new scalable and efficient optical network architectures," Optical Fiber Communications Conf., 2002, WH2.

Ganguly, S.

R. Izmailov, S. Ganguly, V. Kleptsyn, and A. Varsou, "Non-uniform waveband hierarchy in hybrid optical networks," Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, Vol. II, 2003, pp. 1344‒1354.

A. C. Varsou, S. Ganguly, and R. Izmailov, "Waveband protection mechanisms in hierarchical optical networks," Proc. High Performance Switching and Routing, June 2003, pp. 317‒322.

Ganz, A.

I. Chlamtac, A. Ganz, and G. Karmi, "Lightpath communications: an approach to high bandwidth optical WAN’s," IEEE Trans. Commun. 40, (7), 1171‒1182 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Guo, L.

X. Wang, L. Guo, C. Yu, D. Wang, W. Hou, Y. Li, C. Wang, and X. Liu, "A new heuristic protection algorithm based on survivable integrated auxiliary graph in waveband switching optical networks," Comput. Commun. 32, 1000‒1005 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hasegawa, H.

I. Yagyu, H. Hasegawa, and K. Sato, "An efficient hierarchical optical path network design algorithm based on a traffic demand expression in a Cartesian product space," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 26, 22‒31 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ho, P.

P. Ho, H. T. Mouftah, and J. Wu, "Scalable design of multi-granularity optical cross-connects for the next-generation optical internet," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 21, 1133‒1142 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hou, W.

X. Wang, L. Guo, C. Yu, D. Wang, W. Hou, Y. Li, C. Wang, and X. Liu, "A new heuristic protection algorithm based on survivable integrated auxiliary graph in waveband switching optical networks," Comput. Commun. 32, 1000‒1005 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Iyer, M.

M. Iyer, G. N. Rouskas, and R. Dutta, "A hierarchical model for multigranular optical networks," Proc. BROADNETS, Sept. 2008, pp. 444‒451.

Izmailov, R.

R. Izmailov, S. Ganguly, V. Kleptsyn, and A. Varsou, "Non-uniform waveband hierarchy in hybrid optical networks," Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, Vol. II, 2003, pp. 1344‒1354.

A. C. Varsou, S. Ganguly, and R. Izmailov, "Waveband protection mechanisms in hierarchical optical networks," Proc. High Performance Switching and Routing, June 2003, pp. 317‒322.

Jue, J.

S. Varma and J. Jue, "Protection in multi-granular waveband networks," Proc. IEEE GLOBECOM, Nov./Dec. 2004, pp. 1759‒1763.

Kang, C.

M. Lee, J. Yu, Y. Kim, C. Kang, and J. Park, "Design of hierarchical crossconnect WDM networks employing a two-stage multiplexing scheme of waveband and wavelength," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 20, (1), 166‒171 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Karmi, G.

I. Chlamtac, A. Ganz, and G. Karmi, "Lightpath communications: an approach to high bandwidth optical WAN’s," IEEE Trans. Commun. 40, (7), 1171‒1182 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kim, Y.

M. Lee, J. Yu, Y. Kim, C. Kang, and J. Park, "Design of hierarchical crossconnect WDM networks employing a two-stage multiplexing scheme of waveband and wavelength," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 20, (1), 166‒171 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kleptsyn, V.

R. Izmailov, S. Ganguly, V. Kleptsyn, and A. Varsou, "Non-uniform waveband hierarchy in hybrid optical networks," Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, Vol. II, 2003, pp. 1344‒1354.

Leckie, C.

Lee, M.

M. Lee, J. Yu, Y. Kim, C. Kang, and J. Park, "Design of hierarchical crossconnect WDM networks employing a two-stage multiplexing scheme of waveband and wavelength," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 20, (1), 166‒171 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Li, M.

M. Li and B. Ramamurthy, "Heterogeneous waveband switching in wavelength division multiplexed networks based on autonomous clustering architecture [invited]," J. Opt. Netw. 5, (9), 667‒680 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Li and B. Ramamurthy, "Dynamic waveband switching in WDM mesh networks based on a generic auxiliary graph model," Photonic Netw. Commun. 10, (3), 309‒331 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Li, W. Yao, and B. Ramamurthy, "Same-destination-intermediate grouping vs. end-to-end grouping for waveband switching in WDM mesh networks," Proc. IEEE ICC, Vol. 3, 2005, pp. 1807‒1812.

Li, Y.

X. Wang, L. Guo, C. Yu, D. Wang, W. Hou, Y. Li, C. Wang, and X. Liu, "A new heuristic protection algorithm based on survivable integrated auxiliary graph in waveband switching optical networks," Comput. Commun. 32, 1000‒1005 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liu, X.

X. Wang, L. Guo, C. Yu, D. Wang, W. Hou, Y. Li, C. Wang, and X. Liu, "A new heuristic protection algorithm based on survivable integrated auxiliary graph in waveband switching optical networks," Comput. Commun. 32, 1000‒1005 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Marshall, L. R.

H. E. Escobar and L. R. Marshall, "All-optical wavelength band conversion enables new scalable and efficient optical network architectures," Optical Fiber Communications Conf., 2002, WH2.

Modiano, E.

L. Chen, P. Saengudomlert, and E. Modiano, "Uniform vs. non-uniform band switching in WDM networks," Proc. BROADNETS, 2005, pp. 204‒213.

Mouftah, H. T.

P. Ho, H. T. Mouftah, and J. Wu, "Scalable design of multi-granularity optical cross-connects for the next-generation optical internet," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 21, 1133‒1142 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mukherjee, B.

B. Mukherjee, Optical Communication Networks, Springer-Verlag, New York, 2006.

Park, J.

M. Lee, J. Yu, Y. Kim, C. Kang, and J. Park, "Design of hierarchical crossconnect WDM networks employing a two-stage multiplexing scheme of waveband and wavelength," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 20, (1), 166‒171 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Parthiban, R.

Qiao, C.

X. Cao, V. Anand, and C. Qiao, "Waveband switching for dynamic traffic demands in multigranular optical networks," IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 15, 957‒968 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. Cao, V. Anand, and C. Qiao, "Framework for waveband switching in multigranular optical networks: part I—multigranular cross-connect architectures [Invited]," J. Opt. Netw. 5, (12), 1043‒1055 (2006).
[CrossRef]

X. Cao, V. Anand, Y. Xiong, and C. Qiao, "A study of waveband switching with multi-layer multi-granular optical cross-connects," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 21, (7), 1081‒1095 (2003).
[CrossRef]

X. Cao, V. Anand, and C. Qiao, "A waveband switching architecture and algorithm for dynamic traffic," IEEE Commun. Lett. 7, (8), 397‒399 (2003).
[CrossRef]

X. Cao, V. Anand, and C. Qiao, "Multi-layer versus single-layer optical cross-connect architectures for waveband switching," Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, 2004, pp. 1830‒1840.

Ramamurthy, B.

M. Li and B. Ramamurthy, "Heterogeneous waveband switching in wavelength division multiplexed networks based on autonomous clustering architecture [invited]," J. Opt. Netw. 5, (9), 667‒680 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Li and B. Ramamurthy, "Dynamic waveband switching in WDM mesh networks based on a generic auxiliary graph model," Photonic Netw. Commun. 10, (3), 309‒331 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Li, W. Yao, and B. Ramamurthy, "Same-destination-intermediate grouping vs. end-to-end grouping for waveband switching in WDM mesh networks," Proc. IEEE ICC, Vol. 3, 2005, pp. 1807‒1812.

Ramaswami, R.

R. Ramaswami, K. N. Sivarajan, and G. Sasaki, Optical Networks: A Practical Perspective, Morgan Kaufmann, 2009.

Rouskas, G. N.

M. Iyer, G. N. Rouskas, and R. Dutta, "A hierarchical model for multigranular optical networks," Proc. BROADNETS, Sept. 2008, pp. 444‒451.

Saengudomlert, P.

L. Chen, P. Saengudomlert, and E. Modiano, "Uniform vs. non-uniform band switching in WDM networks," Proc. BROADNETS, 2005, pp. 204‒213.

Sasaki, G.

R. Ramaswami, K. N. Sivarajan, and G. Sasaki, Optical Networks: A Practical Perspective, Morgan Kaufmann, 2009.

Sato, K.

I. Yagyu, H. Hasegawa, and K. Sato, "An efficient hierarchical optical path network design algorithm based on a traffic demand expression in a Cartesian product space," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 26, 22‒31 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sivarajan, K. N.

R. Ramaswami, K. N. Sivarajan, and G. Sasaki, Optical Networks: A Practical Perspective, Morgan Kaufmann, 2009.

Subramaniam, S.

O. Turkcu and S. Subramaniam, "Optimal waveband switching in optical ring networks," Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, 2010, pp. 596‒604.

Tucker, R.

Turkcu, O.

O. Turkcu and S. Subramaniam, "Optimal waveband switching in optical ring networks," Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, 2010, pp. 596‒604.

Varma, S.

S. Varma and J. Jue, "Protection in multi-granular waveband networks," Proc. IEEE GLOBECOM, Nov./Dec. 2004, pp. 1759‒1763.

Varsou, A.

R. Izmailov, S. Ganguly, V. Kleptsyn, and A. Varsou, "Non-uniform waveband hierarchy in hybrid optical networks," Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, Vol. II, 2003, pp. 1344‒1354.

Varsou, A. C.

A. C. Varsou, S. Ganguly, and R. Izmailov, "Waveband protection mechanisms in hierarchical optical networks," Proc. High Performance Switching and Routing, June 2003, pp. 317‒322.

Wang, C.

X. Wang, L. Guo, C. Yu, D. Wang, W. Hou, Y. Li, C. Wang, and X. Liu, "A new heuristic protection algorithm based on survivable integrated auxiliary graph in waveband switching optical networks," Comput. Commun. 32, 1000‒1005 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, D.

X. Wang, L. Guo, C. Yu, D. Wang, W. Hou, Y. Li, C. Wang, and X. Liu, "A new heuristic protection algorithm based on survivable integrated auxiliary graph in waveband switching optical networks," Comput. Commun. 32, 1000‒1005 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X.

X. Wang, L. Guo, C. Yu, D. Wang, W. Hou, Y. Li, C. Wang, and X. Liu, "A new heuristic protection algorithm based on survivable integrated auxiliary graph in waveband switching optical networks," Comput. Commun. 32, 1000‒1005 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y.

Y. Wang and X. Cao, "Distributive waveband assignment in multi-granular optical networks," Proc. IEEE IPDPS’09, pp. 1‒9.

Y. Wang and X. Cao, "A new hierarchical waveband assignment algorithm for multi-granular optical networks," Proc. IEEE ICCCN, 2009, pp. 1‒6.

Wu, J.

P. Ho, H. T. Mouftah, and J. Wu, "Scalable design of multi-granularity optical cross-connects for the next-generation optical internet," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 21, 1133‒1142 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Xiong, Y.

X. Cao, V. Anand, Y. Xiong, and C. Qiao, "A study of waveband switching with multi-layer multi-granular optical cross-connects," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 21, (7), 1081‒1095 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yagyu, I.

I. Yagyu, H. Hasegawa, and K. Sato, "An efficient hierarchical optical path network design algorithm based on a traffic demand expression in a Cartesian product space," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 26, 22‒31 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yao, W.

M. Li, W. Yao, and B. Ramamurthy, "Same-destination-intermediate grouping vs. end-to-end grouping for waveband switching in WDM mesh networks," Proc. IEEE ICC, Vol. 3, 2005, pp. 1807‒1812.

Yen, J.

J. Yen, "Finding the k shortest loopless paths in a network," Manage. Sci. 17, (11), 712‒716 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Yu, C.

X. Wang, L. Guo, C. Yu, D. Wang, W. Hou, Y. Li, C. Wang, and X. Liu, "A new heuristic protection algorithm based on survivable integrated auxiliary graph in waveband switching optical networks," Comput. Commun. 32, 1000‒1005 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yu, J.

M. Lee, J. Yu, Y. Kim, C. Kang, and J. Park, "Design of hierarchical crossconnect WDM networks employing a two-stage multiplexing scheme of waveband and wavelength," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 20, (1), 166‒171 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Comput. Commun. (1)

X. Wang, L. Guo, C. Yu, D. Wang, W. Hou, Y. Li, C. Wang, and X. Liu, "A new heuristic protection algorithm based on survivable integrated auxiliary graph in waveband switching optical networks," Comput. Commun. 32, 1000‒1005 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Commun. Lett. (1)

X. Cao, V. Anand, and C. Qiao, "A waveband switching architecture and algorithm for dynamic traffic," IEEE Commun. Lett. 7, (8), 397‒399 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. (5)

X. Cao, V. Anand, Y. Xiong, and C. Qiao, "A study of waveband switching with multi-layer multi-granular optical cross-connects," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 21, (7), 1081‒1095 (2003).
[CrossRef]

I. Yagyu, H. Hasegawa, and K. Sato, "An efficient hierarchical optical path network design algorithm based on a traffic demand expression in a Cartesian product space," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 26, 22‒31 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Ho, H. T. Mouftah, and J. Wu, "Scalable design of multi-granularity optical cross-connects for the next-generation optical internet," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 21, 1133‒1142 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Lee, J. Yu, Y. Kim, C. Kang, and J. Park, "Design of hierarchical crossconnect WDM networks employing a two-stage multiplexing scheme of waveband and wavelength," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 20, (1), 166‒171 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Birman, "Computing approximate blocking probabilities for a class of all-optical networks," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 14, 852‒857 (1996).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Commun. (1)

I. Chlamtac, A. Ganz, and G. Karmi, "Lightpath communications: an approach to high bandwidth optical WAN’s," IEEE Trans. Commun. 40, (7), 1171‒1182 (1992).
[CrossRef]

IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. (1)

X. Cao, V. Anand, and C. Qiao, "Waveband switching for dynamic traffic demands in multigranular optical networks," IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 15, 957‒968 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Opt. Netw. (2)

Manage. Sci. (1)

J. Yen, "Finding the k shortest loopless paths in a network," Manage. Sci. 17, (11), 712‒716 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Photonic Netw. Commun. (1)

M. Li and B. Ramamurthy, "Dynamic waveband switching in WDM mesh networks based on a generic auxiliary graph model," Photonic Netw. Commun. 10, (3), 309‒331 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Other (13)

M. Li, W. Yao, and B. Ramamurthy, "Same-destination-intermediate grouping vs. end-to-end grouping for waveband switching in WDM mesh networks," Proc. IEEE ICC, Vol. 3, 2005, pp. 1807‒1812.

Y. Wang and X. Cao, "Distributive waveband assignment in multi-granular optical networks," Proc. IEEE IPDPS’09, pp. 1‒9.

X. Cao, V. Anand, and C. Qiao, "Multi-layer versus single-layer optical cross-connect architectures for waveband switching," Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, 2004, pp. 1830‒1840.

H. E. Escobar and L. R. Marshall, "All-optical wavelength band conversion enables new scalable and efficient optical network architectures," Optical Fiber Communications Conf., 2002, WH2.

Y. Wang and X. Cao, "A new hierarchical waveband assignment algorithm for multi-granular optical networks," Proc. IEEE ICCCN, 2009, pp. 1‒6.

M. Iyer, G. N. Rouskas, and R. Dutta, "A hierarchical model for multigranular optical networks," Proc. BROADNETS, Sept. 2008, pp. 444‒451.

O. Turkcu and S. Subramaniam, "Optimal waveband switching in optical ring networks," Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, 2010, pp. 596‒604.

A. C. Varsou, S. Ganguly, and R. Izmailov, "Waveband protection mechanisms in hierarchical optical networks," Proc. High Performance Switching and Routing, June 2003, pp. 317‒322.

R. Ramaswami, K. N. Sivarajan, and G. Sasaki, Optical Networks: A Practical Perspective, Morgan Kaufmann, 2009.

B. Mukherjee, Optical Communication Networks, Springer-Verlag, New York, 2006.

R. Izmailov, S. Ganguly, V. Kleptsyn, and A. Varsou, "Non-uniform waveband hierarchy in hybrid optical networks," Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, Vol. II, 2003, pp. 1344‒1354.

S. Varma and J. Jue, "Protection in multi-granular waveband networks," Proc. IEEE GLOBECOM, Nov./Dec. 2004, pp. 1759‒1763.

L. Chen, P. Saengudomlert, and E. Modiano, "Uniform vs. non-uniform band switching in WDM networks," Proc. BROADNETS, 2005, pp. 204‒213.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

A reconfigurable three-layer MG-OXC.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Allocation of DEMUX/MUX to satisfy a new lightpath.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Different cases for DEMUXs/MUXs increasing.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

2-shortest paths and weighted graph.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Weight assignment using band graph.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

The Markov chain for DEMUX usage.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(Color online) λ = 200 , k = 5 in the NSF network.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(Color online) λ = 600 , k = 5 in the 24-node network.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(Color online) Blocking versus load in the 14-node network.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

(Color online) Blocking versus load in the 24-node network.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

(Color online) 14-node network with incremental traffic.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

(Color online) 24-node network with incremental traffic.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table I Ten Possible Cases to Satisfy a New Lightpath Request

Tables Icon

Table II Results With Various k

Tables Icon

Table III Results for Various Schemes Under Incremental Traffic

Equations (8)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

B T i , o n , b = 0 , if  b case ( C , D , J ) ( 1 . 1 ) 1 / D ̄ n , if  b case ( B ) ( 1 . 2 ) 1 / M ̄ n , if  b case ( I ) ( 1 . 3 ) 1 / D ̄ n + 1 / M ̄ n , if  b case ( H,F ) ( 1 . 4 ) 2 / D ̄ n + 1 / M ̄ n , if  b case ( A ) ( 1 . 5 ) 1 / D ̄ n + 2 / M ̄ n , if  b case ( G ) ( 1 . 6 ) 2 / D ̄ n + 2 / M ̄ n . if  b case ( E ) ( 1 . 7 ) ,
W T n , b = min l , m B T l , m n , b ,
R T b , i = n P s , d i W T n , b H P s , d i .
T P = 4 × X + 2 × ( 1 + β ) × X × P + 2 × X × F × β ,
β 1 2 × P + 1 P + F .
λ n = E × n P s , d λ s , d .
π n ( D n ) = ( λ n ) D n / D n ! j [ 0 , D n ] ( λ n ) j / j ! .
1 n P s , d ( 1 π n ( D n ) ) Q .