Abstract

This paper investigates the problem of wavelength assignment in wavelength reusable multi-carrier distributed (WRMD) wavelength-division-multiplexing (WDM) ring networks. In conventional WDM ring networks, each edge node (EN) has its own light sources, and optical channels, called lightpaths, are established by using optical carriers generated from laser diodes (LDs) at the source EN. However, such networks will suffer from the need for complicated wavelength management (e.g., monitoring LDs, avoiding wavelength collision) in the future since each EN requires a large number of LDs to deal with the exponential increase in traffic. On the other hand, a WRMD ring network overcomes this problem. In this network, lightpaths between source and destination ENs are established by using carriers generated from a centralized multi-carrier light source. Moreover, the carrier regeneration technique is applied for the purpose of reducing the number of wavelengths used for lightpath establishment. Although optical carrier regeneration reduces the number of wavelengths, the quality of the regenerated carrier is slightly degraded after carrier regeneration. Therefore, in the WRMD network, the allowable number of carrier regenerations per wavelength must be limited in order to avoid communication error. This paper formulates the wavelength assignment problem, minimizing the number of wavelengths needed to establish all requested lightpaths, as the vertex coloring problem, and then an integer linear programming (ILP) solution is provided. Since ILP problems are non-deterministic polynomial-time- (NP-) complete, a heuristic algorithm is developed. Numerical results indicate that our developed algorithm performs well in our test cases. It is observed that one and two carrier regenerations per wavelength reduce the number of wavelengths for lightpath establishment by approximately 50% and 60%, respectively, compared to that without carrier regeneration. The results also show that regenerating carriers more than two times per wavelength has little effect on the required number of wavelengths regardless of the number of ENs.

© 2011 OSA

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. I. Chlamtac, A. Ganz, and G. Karmi, "Lightpath communications: an approach to high bandwidth optical WAN’s," IEEE Trans. Commun. 40, (7), 1171‒1182 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. Matsuura and E. Oki, "Multi-carrier distributed WDM ring network based on reconfigurable optical drop-add-drop multiplexers and carrier wavelength reuse," Proc. IEEE ICC 2010, 2010, Cape Town, South Africa.
  3. Y. Miyagawa, T. Yamamoto, H. Masuda, M. Abe, H. Takahashi, and H. Takara, "Over-10000-channel 2.5 GHz-spaced ultra-dense WDM light source," Electron. Lett. 42, (11), 655‒657 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. Fujiwara, M. Teshima, J. Kani, H. Suzuki, N. Takachio, and K. Iwatsuki, "Optical carrier supply module using flattened optical multicarrier generation based on sinusoidal amplitude and phase hybrid modulation," J. Lightwave Technol. 21, (11), 2705‒2714 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  5. T. Yamamoto, T. Komukai, A. Takada, and K. Suzuki, "Spectrally flattened phase-locked multi-carrier light generator with phase modulators and chirped fibre Bragg grating," Electron. Lett. 43, (19), 1040‒1042 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. Sharma, H. Ibe, and T. Ozeki, "WDM ring network using a centralized multiwavelength light source and add–drop multiplexing filters," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, (6), 917‒029 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  7. H. Nakamara, H. Suzuki, J. Kani, and K. Iwatsuki, "A wide-area carrier-distributed WDM-based access network accommodating GbE and 10 GbE services," Proc. OFC/NFOEC, 2005, 2005, pp. 917‒929.
  8. H. Suzuki, M. Fujiwara, and K. Iwatsuki, "Design and performance of a superdense WDM ring network using multiwavelength generators and tapped-type optical add/drop multiplexers," J. Opt. Netw. 6, 631‒641 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. Matsuura and E. Oki, "Optical carrier regeneration for carrier wavelength reuse in a multicarrier distributed WDM network," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, (11), 808‒810 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. Matsuura and E. Oki, "Optical carrier regeneration for wavelength reusable multicarrier distributed OADM network," Proc. IEEE CLEO/QELS 2010, 2010, San Jose, CA.
  11. M. Matsuura and E. Oki, "Carrier wavelength reuse of multicarrier distributed OADM network using optical carrier regeneration," Proc. ECOC 2010, 2010, Torino, Italy.
  12. D. Banerjee and B. Mukherjee, "A practical approach for routing and wavelength assignment in large wavelength-routed optical networks," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 14, (5), 903‒908 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  13. H. Zang, J. Jue, and B. Mukherjee, "A review of routing and wavelength assignment approaches for wavelength-routed optical WDM networks," Opt. Netw. Mag. 1, (1), 47‒60 (2000).
  14. B. Mukherjee, Optical WDM Networks, Springer, 2006.
  15. J. Gross and J. Yellen, Graph Theory and Its Applications, CRC Press, 2006.

2010 (1)

M. Matsuura and E. Oki, "Optical carrier regeneration for carrier wavelength reuse in a multicarrier distributed WDM network," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, (11), 808‒810 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

T. Yamamoto, T. Komukai, A. Takada, and K. Suzuki, "Spectrally flattened phase-locked multi-carrier light generator with phase modulators and chirped fibre Bragg grating," Electron. Lett. 43, (19), 1040‒1042 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Suzuki, M. Fujiwara, and K. Iwatsuki, "Design and performance of a superdense WDM ring network using multiwavelength generators and tapped-type optical add/drop multiplexers," J. Opt. Netw. 6, 631‒641 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

Y. Miyagawa, T. Yamamoto, H. Masuda, M. Abe, H. Takahashi, and H. Takara, "Over-10000-channel 2.5 GHz-spaced ultra-dense WDM light source," Electron. Lett. 42, (11), 655‒657 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

2000 (1)

H. Zang, J. Jue, and B. Mukherjee, "A review of routing and wavelength assignment approaches for wavelength-routed optical WDM networks," Opt. Netw. Mag. 1, (1), 47‒60 (2000).

1997 (1)

M. Sharma, H. Ibe, and T. Ozeki, "WDM ring network using a centralized multiwavelength light source and add–drop multiplexing filters," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, (6), 917‒029 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

D. Banerjee and B. Mukherjee, "A practical approach for routing and wavelength assignment in large wavelength-routed optical networks," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 14, (5), 903‒908 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

I. Chlamtac, A. Ganz, and G. Karmi, "Lightpath communications: an approach to high bandwidth optical WAN’s," IEEE Trans. Commun. 40, (7), 1171‒1182 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Abe, M.

Y. Miyagawa, T. Yamamoto, H. Masuda, M. Abe, H. Takahashi, and H. Takara, "Over-10000-channel 2.5 GHz-spaced ultra-dense WDM light source," Electron. Lett. 42, (11), 655‒657 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Banerjee, D.

D. Banerjee and B. Mukherjee, "A practical approach for routing and wavelength assignment in large wavelength-routed optical networks," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 14, (5), 903‒908 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chlamtac, I.

I. Chlamtac, A. Ganz, and G. Karmi, "Lightpath communications: an approach to high bandwidth optical WAN’s," IEEE Trans. Commun. 40, (7), 1171‒1182 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Fujiwara, M.

Ganz, A.

I. Chlamtac, A. Ganz, and G. Karmi, "Lightpath communications: an approach to high bandwidth optical WAN’s," IEEE Trans. Commun. 40, (7), 1171‒1182 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Gross, J.

J. Gross and J. Yellen, Graph Theory and Its Applications, CRC Press, 2006.

Ibe, H.

M. Sharma, H. Ibe, and T. Ozeki, "WDM ring network using a centralized multiwavelength light source and add–drop multiplexing filters," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, (6), 917‒029 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Iwatsuki, K.

Jue, J.

H. Zang, J. Jue, and B. Mukherjee, "A review of routing and wavelength assignment approaches for wavelength-routed optical WDM networks," Opt. Netw. Mag. 1, (1), 47‒60 (2000).

Kani, J.

M. Fujiwara, M. Teshima, J. Kani, H. Suzuki, N. Takachio, and K. Iwatsuki, "Optical carrier supply module using flattened optical multicarrier generation based on sinusoidal amplitude and phase hybrid modulation," J. Lightwave Technol. 21, (11), 2705‒2714 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Nakamara, H. Suzuki, J. Kani, and K. Iwatsuki, "A wide-area carrier-distributed WDM-based access network accommodating GbE and 10 GbE services," Proc. OFC/NFOEC, 2005, 2005, pp. 917‒929.

Karmi, G.

I. Chlamtac, A. Ganz, and G. Karmi, "Lightpath communications: an approach to high bandwidth optical WAN’s," IEEE Trans. Commun. 40, (7), 1171‒1182 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Komukai, T.

T. Yamamoto, T. Komukai, A. Takada, and K. Suzuki, "Spectrally flattened phase-locked multi-carrier light generator with phase modulators and chirped fibre Bragg grating," Electron. Lett. 43, (19), 1040‒1042 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Masuda, H.

Y. Miyagawa, T. Yamamoto, H. Masuda, M. Abe, H. Takahashi, and H. Takara, "Over-10000-channel 2.5 GHz-spaced ultra-dense WDM light source," Electron. Lett. 42, (11), 655‒657 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Matsuura, M.

M. Matsuura and E. Oki, "Optical carrier regeneration for carrier wavelength reuse in a multicarrier distributed WDM network," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, (11), 808‒810 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Matsuura and E. Oki, "Carrier wavelength reuse of multicarrier distributed OADM network using optical carrier regeneration," Proc. ECOC 2010, 2010, Torino, Italy.

M. Matsuura and E. Oki, "Multi-carrier distributed WDM ring network based on reconfigurable optical drop-add-drop multiplexers and carrier wavelength reuse," Proc. IEEE ICC 2010, 2010, Cape Town, South Africa.

M. Matsuura and E. Oki, "Optical carrier regeneration for wavelength reusable multicarrier distributed OADM network," Proc. IEEE CLEO/QELS 2010, 2010, San Jose, CA.

Miyagawa, Y.

Y. Miyagawa, T. Yamamoto, H. Masuda, M. Abe, H. Takahashi, and H. Takara, "Over-10000-channel 2.5 GHz-spaced ultra-dense WDM light source," Electron. Lett. 42, (11), 655‒657 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mukherjee, B.

H. Zang, J. Jue, and B. Mukherjee, "A review of routing and wavelength assignment approaches for wavelength-routed optical WDM networks," Opt. Netw. Mag. 1, (1), 47‒60 (2000).

D. Banerjee and B. Mukherjee, "A practical approach for routing and wavelength assignment in large wavelength-routed optical networks," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 14, (5), 903‒908 (1996).
[CrossRef]

B. Mukherjee, Optical WDM Networks, Springer, 2006.

Nakamara, H.

H. Nakamara, H. Suzuki, J. Kani, and K. Iwatsuki, "A wide-area carrier-distributed WDM-based access network accommodating GbE and 10 GbE services," Proc. OFC/NFOEC, 2005, 2005, pp. 917‒929.

Oki, E.

M. Matsuura and E. Oki, "Optical carrier regeneration for carrier wavelength reuse in a multicarrier distributed WDM network," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, (11), 808‒810 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Matsuura and E. Oki, "Carrier wavelength reuse of multicarrier distributed OADM network using optical carrier regeneration," Proc. ECOC 2010, 2010, Torino, Italy.

M. Matsuura and E. Oki, "Optical carrier regeneration for wavelength reusable multicarrier distributed OADM network," Proc. IEEE CLEO/QELS 2010, 2010, San Jose, CA.

M. Matsuura and E. Oki, "Multi-carrier distributed WDM ring network based on reconfigurable optical drop-add-drop multiplexers and carrier wavelength reuse," Proc. IEEE ICC 2010, 2010, Cape Town, South Africa.

Ozeki, T.

M. Sharma, H. Ibe, and T. Ozeki, "WDM ring network using a centralized multiwavelength light source and add–drop multiplexing filters," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, (6), 917‒029 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sharma, M.

M. Sharma, H. Ibe, and T. Ozeki, "WDM ring network using a centralized multiwavelength light source and add–drop multiplexing filters," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, (6), 917‒029 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, H.

Suzuki, K.

T. Yamamoto, T. Komukai, A. Takada, and K. Suzuki, "Spectrally flattened phase-locked multi-carrier light generator with phase modulators and chirped fibre Bragg grating," Electron. Lett. 43, (19), 1040‒1042 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Takachio, N.

Takada, A.

T. Yamamoto, T. Komukai, A. Takada, and K. Suzuki, "Spectrally flattened phase-locked multi-carrier light generator with phase modulators and chirped fibre Bragg grating," Electron. Lett. 43, (19), 1040‒1042 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, H.

Y. Miyagawa, T. Yamamoto, H. Masuda, M. Abe, H. Takahashi, and H. Takara, "Over-10000-channel 2.5 GHz-spaced ultra-dense WDM light source," Electron. Lett. 42, (11), 655‒657 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Takara, H.

Y. Miyagawa, T. Yamamoto, H. Masuda, M. Abe, H. Takahashi, and H. Takara, "Over-10000-channel 2.5 GHz-spaced ultra-dense WDM light source," Electron. Lett. 42, (11), 655‒657 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Teshima, M.

Yamamoto, T.

T. Yamamoto, T. Komukai, A. Takada, and K. Suzuki, "Spectrally flattened phase-locked multi-carrier light generator with phase modulators and chirped fibre Bragg grating," Electron. Lett. 43, (19), 1040‒1042 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Miyagawa, T. Yamamoto, H. Masuda, M. Abe, H. Takahashi, and H. Takara, "Over-10000-channel 2.5 GHz-spaced ultra-dense WDM light source," Electron. Lett. 42, (11), 655‒657 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yellen, J.

J. Gross and J. Yellen, Graph Theory and Its Applications, CRC Press, 2006.

Zang, H.

H. Zang, J. Jue, and B. Mukherjee, "A review of routing and wavelength assignment approaches for wavelength-routed optical WDM networks," Opt. Netw. Mag. 1, (1), 47‒60 (2000).

Electron. Lett. (2)

Y. Miyagawa, T. Yamamoto, H. Masuda, M. Abe, H. Takahashi, and H. Takara, "Over-10000-channel 2.5 GHz-spaced ultra-dense WDM light source," Electron. Lett. 42, (11), 655‒657 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Yamamoto, T. Komukai, A. Takada, and K. Suzuki, "Spectrally flattened phase-locked multi-carrier light generator with phase modulators and chirped fibre Bragg grating," Electron. Lett. 43, (19), 1040‒1042 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. (1)

D. Banerjee and B. Mukherjee, "A practical approach for routing and wavelength assignment in large wavelength-routed optical networks," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 14, (5), 903‒908 (1996).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

M. Matsuura and E. Oki, "Optical carrier regeneration for carrier wavelength reuse in a multicarrier distributed WDM network," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, (11), 808‒810 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Commun. (1)

I. Chlamtac, A. Ganz, and G. Karmi, "Lightpath communications: an approach to high bandwidth optical WAN’s," IEEE Trans. Commun. 40, (7), 1171‒1182 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

J. Opt. Netw. (1)

Opt. Netw. Mag. (1)

H. Zang, J. Jue, and B. Mukherjee, "A review of routing and wavelength assignment approaches for wavelength-routed optical WDM networks," Opt. Netw. Mag. 1, (1), 47‒60 (2000).

Other (6)

B. Mukherjee, Optical WDM Networks, Springer, 2006.

J. Gross and J. Yellen, Graph Theory and Its Applications, CRC Press, 2006.

H. Nakamara, H. Suzuki, J. Kani, and K. Iwatsuki, "A wide-area carrier-distributed WDM-based access network accommodating GbE and 10 GbE services," Proc. OFC/NFOEC, 2005, 2005, pp. 917‒929.

M. Matsuura and E. Oki, "Multi-carrier distributed WDM ring network based on reconfigurable optical drop-add-drop multiplexers and carrier wavelength reuse," Proc. IEEE ICC 2010, 2010, Cape Town, South Africa.

M. Matsuura and E. Oki, "Optical carrier regeneration for wavelength reusable multicarrier distributed OADM network," Proc. IEEE CLEO/QELS 2010, 2010, San Jose, CA.

M. Matsuura and E. Oki, "Carrier wavelength reuse of multicarrier distributed OADM network using optical carrier regeneration," Proc. ECOC 2010, 2010, Torino, Italy.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Network architecture. (a) Conventional WDM ring network based on ROADMs with multiple LDs. (b) Wavelength reusable multi-carrier distributed ring network with a single MCLS. EN: edge node, RN: regional node, WSS: wavelength selective switch, WCs: wavelength converters, OCR: optical carrier regenerator, MUX: multiplexer, DEMUX: demultiplexer, MOD: modulator, RX: receiver, LD: laser diode.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Example of lightpath establishment.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Lightpath establishment in a WRMD network (a) without regeneration and (b) with regeneration.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Graph construction example.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Wavelength assignment process of ELDF.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Wavelength assignment by ELDF.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table I Average Values of the Ratio W E L D F W l o w

Tables Icon

Table II Wavelength Reduction Ratio

Equations (10)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

0 1 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 .
min λ W y λ
s.t
λ W x v λ = 1 v V
v V x v λ N r + 1 λ W
x v λ + x v λ y λ ( v , v ) E , λ W
y λ i y λ i + 1 ( i = 1 , 2 , , | W | 1 )
y λ { 0 , 1 } λ W
x v λ { 0 , 1 } v V , λ W .
W E L D F W l o w = max { W l o w 1 , W l o w 2 } .