Abstract

A regenerative all-optical grooming switch for interconnecting 130 Gbit/s on–off keying (OOK) metro/core ring and 43 Gbit/s-OOK metro/access ring networks with switching functionality in time, space, and wavelength domains is demonstrated. Key functionalities of the switch are traffic aggregation with time-slot interchanging functionality, optical time division multiplexing (OTDM) to wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) demultiplexing, and multi-wavelength 2R regeneration. Laboratory and field demonstrations show the excellent performance of the new concept with error-free signal transmission and Q-factors above 20 dB.

© 2011 OSA

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  25. G. Zarris, E. Hugues-Salas, N. Amaya Gonzalez, R. Weerasuriya, F. Parmigiani, D. Hillerkuss, P. Vorreau, M. Spyropoulou, S. Ibrahim, A. D. Ellis, R. Morais, P. Monteiro, P. Petropoulos, D. Richardson, I. Tomkos, J. Leuthold, and D. Simeonidou, "Field experiments with a grooming switch for OTDM meshed networking," J. Lightwave Technol. 28, 316‒327 (2010).
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2010 (1)

2009 (1)

2008 (4)

2006 (2)

A. Gladisch, R.-P. Braun, D. Breuer, A. Ehrhardt, H.-M. Foisel, M. Jaeger, R. Leppla, M. Scheiders, S. Vorbeck, W. Weiershausen, and F.-J. Westphal, "Evolution of terrestrial optical system and core network architecture," Proc. IEEE 94, 869‒891 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Saleh and J. M. Simmons, "Evolution towards the next-generation core optical network," J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 3303‒3321 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

2001 (1)

R. S. Barr and R. A. Patterson, "Grooming telecommunications networks," Opt. Netw. Mag. 2, 20‒23 (2001).

1998 (1)

Amaya Gonzalez, N.

G. Zarris, E. Hugues-Salas, N. Amaya Gonzalez, R. Weerasuriya, F. Parmigiani, D. Hillerkuss, P. Vorreau, M. Spyropoulou, S. Ibrahim, A. D. Ellis, R. Morais, P. Monteiro, P. Petropoulos, D. Richardson, I. Tomkos, J. Leuthold, and D. Simeonidou, "Field experiments with a grooming switch for OTDM meshed networking," J. Lightwave Technol. 28, 316‒327 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Zarris, F. Parmigiani, E. Hugues-Salas, R. Weerasuriya, D. Hillerkuss, N. Amaya Gonzalez, M. Spyropoulou, P. Vorreau, R. Morais, S. Ibrahim, D. Klonidis, P. Petropoulos, A. D. Ellis, P. Monteiro, A. Tzanakaki, D. Richardson, I. Tomkos, R. Bonk, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and D. Simeonidou, "Field trial of WDM–OTDM transmultiplexing employing photonic switch fabric-based buffer-less bit-interleaved data grooming and all-optical regeneration," Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2009, paper PDPC10.

Barr, R. S.

R. S. Barr and R. A. Patterson, "Grooming telecommunications networks," Opt. Netw. Mag. 2, 20‒23 (2001).

Ben Ezra, S.

Bonk, R.

P. Vorreau, S. Sygletos, F. Parmigiani, D. Hillerkuss, R. Bonk, P. Petropoulos, G. Zarris, D. Simeonidou, D. Klonidis, A. Tzanakaki, I. Tomkos, R. Weerasuriya, S. Ibrahim, A. Ellis, R. Morais, P. Monteiro, S. Ben Ezra, S. Tsadka, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, "All-optical grooming switch with regenerative functionality for transparent interconnection of networks," Opt. Express 17, 15173‒15185 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Zarris, F. Parmigiani, E. Hugues-Salas, R. Weerasuriya, D. Hillerkuss, N. Amaya Gonzalez, M. Spyropoulou, P. Vorreau, R. Morais, S. Ibrahim, D. Klonidis, P. Petropoulos, A. D. Ellis, P. Monteiro, A. Tzanakaki, D. Richardson, I. Tomkos, R. Bonk, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and D. Simeonidou, "Field trial of WDM–OTDM transmultiplexing employing photonic switch fabric-based buffer-less bit-interleaved data grooming and all-optical regeneration," Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2009, paper PDPC10.

P. Vorreau, D. Hillerkuss, F. Parmigiani, S. Sygletos, R. Bonk, P. Petropoulos, D. Richardson, G. Zarris, D. Simeonidou, D. Klonidis, I. Tomkos, R. Weerasuriya, S. Ibrahim, A. Ellis, R. Morais, P. Monteiro, S. Ben Ezra, S. Tsadka, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, "2R/3R optical grooming switch with time-slot interchange," Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. 2008 (ECOC’08), 2008, PDP Th.3.F.4.

Braun, R.-P.

A. Gladisch, R.-P. Braun, D. Breuer, A. Ehrhardt, H.-M. Foisel, M. Jaeger, R. Leppla, M. Scheiders, S. Vorbeck, W. Weiershausen, and F.-J. Westphal, "Evolution of terrestrial optical system and core network architecture," Proc. IEEE 94, 869‒891 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Breuer, D.

A. Gladisch, R.-P. Braun, D. Breuer, A. Ehrhardt, H.-M. Foisel, M. Jaeger, R. Leppla, M. Scheiders, S. Vorbeck, W. Weiershausen, and F.-J. Westphal, "Evolution of terrestrial optical system and core network architecture," Proc. IEEE 94, 869‒891 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, X.

N. Ghani, J.-Y. Pan, and X. Cheng, Metropolitan Optical Networks, Optical Fiber Telecommunications, vol. IVB, Academic Press, 2002, pp. 329‒403.

Cotter, D.

D. Hillerkuss, A. Ellis, G. Zarris, D. Simeonidou, J. Leuthold, and D. Cotter, "40 Gbit/s asynchronous digital optical regenerator," Opt. Express 16, 18889‒18894 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Cotter and A. D. Ellis, "Asynchronous digital optical regeneration and networks," J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 2068‒2080 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Ibrahim, R. Weerasuriya, D. Hillerkuss, G. Zarris, D. Simeonidou, J. Leuthold, D. Cotter, and A. Ellis, "Experimental demonstration of 42.6 Gbit/s asynchronous digital optical regenerators," Int. Conf. Transparent Opt. Netw., 2008, paper We.C3.3.

Ehrhardt, A.

A. Gladisch, R.-P. Braun, D. Breuer, A. Ehrhardt, H.-M. Foisel, M. Jaeger, R. Leppla, M. Scheiders, S. Vorbeck, W. Weiershausen, and F.-J. Westphal, "Evolution of terrestrial optical system and core network architecture," Proc. IEEE 94, 869‒891 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ellis, A. D.

G. Zarris, F. Parmigiani, E. Hugues-Salas, R. Weerasuriya, D. Hillerkuss, N. Amaya Gonzalez, M. Spyropoulou, P. Vorreau, R. Morais, S. Ibrahim, D. Klonidis, P. Petropoulos, A. D. Ellis, P. Monteiro, A. Tzanakaki, D. Richardson, I. Tomkos, R. Bonk, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and D. Simeonidou, "Field trial of WDM–OTDM transmultiplexing employing photonic switch fabric-based buffer-less bit-interleaved data grooming and all-optical regeneration," Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2009, paper PDPC10.

Ellis, A.

P. Vorreau, S. Sygletos, F. Parmigiani, D. Hillerkuss, R. Bonk, P. Petropoulos, G. Zarris, D. Simeonidou, D. Klonidis, A. Tzanakaki, I. Tomkos, R. Weerasuriya, S. Ibrahim, A. Ellis, R. Morais, P. Monteiro, S. Ben Ezra, S. Tsadka, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, "All-optical grooming switch with regenerative functionality for transparent interconnection of networks," Opt. Express 17, 15173‒15185 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Hillerkuss, A. Ellis, G. Zarris, D. Simeonidou, J. Leuthold, and D. Cotter, "40 Gbit/s asynchronous digital optical regenerator," Opt. Express 16, 18889‒18894 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Ibrahim, R. Weerasuriya, D. Hillerkuss, G. Zarris, D. Simeonidou, J. Leuthold, D. Cotter, and A. Ellis, "Experimental demonstration of 42.6 Gbit/s asynchronous digital optical regenerators," Int. Conf. Transparent Opt. Netw., 2008, paper We.C3.3.

P. Vorreau, D. Hillerkuss, F. Parmigiani, S. Sygletos, R. Bonk, P. Petropoulos, D. Richardson, G. Zarris, D. Simeonidou, D. Klonidis, I. Tomkos, R. Weerasuriya, S. Ibrahim, A. Ellis, R. Morais, P. Monteiro, S. Ben Ezra, S. Tsadka, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, "2R/3R optical grooming switch with time-slot interchange," Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. 2008 (ECOC’08), 2008, PDP Th.3.F.4.

Ellis, A. D.

G. Zarris, E. Hugues-Salas, N. Amaya Gonzalez, R. Weerasuriya, F. Parmigiani, D. Hillerkuss, P. Vorreau, M. Spyropoulou, S. Ibrahim, A. D. Ellis, R. Morais, P. Monteiro, P. Petropoulos, D. Richardson, I. Tomkos, J. Leuthold, and D. Simeonidou, "Field experiments with a grooming switch for OTDM meshed networking," J. Lightwave Technol. 28, 316‒327 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Cotter and A. D. Ellis, "Asynchronous digital optical regeneration and networks," J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 2068‒2080 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. Zarris, P. Vorreau, D. Hillerkuss, S. Ibrahim, R. Weerasuriya, A. D. Ellis, J. Leuthold, and D. Simeonidou, "WDM-to-OTDM traffic grooming by means of asynchronous retiming," Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2009, paper OThJ6.

S. Ibrahim, D. Hillerkuss, R. Weerasuriya, G. Zarris, D. Simeonidou, J. Leuthold, and A. D. Ellis, "Novel 42.65 Gbit/s dual gate asynchronous digital optical regenerator using a single MZM," Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun., 2008, paper Tu4D3.

Escalona, E.

Ezra, S. Ben

P. Vorreau, D. Hillerkuss, F. Parmigiani, S. Sygletos, R. Bonk, P. Petropoulos, D. Richardson, G. Zarris, D. Simeonidou, D. Klonidis, I. Tomkos, R. Weerasuriya, S. Ibrahim, A. Ellis, R. Morais, P. Monteiro, S. Ben Ezra, S. Tsadka, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, "2R/3R optical grooming switch with time-slot interchange," Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. 2008 (ECOC’08), 2008, PDP Th.3.F.4.

Foisel, H.-M.

A. Gladisch, R.-P. Braun, D. Breuer, A. Ehrhardt, H.-M. Foisel, M. Jaeger, R. Leppla, M. Scheiders, S. Vorbeck, W. Weiershausen, and F.-J. Westphal, "Evolution of terrestrial optical system and core network architecture," Proc. IEEE 94, 869‒891 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Freude, W.

P. Vorreau, S. Sygletos, F. Parmigiani, D. Hillerkuss, R. Bonk, P. Petropoulos, G. Zarris, D. Simeonidou, D. Klonidis, A. Tzanakaki, I. Tomkos, R. Weerasuriya, S. Ibrahim, A. Ellis, R. Morais, P. Monteiro, S. Ben Ezra, S. Tsadka, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, "All-optical grooming switch with regenerative functionality for transparent interconnection of networks," Opt. Express 17, 15173‒15185 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Zarris, F. Parmigiani, E. Hugues-Salas, R. Weerasuriya, D. Hillerkuss, N. Amaya Gonzalez, M. Spyropoulou, P. Vorreau, R. Morais, S. Ibrahim, D. Klonidis, P. Petropoulos, A. D. Ellis, P. Monteiro, A. Tzanakaki, D. Richardson, I. Tomkos, R. Bonk, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and D. Simeonidou, "Field trial of WDM–OTDM transmultiplexing employing photonic switch fabric-based buffer-less bit-interleaved data grooming and all-optical regeneration," Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2009, paper PDPC10.

F. Parmigiani, P. Vorreau, L. Provost, K. Mukasa, P. Petropoulos, D. J. Richardson, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, "2R regeneration of two 130 Gbit/s channels within a single fiber," Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2009, paper JThA56.

P. Vorreau, D. Hillerkuss, F. Parmigiani, S. Sygletos, R. Bonk, P. Petropoulos, D. Richardson, G. Zarris, D. Simeonidou, D. Klonidis, I. Tomkos, R. Weerasuriya, S. Ibrahim, A. Ellis, R. Morais, P. Monteiro, S. Ben Ezra, S. Tsadka, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, "2R/3R optical grooming switch with time-slot interchange," Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. 2008 (ECOC’08), 2008, PDP Th.3.F.4.

Ghani, N.

N. Ghani, J.-Y. Pan, and X. Cheng, Metropolitan Optical Networks, Optical Fiber Telecommunications, vol. IVB, Academic Press, 2002, pp. 329‒403.

Gladisch, A.

A. Gladisch, R.-P. Braun, D. Breuer, A. Ehrhardt, H.-M. Foisel, M. Jaeger, R. Leppla, M. Scheiders, S. Vorbeck, W. Weiershausen, and F.-J. Westphal, "Evolution of terrestrial optical system and core network architecture," Proc. IEEE 94, 869‒891 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hillerkuss, D.

G. Zarris, E. Hugues-Salas, N. Amaya Gonzalez, R. Weerasuriya, F. Parmigiani, D. Hillerkuss, P. Vorreau, M. Spyropoulou, S. Ibrahim, A. D. Ellis, R. Morais, P. Monteiro, P. Petropoulos, D. Richardson, I. Tomkos, J. Leuthold, and D. Simeonidou, "Field experiments with a grooming switch for OTDM meshed networking," J. Lightwave Technol. 28, 316‒327 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Vorreau, S. Sygletos, F. Parmigiani, D. Hillerkuss, R. Bonk, P. Petropoulos, G. Zarris, D. Simeonidou, D. Klonidis, A. Tzanakaki, I. Tomkos, R. Weerasuriya, S. Ibrahim, A. Ellis, R. Morais, P. Monteiro, S. Ben Ezra, S. Tsadka, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, "All-optical grooming switch with regenerative functionality for transparent interconnection of networks," Opt. Express 17, 15173‒15185 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Hillerkuss, A. Ellis, G. Zarris, D. Simeonidou, J. Leuthold, and D. Cotter, "40 Gbit/s asynchronous digital optical regenerator," Opt. Express 16, 18889‒18894 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Ibrahim, R. Weerasuriya, D. Hillerkuss, G. Zarris, D. Simeonidou, J. Leuthold, D. Cotter, and A. Ellis, "Experimental demonstration of 42.6 Gbit/s asynchronous digital optical regenerators," Int. Conf. Transparent Opt. Netw., 2008, paper We.C3.3.

P. Vorreau, D. Hillerkuss, F. Parmigiani, S. Sygletos, R. Bonk, P. Petropoulos, D. Richardson, G. Zarris, D. Simeonidou, D. Klonidis, I. Tomkos, R. Weerasuriya, S. Ibrahim, A. Ellis, R. Morais, P. Monteiro, S. Ben Ezra, S. Tsadka, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, "2R/3R optical grooming switch with time-slot interchange," Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. 2008 (ECOC’08), 2008, PDP Th.3.F.4.

G. Zarris, F. Parmigiani, E. Hugues-Salas, R. Weerasuriya, D. Hillerkuss, N. Amaya Gonzalez, M. Spyropoulou, P. Vorreau, R. Morais, S. Ibrahim, D. Klonidis, P. Petropoulos, A. D. Ellis, P. Monteiro, A. Tzanakaki, D. Richardson, I. Tomkos, R. Bonk, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and D. Simeonidou, "Field trial of WDM–OTDM transmultiplexing employing photonic switch fabric-based buffer-less bit-interleaved data grooming and all-optical regeneration," Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2009, paper PDPC10.

S. Ibrahim, D. Hillerkuss, R. Weerasuriya, G. Zarris, D. Simeonidou, J. Leuthold, and A. D. Ellis, "Novel 42.65 Gbit/s dual gate asynchronous digital optical regenerator using a single MZM," Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun., 2008, paper Tu4D3.

G. Zarris, P. Vorreau, D. Hillerkuss, S. Ibrahim, R. Weerasuriya, A. D. Ellis, J. Leuthold, and D. Simeonidou, "WDM-to-OTDM traffic grooming by means of asynchronous retiming," Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2009, paper OThJ6.

Hugues-Salas, E.

G. Zarris, E. Hugues-Salas, N. Amaya Gonzalez, R. Weerasuriya, F. Parmigiani, D. Hillerkuss, P. Vorreau, M. Spyropoulou, S. Ibrahim, A. D. Ellis, R. Morais, P. Monteiro, P. Petropoulos, D. Richardson, I. Tomkos, J. Leuthold, and D. Simeonidou, "Field experiments with a grooming switch for OTDM meshed networking," J. Lightwave Technol. 28, 316‒327 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Zarris, F. Parmigiani, E. Hugues-Salas, R. Weerasuriya, D. Hillerkuss, N. Amaya Gonzalez, M. Spyropoulou, P. Vorreau, R. Morais, S. Ibrahim, D. Klonidis, P. Petropoulos, A. D. Ellis, P. Monteiro, A. Tzanakaki, D. Richardson, I. Tomkos, R. Bonk, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and D. Simeonidou, "Field trial of WDM–OTDM transmultiplexing employing photonic switch fabric-based buffer-less bit-interleaved data grooming and all-optical regeneration," Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2009, paper PDPC10.

Humblet, P.

P. Humblet, "The direction of optical technology in the metro area," Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2001, paper WBB1.

Ibrahim, S.

G. Zarris, E. Hugues-Salas, N. Amaya Gonzalez, R. Weerasuriya, F. Parmigiani, D. Hillerkuss, P. Vorreau, M. Spyropoulou, S. Ibrahim, A. D. Ellis, R. Morais, P. Monteiro, P. Petropoulos, D. Richardson, I. Tomkos, J. Leuthold, and D. Simeonidou, "Field experiments with a grooming switch for OTDM meshed networking," J. Lightwave Technol. 28, 316‒327 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Vorreau, S. Sygletos, F. Parmigiani, D. Hillerkuss, R. Bonk, P. Petropoulos, G. Zarris, D. Simeonidou, D. Klonidis, A. Tzanakaki, I. Tomkos, R. Weerasuriya, S. Ibrahim, A. Ellis, R. Morais, P. Monteiro, S. Ben Ezra, S. Tsadka, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, "All-optical grooming switch with regenerative functionality for transparent interconnection of networks," Opt. Express 17, 15173‒15185 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Zarris, F. Parmigiani, E. Hugues-Salas, R. Weerasuriya, D. Hillerkuss, N. Amaya Gonzalez, M. Spyropoulou, P. Vorreau, R. Morais, S. Ibrahim, D. Klonidis, P. Petropoulos, A. D. Ellis, P. Monteiro, A. Tzanakaki, D. Richardson, I. Tomkos, R. Bonk, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and D. Simeonidou, "Field trial of WDM–OTDM transmultiplexing employing photonic switch fabric-based buffer-less bit-interleaved data grooming and all-optical regeneration," Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2009, paper PDPC10.

G. Zarris, P. Vorreau, D. Hillerkuss, S. Ibrahim, R. Weerasuriya, A. D. Ellis, J. Leuthold, and D. Simeonidou, "WDM-to-OTDM traffic grooming by means of asynchronous retiming," Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2009, paper OThJ6.

S. Ibrahim, D. Hillerkuss, R. Weerasuriya, G. Zarris, D. Simeonidou, J. Leuthold, and A. D. Ellis, "Novel 42.65 Gbit/s dual gate asynchronous digital optical regenerator using a single MZM," Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun., 2008, paper Tu4D3.

P. Vorreau, D. Hillerkuss, F. Parmigiani, S. Sygletos, R. Bonk, P. Petropoulos, D. Richardson, G. Zarris, D. Simeonidou, D. Klonidis, I. Tomkos, R. Weerasuriya, S. Ibrahim, A. Ellis, R. Morais, P. Monteiro, S. Ben Ezra, S. Tsadka, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, "2R/3R optical grooming switch with time-slot interchange," Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. 2008 (ECOC’08), 2008, PDP Th.3.F.4.

S. Ibrahim, R. Weerasuriya, D. Hillerkuss, G. Zarris, D. Simeonidou, J. Leuthold, D. Cotter, and A. Ellis, "Experimental demonstration of 42.6 Gbit/s asynchronous digital optical regenerators," Int. Conf. Transparent Opt. Netw., 2008, paper We.C3.3.

Jaeger, M.

A. Gladisch, R.-P. Braun, D. Breuer, A. Ehrhardt, H.-M. Foisel, M. Jaeger, R. Leppla, M. Scheiders, S. Vorbeck, W. Weiershausen, and F.-J. Westphal, "Evolution of terrestrial optical system and core network architecture," Proc. IEEE 94, 869‒891 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Klonidis, D.

P. Vorreau, D. Hillerkuss, F. Parmigiani, S. Sygletos, R. Bonk, P. Petropoulos, D. Richardson, G. Zarris, D. Simeonidou, D. Klonidis, I. Tomkos, R. Weerasuriya, S. Ibrahim, A. Ellis, R. Morais, P. Monteiro, S. Ben Ezra, S. Tsadka, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, "2R/3R optical grooming switch with time-slot interchange," Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. 2008 (ECOC’08), 2008, PDP Th.3.F.4.

Klonidis, D.

P. Vorreau, S. Sygletos, F. Parmigiani, D. Hillerkuss, R. Bonk, P. Petropoulos, G. Zarris, D. Simeonidou, D. Klonidis, A. Tzanakaki, I. Tomkos, R. Weerasuriya, S. Ibrahim, A. Ellis, R. Morais, P. Monteiro, S. Ben Ezra, S. Tsadka, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, "All-optical grooming switch with regenerative functionality for transparent interconnection of networks," Opt. Express 17, 15173‒15185 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Zarris, F. Parmigiani, E. Hugues-Salas, R. Weerasuriya, D. Hillerkuss, N. Amaya Gonzalez, M. Spyropoulou, P. Vorreau, R. Morais, S. Ibrahim, D. Klonidis, P. Petropoulos, A. D. Ellis, P. Monteiro, A. Tzanakaki, D. Richardson, I. Tomkos, R. Bonk, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and D. Simeonidou, "Field trial of WDM–OTDM transmultiplexing employing photonic switch fabric-based buffer-less bit-interleaved data grooming and all-optical regeneration," Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2009, paper PDPC10.

Leclerc, O.

O. Leclerc, "Towards transparent optical networks: still some challenges ahead," Proc. 18th Annual Meeting of the IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society, 2005, pp. 418‒419paper TuCC3 (invited).

Leppla, R.

A. Gladisch, R.-P. Braun, D. Breuer, A. Ehrhardt, H.-M. Foisel, M. Jaeger, R. Leppla, M. Scheiders, S. Vorbeck, W. Weiershausen, and F.-J. Westphal, "Evolution of terrestrial optical system and core network architecture," Proc. IEEE 94, 869‒891 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Leuthold, J.

G. Zarris, E. Hugues-Salas, N. Amaya Gonzalez, R. Weerasuriya, F. Parmigiani, D. Hillerkuss, P. Vorreau, M. Spyropoulou, S. Ibrahim, A. D. Ellis, R. Morais, P. Monteiro, P. Petropoulos, D. Richardson, I. Tomkos, J. Leuthold, and D. Simeonidou, "Field experiments with a grooming switch for OTDM meshed networking," J. Lightwave Technol. 28, 316‒327 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Vorreau, S. Sygletos, F. Parmigiani, D. Hillerkuss, R. Bonk, P. Petropoulos, G. Zarris, D. Simeonidou, D. Klonidis, A. Tzanakaki, I. Tomkos, R. Weerasuriya, S. Ibrahim, A. Ellis, R. Morais, P. Monteiro, S. Ben Ezra, S. Tsadka, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, "All-optical grooming switch with regenerative functionality for transparent interconnection of networks," Opt. Express 17, 15173‒15185 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Sygletos, I. Tomkos, and J. Leuthold, "Technology challenges on the road towards transparent networking," J. Opt. Netw. 7, 321‒350 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Hillerkuss, A. Ellis, G. Zarris, D. Simeonidou, J. Leuthold, and D. Cotter, "40 Gbit/s asynchronous digital optical regenerator," Opt. Express 16, 18889‒18894 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Ibrahim, R. Weerasuriya, D. Hillerkuss, G. Zarris, D. Simeonidou, J. Leuthold, D. Cotter, and A. Ellis, "Experimental demonstration of 42.6 Gbit/s asynchronous digital optical regenerators," Int. Conf. Transparent Opt. Netw., 2008, paper We.C3.3.

P. Vorreau, D. Hillerkuss, F. Parmigiani, S. Sygletos, R. Bonk, P. Petropoulos, D. Richardson, G. Zarris, D. Simeonidou, D. Klonidis, I. Tomkos, R. Weerasuriya, S. Ibrahim, A. Ellis, R. Morais, P. Monteiro, S. Ben Ezra, S. Tsadka, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, "2R/3R optical grooming switch with time-slot interchange," Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. 2008 (ECOC’08), 2008, PDP Th.3.F.4.

G. Zarris, F. Parmigiani, E. Hugues-Salas, R. Weerasuriya, D. Hillerkuss, N. Amaya Gonzalez, M. Spyropoulou, P. Vorreau, R. Morais, S. Ibrahim, D. Klonidis, P. Petropoulos, A. D. Ellis, P. Monteiro, A. Tzanakaki, D. Richardson, I. Tomkos, R. Bonk, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and D. Simeonidou, "Field trial of WDM–OTDM transmultiplexing employing photonic switch fabric-based buffer-less bit-interleaved data grooming and all-optical regeneration," Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2009, paper PDPC10.

F. Parmigiani, P. Vorreau, L. Provost, K. Mukasa, P. Petropoulos, D. J. Richardson, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, "2R regeneration of two 130 Gbit/s channels within a single fiber," Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2009, paper JThA56.

S. Ibrahim, D. Hillerkuss, R. Weerasuriya, G. Zarris, D. Simeonidou, J. Leuthold, and A. D. Ellis, "Novel 42.65 Gbit/s dual gate asynchronous digital optical regenerator using a single MZM," Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun., 2008, paper Tu4D3.

G. Zarris, P. Vorreau, D. Hillerkuss, S. Ibrahim, R. Weerasuriya, A. D. Ellis, J. Leuthold, and D. Simeonidou, "WDM-to-OTDM traffic grooming by means of asynchronous retiming," Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2009, paper OThJ6.

Livas, J.

Mamyshev, P. V.

P. V. Mamyshev, "All-optical data regeneration based on self-phase modulation effect," Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun., 1998, pp. 475‒476.

Marques, P.

R. Morais, R. Meleiro, P. Monteiro, and P. Marques, "OTDM-to-WDM conversion based on wavelength conversion and time gating in a single optical gate," Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2007, paper OTuD5.

Meleiro, R.

R. Morais, R. Meleiro, P. Monteiro, and P. Marques, "OTDM-to-WDM conversion based on wavelength conversion and time gating in a single optical gate," Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2007, paper OTuD5.

Monteiro, P.

G. Zarris, E. Hugues-Salas, N. Amaya Gonzalez, R. Weerasuriya, F. Parmigiani, D. Hillerkuss, P. Vorreau, M. Spyropoulou, S. Ibrahim, A. D. Ellis, R. Morais, P. Monteiro, P. Petropoulos, D. Richardson, I. Tomkos, J. Leuthold, and D. Simeonidou, "Field experiments with a grooming switch for OTDM meshed networking," J. Lightwave Technol. 28, 316‒327 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Vorreau, S. Sygletos, F. Parmigiani, D. Hillerkuss, R. Bonk, P. Petropoulos, G. Zarris, D. Simeonidou, D. Klonidis, A. Tzanakaki, I. Tomkos, R. Weerasuriya, S. Ibrahim, A. Ellis, R. Morais, P. Monteiro, S. Ben Ezra, S. Tsadka, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, "All-optical grooming switch with regenerative functionality for transparent interconnection of networks," Opt. Express 17, 15173‒15185 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Zarris, F. Parmigiani, E. Hugues-Salas, R. Weerasuriya, D. Hillerkuss, N. Amaya Gonzalez, M. Spyropoulou, P. Vorreau, R. Morais, S. Ibrahim, D. Klonidis, P. Petropoulos, A. D. Ellis, P. Monteiro, A. Tzanakaki, D. Richardson, I. Tomkos, R. Bonk, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and D. Simeonidou, "Field trial of WDM–OTDM transmultiplexing employing photonic switch fabric-based buffer-less bit-interleaved data grooming and all-optical regeneration," Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2009, paper PDPC10.

R. Morais, R. Meleiro, P. Monteiro, and P. Marques, "OTDM-to-WDM conversion based on wavelength conversion and time gating in a single optical gate," Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2007, paper OTuD5.

P. Vorreau, D. Hillerkuss, F. Parmigiani, S. Sygletos, R. Bonk, P. Petropoulos, D. Richardson, G. Zarris, D. Simeonidou, D. Klonidis, I. Tomkos, R. Weerasuriya, S. Ibrahim, A. Ellis, R. Morais, P. Monteiro, S. Ben Ezra, S. Tsadka, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, "2R/3R optical grooming switch with time-slot interchange," Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. 2008 (ECOC’08), 2008, PDP Th.3.F.4.

Morais, R.

G. Zarris, E. Hugues-Salas, N. Amaya Gonzalez, R. Weerasuriya, F. Parmigiani, D. Hillerkuss, P. Vorreau, M. Spyropoulou, S. Ibrahim, A. D. Ellis, R. Morais, P. Monteiro, P. Petropoulos, D. Richardson, I. Tomkos, J. Leuthold, and D. Simeonidou, "Field experiments with a grooming switch for OTDM meshed networking," J. Lightwave Technol. 28, 316‒327 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Vorreau, S. Sygletos, F. Parmigiani, D. Hillerkuss, R. Bonk, P. Petropoulos, G. Zarris, D. Simeonidou, D. Klonidis, A. Tzanakaki, I. Tomkos, R. Weerasuriya, S. Ibrahim, A. Ellis, R. Morais, P. Monteiro, S. Ben Ezra, S. Tsadka, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, "All-optical grooming switch with regenerative functionality for transparent interconnection of networks," Opt. Express 17, 15173‒15185 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Zarris, F. Parmigiani, E. Hugues-Salas, R. Weerasuriya, D. Hillerkuss, N. Amaya Gonzalez, M. Spyropoulou, P. Vorreau, R. Morais, S. Ibrahim, D. Klonidis, P. Petropoulos, A. D. Ellis, P. Monteiro, A. Tzanakaki, D. Richardson, I. Tomkos, R. Bonk, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and D. Simeonidou, "Field trial of WDM–OTDM transmultiplexing employing photonic switch fabric-based buffer-less bit-interleaved data grooming and all-optical regeneration," Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2009, paper PDPC10.

R. Morais, R. Meleiro, P. Monteiro, and P. Marques, "OTDM-to-WDM conversion based on wavelength conversion and time gating in a single optical gate," Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2007, paper OTuD5.

P. Vorreau, D. Hillerkuss, F. Parmigiani, S. Sygletos, R. Bonk, P. Petropoulos, D. Richardson, G. Zarris, D. Simeonidou, D. Klonidis, I. Tomkos, R. Weerasuriya, S. Ibrahim, A. Ellis, R. Morais, P. Monteiro, S. Ben Ezra, S. Tsadka, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, "2R/3R optical grooming switch with time-slot interchange," Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. 2008 (ECOC’08), 2008, PDP Th.3.F.4.

Morea, A.

A. Morea and J. Poirrier, "A critical analysis of the possible cost savings of translucent networks," Proc. 5th Int. Workshop on Design of Reliable Communication Networks, 2005, pp. 311‒317.

Mukasa, K.

F. Parmigiani, P. Vorreau, L. Provost, K. Mukasa, P. Petropoulos, D. J. Richardson, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, "2R regeneration of two 130 Gbit/s channels within a single fiber," Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2009, paper JThA56.

Mukherjee, B.

B. Mukherjee, C. Ou, H. Zhu, N. Singhal, and S. Yao, "Traffic grooming in mesh optical networks," Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2004, paper ThG1.

Nejabati, R.

O’Mahony, M.

Ou, C.

B. Mukherjee, C. Ou, H. Zhu, N. Singhal, and S. Yao, "Traffic grooming in mesh optical networks," Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2004, paper ThG1.

Pan, J.-Y.

N. Ghani, J.-Y. Pan, and X. Cheng, Metropolitan Optical Networks, Optical Fiber Telecommunications, vol. IVB, Academic Press, 2002, pp. 329‒403.

Parmigiani, F.

G. Zarris, E. Hugues-Salas, N. Amaya Gonzalez, R. Weerasuriya, F. Parmigiani, D. Hillerkuss, P. Vorreau, M. Spyropoulou, S. Ibrahim, A. D. Ellis, R. Morais, P. Monteiro, P. Petropoulos, D. Richardson, I. Tomkos, J. Leuthold, and D. Simeonidou, "Field experiments with a grooming switch for OTDM meshed networking," J. Lightwave Technol. 28, 316‒327 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Vorreau, S. Sygletos, F. Parmigiani, D. Hillerkuss, R. Bonk, P. Petropoulos, G. Zarris, D. Simeonidou, D. Klonidis, A. Tzanakaki, I. Tomkos, R. Weerasuriya, S. Ibrahim, A. Ellis, R. Morais, P. Monteiro, S. Ben Ezra, S. Tsadka, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, "All-optical grooming switch with regenerative functionality for transparent interconnection of networks," Opt. Express 17, 15173‒15185 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Provost, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, "Investigation of simultaneous 2R regeneration of two 40 Gb/s channels in a single optical fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 270‒272 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Parmigiani, P. Vorreau, L. Provost, K. Mukasa, P. Petropoulos, D. J. Richardson, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, "2R regeneration of two 130 Gbit/s channels within a single fiber," Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2009, paper JThA56.

G. Zarris, F. Parmigiani, E. Hugues-Salas, R. Weerasuriya, D. Hillerkuss, N. Amaya Gonzalez, M. Spyropoulou, P. Vorreau, R. Morais, S. Ibrahim, D. Klonidis, P. Petropoulos, A. D. Ellis, P. Monteiro, A. Tzanakaki, D. Richardson, I. Tomkos, R. Bonk, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and D. Simeonidou, "Field trial of WDM–OTDM transmultiplexing employing photonic switch fabric-based buffer-less bit-interleaved data grooming and all-optical regeneration," Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2009, paper PDPC10.

P. Vorreau, D. Hillerkuss, F. Parmigiani, S. Sygletos, R. Bonk, P. Petropoulos, D. Richardson, G. Zarris, D. Simeonidou, D. Klonidis, I. Tomkos, R. Weerasuriya, S. Ibrahim, A. Ellis, R. Morais, P. Monteiro, S. Ben Ezra, S. Tsadka, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, "2R/3R optical grooming switch with time-slot interchange," Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. 2008 (ECOC’08), 2008, PDP Th.3.F.4.

Patterson, R. A.

R. S. Barr and R. A. Patterson, "Grooming telecommunications networks," Opt. Netw. Mag. 2, 20‒23 (2001).

Petropoulos, P.

G. Zarris, E. Hugues-Salas, N. Amaya Gonzalez, R. Weerasuriya, F. Parmigiani, D. Hillerkuss, P. Vorreau, M. Spyropoulou, S. Ibrahim, A. D. Ellis, R. Morais, P. Monteiro, P. Petropoulos, D. Richardson, I. Tomkos, J. Leuthold, and D. Simeonidou, "Field experiments with a grooming switch for OTDM meshed networking," J. Lightwave Technol. 28, 316‒327 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Vorreau, S. Sygletos, F. Parmigiani, D. Hillerkuss, R. Bonk, P. Petropoulos, G. Zarris, D. Simeonidou, D. Klonidis, A. Tzanakaki, I. Tomkos, R. Weerasuriya, S. Ibrahim, A. Ellis, R. Morais, P. Monteiro, S. Ben Ezra, S. Tsadka, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, "All-optical grooming switch with regenerative functionality for transparent interconnection of networks," Opt. Express 17, 15173‒15185 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Provost, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, "Investigation of simultaneous 2R regeneration of two 40 Gb/s channels in a single optical fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 270‒272 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Parmigiani, P. Vorreau, L. Provost, K. Mukasa, P. Petropoulos, D. J. Richardson, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, "2R regeneration of two 130 Gbit/s channels within a single fiber," Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2009, paper JThA56.

G. Zarris, F. Parmigiani, E. Hugues-Salas, R. Weerasuriya, D. Hillerkuss, N. Amaya Gonzalez, M. Spyropoulou, P. Vorreau, R. Morais, S. Ibrahim, D. Klonidis, P. Petropoulos, A. D. Ellis, P. Monteiro, A. Tzanakaki, D. Richardson, I. Tomkos, R. Bonk, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and D. Simeonidou, "Field trial of WDM–OTDM transmultiplexing employing photonic switch fabric-based buffer-less bit-interleaved data grooming and all-optical regeneration," Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2009, paper PDPC10.

P. Vorreau, D. Hillerkuss, F. Parmigiani, S. Sygletos, R. Bonk, P. Petropoulos, D. Richardson, G. Zarris, D. Simeonidou, D. Klonidis, I. Tomkos, R. Weerasuriya, S. Ibrahim, A. Ellis, R. Morais, P. Monteiro, S. Ben Ezra, S. Tsadka, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, "2R/3R optical grooming switch with time-slot interchange," Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. 2008 (ECOC’08), 2008, PDP Th.3.F.4.

Poirrier, J.

A. Morea and J. Poirrier, "A critical analysis of the possible cost savings of translucent networks," Proc. 5th Int. Workshop on Design of Reliable Communication Networks, 2005, pp. 311‒317.

Provost, L.

L. Provost, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, "Investigation of simultaneous 2R regeneration of two 40 Gb/s channels in a single optical fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 270‒272 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Parmigiani, P. Vorreau, L. Provost, K. Mukasa, P. Petropoulos, D. J. Richardson, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, "2R regeneration of two 130 Gbit/s channels within a single fiber," Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2009, paper JThA56.

Qin, Y.

Richardson, D.

G. Zarris, E. Hugues-Salas, N. Amaya Gonzalez, R. Weerasuriya, F. Parmigiani, D. Hillerkuss, P. Vorreau, M. Spyropoulou, S. Ibrahim, A. D. Ellis, R. Morais, P. Monteiro, P. Petropoulos, D. Richardson, I. Tomkos, J. Leuthold, and D. Simeonidou, "Field experiments with a grooming switch for OTDM meshed networking," J. Lightwave Technol. 28, 316‒327 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Vorreau, D. Hillerkuss, F. Parmigiani, S. Sygletos, R. Bonk, P. Petropoulos, D. Richardson, G. Zarris, D. Simeonidou, D. Klonidis, I. Tomkos, R. Weerasuriya, S. Ibrahim, A. Ellis, R. Morais, P. Monteiro, S. Ben Ezra, S. Tsadka, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, "2R/3R optical grooming switch with time-slot interchange," Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. 2008 (ECOC’08), 2008, PDP Th.3.F.4.

G. Zarris, F. Parmigiani, E. Hugues-Salas, R. Weerasuriya, D. Hillerkuss, N. Amaya Gonzalez, M. Spyropoulou, P. Vorreau, R. Morais, S. Ibrahim, D. Klonidis, P. Petropoulos, A. D. Ellis, P. Monteiro, A. Tzanakaki, D. Richardson, I. Tomkos, R. Bonk, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and D. Simeonidou, "Field trial of WDM–OTDM transmultiplexing employing photonic switch fabric-based buffer-less bit-interleaved data grooming and all-optical regeneration," Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2009, paper PDPC10.

Richardson, D. J.

L. Provost, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, "Investigation of simultaneous 2R regeneration of two 40 Gb/s channels in a single optical fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 270‒272 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Parmigiani, P. Vorreau, L. Provost, K. Mukasa, P. Petropoulos, D. J. Richardson, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, "2R regeneration of two 130 Gbit/s channels within a single fiber," Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2009, paper JThA56.

Saleh, A. M.

Scheiders, M.

A. Gladisch, R.-P. Braun, D. Breuer, A. Ehrhardt, H.-M. Foisel, M. Jaeger, R. Leppla, M. Scheiders, S. Vorbeck, W. Weiershausen, and F.-J. Westphal, "Evolution of terrestrial optical system and core network architecture," Proc. IEEE 94, 869‒891 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Simeonidou, D.

S. Ibrahim, R. Weerasuriya, D. Hillerkuss, G. Zarris, D. Simeonidou, J. Leuthold, D. Cotter, and A. Ellis, "Experimental demonstration of 42.6 Gbit/s asynchronous digital optical regenerators," Int. Conf. Transparent Opt. Netw., 2008, paper We.C3.3.

S. Ibrahim, D. Hillerkuss, R. Weerasuriya, G. Zarris, D. Simeonidou, J. Leuthold, and A. D. Ellis, "Novel 42.65 Gbit/s dual gate asynchronous digital optical regenerator using a single MZM," Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun., 2008, paper Tu4D3.

Simeonidou, D.

G. Zarris, E. Hugues-Salas, N. Amaya Gonzalez, R. Weerasuriya, F. Parmigiani, D. Hillerkuss, P. Vorreau, M. Spyropoulou, S. Ibrahim, A. D. Ellis, R. Morais, P. Monteiro, P. Petropoulos, D. Richardson, I. Tomkos, J. Leuthold, and D. Simeonidou, "Field experiments with a grooming switch for OTDM meshed networking," J. Lightwave Technol. 28, 316‒327 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Vorreau, S. Sygletos, F. Parmigiani, D. Hillerkuss, R. Bonk, P. Petropoulos, G. Zarris, D. Simeonidou, D. Klonidis, A. Tzanakaki, I. Tomkos, R. Weerasuriya, S. Ibrahim, A. Ellis, R. Morais, P. Monteiro, S. Ben Ezra, S. Tsadka, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, "All-optical grooming switch with regenerative functionality for transparent interconnection of networks," Opt. Express 17, 15173‒15185 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Hillerkuss, A. Ellis, G. Zarris, D. Simeonidou, J. Leuthold, and D. Cotter, "40 Gbit/s asynchronous digital optical regenerator," Opt. Express 16, 18889‒18894 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Nejabati, G. Zervas, G. Zarris, Y. Qin, E. Escalona, M. O’Mahony, and D. Simeonidou, "Multigranular optical router for future networks [invited]," J. Opt. Netw. 7, 914‒927 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Vorreau, D. Hillerkuss, F. Parmigiani, S. Sygletos, R. Bonk, P. Petropoulos, D. Richardson, G. Zarris, D. Simeonidou, D. Klonidis, I. Tomkos, R. Weerasuriya, S. Ibrahim, A. Ellis, R. Morais, P. Monteiro, S. Ben Ezra, S. Tsadka, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, "2R/3R optical grooming switch with time-slot interchange," Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. 2008 (ECOC’08), 2008, PDP Th.3.F.4.

G. Zarris, F. Parmigiani, E. Hugues-Salas, R. Weerasuriya, D. Hillerkuss, N. Amaya Gonzalez, M. Spyropoulou, P. Vorreau, R. Morais, S. Ibrahim, D. Klonidis, P. Petropoulos, A. D. Ellis, P. Monteiro, A. Tzanakaki, D. Richardson, I. Tomkos, R. Bonk, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and D. Simeonidou, "Field trial of WDM–OTDM transmultiplexing employing photonic switch fabric-based buffer-less bit-interleaved data grooming and all-optical regeneration," Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2009, paper PDPC10.

G. Zarris, P. Vorreau, D. Hillerkuss, S. Ibrahim, R. Weerasuriya, A. D. Ellis, J. Leuthold, and D. Simeonidou, "WDM-to-OTDM traffic grooming by means of asynchronous retiming," Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2009, paper OThJ6.

Simmons, J. M.

Singhal, N.

B. Mukherjee, C. Ou, H. Zhu, N. Singhal, and S. Yao, "Traffic grooming in mesh optical networks," Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2004, paper ThG1.

Spyropoulou, M.

G. Zarris, E. Hugues-Salas, N. Amaya Gonzalez, R. Weerasuriya, F. Parmigiani, D. Hillerkuss, P. Vorreau, M. Spyropoulou, S. Ibrahim, A. D. Ellis, R. Morais, P. Monteiro, P. Petropoulos, D. Richardson, I. Tomkos, J. Leuthold, and D. Simeonidou, "Field experiments with a grooming switch for OTDM meshed networking," J. Lightwave Technol. 28, 316‒327 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Zarris, F. Parmigiani, E. Hugues-Salas, R. Weerasuriya, D. Hillerkuss, N. Amaya Gonzalez, M. Spyropoulou, P. Vorreau, R. Morais, S. Ibrahim, D. Klonidis, P. Petropoulos, A. D. Ellis, P. Monteiro, A. Tzanakaki, D. Richardson, I. Tomkos, R. Bonk, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and D. Simeonidou, "Field trial of WDM–OTDM transmultiplexing employing photonic switch fabric-based buffer-less bit-interleaved data grooming and all-optical regeneration," Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2009, paper PDPC10.

Sygletos, S.

Tomkos, I.

G. Zarris, E. Hugues-Salas, N. Amaya Gonzalez, R. Weerasuriya, F. Parmigiani, D. Hillerkuss, P. Vorreau, M. Spyropoulou, S. Ibrahim, A. D. Ellis, R. Morais, P. Monteiro, P. Petropoulos, D. Richardson, I. Tomkos, J. Leuthold, and D. Simeonidou, "Field experiments with a grooming switch for OTDM meshed networking," J. Lightwave Technol. 28, 316‒327 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Vorreau, S. Sygletos, F. Parmigiani, D. Hillerkuss, R. Bonk, P. Petropoulos, G. Zarris, D. Simeonidou, D. Klonidis, A. Tzanakaki, I. Tomkos, R. Weerasuriya, S. Ibrahim, A. Ellis, R. Morais, P. Monteiro, S. Ben Ezra, S. Tsadka, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, "All-optical grooming switch with regenerative functionality for transparent interconnection of networks," Opt. Express 17, 15173‒15185 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Sygletos, I. Tomkos, and J. Leuthold, "Technology challenges on the road towards transparent networking," J. Opt. Netw. 7, 321‒350 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Vorreau, D. Hillerkuss, F. Parmigiani, S. Sygletos, R. Bonk, P. Petropoulos, D. Richardson, G. Zarris, D. Simeonidou, D. Klonidis, I. Tomkos, R. Weerasuriya, S. Ibrahim, A. Ellis, R. Morais, P. Monteiro, S. Ben Ezra, S. Tsadka, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, "2R/3R optical grooming switch with time-slot interchange," Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. 2008 (ECOC’08), 2008, PDP Th.3.F.4.

G. Zarris, F. Parmigiani, E. Hugues-Salas, R. Weerasuriya, D. Hillerkuss, N. Amaya Gonzalez, M. Spyropoulou, P. Vorreau, R. Morais, S. Ibrahim, D. Klonidis, P. Petropoulos, A. D. Ellis, P. Monteiro, A. Tzanakaki, D. Richardson, I. Tomkos, R. Bonk, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and D. Simeonidou, "Field trial of WDM–OTDM transmultiplexing employing photonic switch fabric-based buffer-less bit-interleaved data grooming and all-optical regeneration," Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2009, paper PDPC10.

Tsadka, S.

P. Vorreau, S. Sygletos, F. Parmigiani, D. Hillerkuss, R. Bonk, P. Petropoulos, G. Zarris, D. Simeonidou, D. Klonidis, A. Tzanakaki, I. Tomkos, R. Weerasuriya, S. Ibrahim, A. Ellis, R. Morais, P. Monteiro, S. Ben Ezra, S. Tsadka, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, "All-optical grooming switch with regenerative functionality for transparent interconnection of networks," Opt. Express 17, 15173‒15185 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Vorreau, D. Hillerkuss, F. Parmigiani, S. Sygletos, R. Bonk, P. Petropoulos, D. Richardson, G. Zarris, D. Simeonidou, D. Klonidis, I. Tomkos, R. Weerasuriya, S. Ibrahim, A. Ellis, R. Morais, P. Monteiro, S. Ben Ezra, S. Tsadka, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, "2R/3R optical grooming switch with time-slot interchange," Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. 2008 (ECOC’08), 2008, PDP Th.3.F.4.

Tzanakaki, A.

P. Vorreau, S. Sygletos, F. Parmigiani, D. Hillerkuss, R. Bonk, P. Petropoulos, G. Zarris, D. Simeonidou, D. Klonidis, A. Tzanakaki, I. Tomkos, R. Weerasuriya, S. Ibrahim, A. Ellis, R. Morais, P. Monteiro, S. Ben Ezra, S. Tsadka, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, "All-optical grooming switch with regenerative functionality for transparent interconnection of networks," Opt. Express 17, 15173‒15185 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Zarris, F. Parmigiani, E. Hugues-Salas, R. Weerasuriya, D. Hillerkuss, N. Amaya Gonzalez, M. Spyropoulou, P. Vorreau, R. Morais, S. Ibrahim, D. Klonidis, P. Petropoulos, A. D. Ellis, P. Monteiro, A. Tzanakaki, D. Richardson, I. Tomkos, R. Bonk, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and D. Simeonidou, "Field trial of WDM–OTDM transmultiplexing employing photonic switch fabric-based buffer-less bit-interleaved data grooming and all-optical regeneration," Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2009, paper PDPC10.

Vorbeck, S.

A. Gladisch, R.-P. Braun, D. Breuer, A. Ehrhardt, H.-M. Foisel, M. Jaeger, R. Leppla, M. Scheiders, S. Vorbeck, W. Weiershausen, and F.-J. Westphal, "Evolution of terrestrial optical system and core network architecture," Proc. IEEE 94, 869‒891 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Vorreau, P.

G. Zarris, F. Parmigiani, E. Hugues-Salas, R. Weerasuriya, D. Hillerkuss, N. Amaya Gonzalez, M. Spyropoulou, P. Vorreau, R. Morais, S. Ibrahim, D. Klonidis, P. Petropoulos, A. D. Ellis, P. Monteiro, A. Tzanakaki, D. Richardson, I. Tomkos, R. Bonk, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and D. Simeonidou, "Field trial of WDM–OTDM transmultiplexing employing photonic switch fabric-based buffer-less bit-interleaved data grooming and all-optical regeneration," Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2009, paper PDPC10.

Vorreau, P.

G. Zarris, E. Hugues-Salas, N. Amaya Gonzalez, R. Weerasuriya, F. Parmigiani, D. Hillerkuss, P. Vorreau, M. Spyropoulou, S. Ibrahim, A. D. Ellis, R. Morais, P. Monteiro, P. Petropoulos, D. Richardson, I. Tomkos, J. Leuthold, and D. Simeonidou, "Field experiments with a grooming switch for OTDM meshed networking," J. Lightwave Technol. 28, 316‒327 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Vorreau, S. Sygletos, F. Parmigiani, D. Hillerkuss, R. Bonk, P. Petropoulos, G. Zarris, D. Simeonidou, D. Klonidis, A. Tzanakaki, I. Tomkos, R. Weerasuriya, S. Ibrahim, A. Ellis, R. Morais, P. Monteiro, S. Ben Ezra, S. Tsadka, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, "All-optical grooming switch with regenerative functionality for transparent interconnection of networks," Opt. Express 17, 15173‒15185 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Zarris, P. Vorreau, D. Hillerkuss, S. Ibrahim, R. Weerasuriya, A. D. Ellis, J. Leuthold, and D. Simeonidou, "WDM-to-OTDM traffic grooming by means of asynchronous retiming," Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2009, paper OThJ6.

F. Parmigiani, P. Vorreau, L. Provost, K. Mukasa, P. Petropoulos, D. J. Richardson, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, "2R regeneration of two 130 Gbit/s channels within a single fiber," Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2009, paper JThA56.

P. Vorreau, D. Hillerkuss, F. Parmigiani, S. Sygletos, R. Bonk, P. Petropoulos, D. Richardson, G. Zarris, D. Simeonidou, D. Klonidis, I. Tomkos, R. Weerasuriya, S. Ibrahim, A. Ellis, R. Morais, P. Monteiro, S. Ben Ezra, S. Tsadka, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, "2R/3R optical grooming switch with time-slot interchange," Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. 2008 (ECOC’08), 2008, PDP Th.3.F.4.

Weerasuriya, R.

Weerasuriya, R.

P. Vorreau, S. Sygletos, F. Parmigiani, D. Hillerkuss, R. Bonk, P. Petropoulos, G. Zarris, D. Simeonidou, D. Klonidis, A. Tzanakaki, I. Tomkos, R. Weerasuriya, S. Ibrahim, A. Ellis, R. Morais, P. Monteiro, S. Ben Ezra, S. Tsadka, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, "All-optical grooming switch with regenerative functionality for transparent interconnection of networks," Opt. Express 17, 15173‒15185 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Zarris, F. Parmigiani, E. Hugues-Salas, R. Weerasuriya, D. Hillerkuss, N. Amaya Gonzalez, M. Spyropoulou, P. Vorreau, R. Morais, S. Ibrahim, D. Klonidis, P. Petropoulos, A. D. Ellis, P. Monteiro, A. Tzanakaki, D. Richardson, I. Tomkos, R. Bonk, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and D. Simeonidou, "Field trial of WDM–OTDM transmultiplexing employing photonic switch fabric-based buffer-less bit-interleaved data grooming and all-optical regeneration," Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2009, paper PDPC10.

S. Ibrahim, D. Hillerkuss, R. Weerasuriya, G. Zarris, D. Simeonidou, J. Leuthold, and A. D. Ellis, "Novel 42.65 Gbit/s dual gate asynchronous digital optical regenerator using a single MZM," Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun., 2008, paper Tu4D3.

P. Vorreau, D. Hillerkuss, F. Parmigiani, S. Sygletos, R. Bonk, P. Petropoulos, D. Richardson, G. Zarris, D. Simeonidou, D. Klonidis, I. Tomkos, R. Weerasuriya, S. Ibrahim, A. Ellis, R. Morais, P. Monteiro, S. Ben Ezra, S. Tsadka, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, "2R/3R optical grooming switch with time-slot interchange," Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. 2008 (ECOC’08), 2008, PDP Th.3.F.4.

S. Ibrahim, R. Weerasuriya, D. Hillerkuss, G. Zarris, D. Simeonidou, J. Leuthold, D. Cotter, and A. Ellis, "Experimental demonstration of 42.6 Gbit/s asynchronous digital optical regenerators," Int. Conf. Transparent Opt. Netw., 2008, paper We.C3.3.

Weiershausen, W.

A. Gladisch, R.-P. Braun, D. Breuer, A. Ehrhardt, H.-M. Foisel, M. Jaeger, R. Leppla, M. Scheiders, S. Vorbeck, W. Weiershausen, and F.-J. Westphal, "Evolution of terrestrial optical system and core network architecture," Proc. IEEE 94, 869‒891 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Westphal, F.-J.

A. Gladisch, R.-P. Braun, D. Breuer, A. Ehrhardt, H.-M. Foisel, M. Jaeger, R. Leppla, M. Scheiders, S. Vorbeck, W. Weiershausen, and F.-J. Westphal, "Evolution of terrestrial optical system and core network architecture," Proc. IEEE 94, 869‒891 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yao, S.

B. Mukherjee, C. Ou, H. Zhu, N. Singhal, and S. Yao, "Traffic grooming in mesh optical networks," Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2004, paper ThG1.

Zarris, G.

G. Zarris, E. Hugues-Salas, N. Amaya Gonzalez, R. Weerasuriya, F. Parmigiani, D. Hillerkuss, P. Vorreau, M. Spyropoulou, S. Ibrahim, A. D. Ellis, R. Morais, P. Monteiro, P. Petropoulos, D. Richardson, I. Tomkos, J. Leuthold, and D. Simeonidou, "Field experiments with a grooming switch for OTDM meshed networking," J. Lightwave Technol. 28, 316‒327 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Vorreau, S. Sygletos, F. Parmigiani, D. Hillerkuss, R. Bonk, P. Petropoulos, G. Zarris, D. Simeonidou, D. Klonidis, A. Tzanakaki, I. Tomkos, R. Weerasuriya, S. Ibrahim, A. Ellis, R. Morais, P. Monteiro, S. Ben Ezra, S. Tsadka, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, "All-optical grooming switch with regenerative functionality for transparent interconnection of networks," Opt. Express 17, 15173‒15185 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Hillerkuss, A. Ellis, G. Zarris, D. Simeonidou, J. Leuthold, and D. Cotter, "40 Gbit/s asynchronous digital optical regenerator," Opt. Express 16, 18889‒18894 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Nejabati, G. Zervas, G. Zarris, Y. Qin, E. Escalona, M. O’Mahony, and D. Simeonidou, "Multigranular optical router for future networks [invited]," J. Opt. Netw. 7, 914‒927 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Vorreau, D. Hillerkuss, F. Parmigiani, S. Sygletos, R. Bonk, P. Petropoulos, D. Richardson, G. Zarris, D. Simeonidou, D. Klonidis, I. Tomkos, R. Weerasuriya, S. Ibrahim, A. Ellis, R. Morais, P. Monteiro, S. Ben Ezra, S. Tsadka, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, "2R/3R optical grooming switch with time-slot interchange," Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. 2008 (ECOC’08), 2008, PDP Th.3.F.4.

S. Ibrahim, R. Weerasuriya, D. Hillerkuss, G. Zarris, D. Simeonidou, J. Leuthold, D. Cotter, and A. Ellis, "Experimental demonstration of 42.6 Gbit/s asynchronous digital optical regenerators," Int. Conf. Transparent Opt. Netw., 2008, paper We.C3.3.

S. Ibrahim, D. Hillerkuss, R. Weerasuriya, G. Zarris, D. Simeonidou, J. Leuthold, and A. D. Ellis, "Novel 42.65 Gbit/s dual gate asynchronous digital optical regenerator using a single MZM," Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun., 2008, paper Tu4D3.

G. Zarris, P. Vorreau, D. Hillerkuss, S. Ibrahim, R. Weerasuriya, A. D. Ellis, J. Leuthold, and D. Simeonidou, "WDM-to-OTDM traffic grooming by means of asynchronous retiming," Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2009, paper OThJ6.

G. Zarris, F. Parmigiani, E. Hugues-Salas, R. Weerasuriya, D. Hillerkuss, N. Amaya Gonzalez, M. Spyropoulou, P. Vorreau, R. Morais, S. Ibrahim, D. Klonidis, P. Petropoulos, A. D. Ellis, P. Monteiro, A. Tzanakaki, D. Richardson, I. Tomkos, R. Bonk, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and D. Simeonidou, "Field trial of WDM–OTDM transmultiplexing employing photonic switch fabric-based buffer-less bit-interleaved data grooming and all-optical regeneration," Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2009, paper PDPC10.

Zervas, G.

Zhu, H.

B. Mukherjee, C. Ou, H. Zhu, N. Singhal, and S. Yao, "Traffic grooming in mesh optical networks," Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2004, paper ThG1.

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

L. Provost, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, "Investigation of simultaneous 2R regeneration of two 40 Gb/s channels in a single optical fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 270‒272 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (4)

J. Opt. Netw. (2)

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Netw. Mag. (1)

R. S. Barr and R. A. Patterson, "Grooming telecommunications networks," Opt. Netw. Mag. 2, 20‒23 (2001).

Proc. IEEE (1)

A. Gladisch, R.-P. Braun, D. Breuer, A. Ehrhardt, H.-M. Foisel, M. Jaeger, R. Leppla, M. Scheiders, S. Vorbeck, W. Weiershausen, and F.-J. Westphal, "Evolution of terrestrial optical system and core network architecture," Proc. IEEE 94, 869‒891 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Other (14)

A. Morea and J. Poirrier, "A critical analysis of the possible cost savings of translucent networks," Proc. 5th Int. Workshop on Design of Reliable Communication Networks, 2005, pp. 311‒317.

P. Humblet, "The direction of optical technology in the metro area," Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2001, paper WBB1.

O. Leclerc, "Towards transparent optical networks: still some challenges ahead," Proc. 18th Annual Meeting of the IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society, 2005, pp. 418‒419paper TuCC3 (invited).

ITU-T, Gigabit-capable Passive Optical Networks (GPON): Physical Media Dependent (PMD) layer specification, in ITU-T Recommendation G.984.2, 03/2003. http://www.itu.int/rec/T-REC-G/e

N. Ghani, J.-Y. Pan, and X. Cheng, Metropolitan Optical Networks, Optical Fiber Telecommunications, vol. IVB, Academic Press, 2002, pp. 329‒403.

P. Vorreau, D. Hillerkuss, F. Parmigiani, S. Sygletos, R. Bonk, P. Petropoulos, D. Richardson, G. Zarris, D. Simeonidou, D. Klonidis, I. Tomkos, R. Weerasuriya, S. Ibrahim, A. Ellis, R. Morais, P. Monteiro, S. Ben Ezra, S. Tsadka, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, "2R/3R optical grooming switch with time-slot interchange," Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. 2008 (ECOC’08), 2008, PDP Th.3.F.4.

B. Mukherjee, C. Ou, H. Zhu, N. Singhal, and S. Yao, "Traffic grooming in mesh optical networks," Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2004, paper ThG1.

S. Ibrahim, R. Weerasuriya, D. Hillerkuss, G. Zarris, D. Simeonidou, J. Leuthold, D. Cotter, and A. Ellis, "Experimental demonstration of 42.6 Gbit/s asynchronous digital optical regenerators," Int. Conf. Transparent Opt. Netw., 2008, paper We.C3.3.

G. Zarris, P. Vorreau, D. Hillerkuss, S. Ibrahim, R. Weerasuriya, A. D. Ellis, J. Leuthold, and D. Simeonidou, "WDM-to-OTDM traffic grooming by means of asynchronous retiming," Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2009, paper OThJ6.

R. Morais, R. Meleiro, P. Monteiro, and P. Marques, "OTDM-to-WDM conversion based on wavelength conversion and time gating in a single optical gate," Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2007, paper OTuD5.

G. Zarris, F. Parmigiani, E. Hugues-Salas, R. Weerasuriya, D. Hillerkuss, N. Amaya Gonzalez, M. Spyropoulou, P. Vorreau, R. Morais, S. Ibrahim, D. Klonidis, P. Petropoulos, A. D. Ellis, P. Monteiro, A. Tzanakaki, D. Richardson, I. Tomkos, R. Bonk, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and D. Simeonidou, "Field trial of WDM–OTDM transmultiplexing employing photonic switch fabric-based buffer-less bit-interleaved data grooming and all-optical regeneration," Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2009, paper PDPC10.

F. Parmigiani, P. Vorreau, L. Provost, K. Mukasa, P. Petropoulos, D. J. Richardson, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, "2R regeneration of two 130 Gbit/s channels within a single fiber," Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2009, paper JThA56.

P. V. Mamyshev, "All-optical data regeneration based on self-phase modulation effect," Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun., 1998, pp. 475‒476.

S. Ibrahim, D. Hillerkuss, R. Weerasuriya, G. Zarris, D. Simeonidou, J. Leuthold, and A. D. Ellis, "Novel 42.65 Gbit/s dual gate asynchronous digital optical regenerator using a single MZM," Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun., 2008, paper Tu4D3.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(Color online) Network scenario and grooming switch node. (a) Two metro/access rings are interconnected to a metro/core ring via the grooming switch. Each ring carries a multiple of WDM channels, either at 43 Gbit/s-OOK or 130 Gbit/s-OOK per wavelength. (b) Grooming switch block diagram. Key building blocks are the wavelength selective switch (reconfigurable optical add/drop multiplexer (ROADM)), the multi-wavelength 2 R regenerator (c), the OTDM-to-WDM converter (d), the MEMS space switch, and the WDM-to-OTDM converter (e).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(Color online) Particular node implementation scenario and corresponding measurement results, where two 130 Gbit/s signals (A & B) are launched into the node. Signal (A) is regenerated and converted to signal (E); signal (B) is split into its 43 Gbit/s λ-tributaries (C) by means of an OTDM-to-WDM converter based on self-phase modulation in a highly nonlinear fiber followed by optical filtering and time gating. λ-tributary λ d r o p 2 is dropped to the access ring 2 and a new λ-tributary (G) is added from access ring 1. The two λ-tributaries λ d r o p 1 and λ d r o p 3 together with the added λ-tributary are aggregated by means of different ADORE units and corresponding time-interleaving. The groomed OTDM signal (see D) is mapped back to the core ring (F) via the 2 R multi-wavelength regenerator. The spectra of the signals (A) to (F) are also shown.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(Color online) Three switching scenarios with tributaries dropped and looped back onto the core and access network. Scenario 2 and 3 show time-slot interchanging. The signal quality of the eyes of the OTDM multiplexed signals is excellent in all situations.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(Color online) Field trial using an actually installed fiber network. (a) Dispersion compensated dark fiber network between Ipswich, Colchester, and Chelmsford in the UK. (b) Network scenario with 1 × 43 Gbit/sburst traffic transmitted across the 80 km access network to the Ipswich node. Here the traffic is aggregated together with two locally generated 43 Gbit/s burst signals. Time-slot interchanging can be induced depending on the switching scenario. Then the 130 Gbit/s burst traffic has been transported on the metro/core ring over a reach of 110 km to the Chelmsford node where it is 2 R multi-wavelength regenerated, demultiplexed, and dropped off into the access network.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(Color online) The data frame of the burst switched network consists of a repeating 2 7 1 pseudo-random bit sequence (PRBS) of 1 ms duration and a single modified 2 19 1 PRBS of 1 µsduration serving as a guard interval.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(Color online) Eye diagrams, signal quality values, and bit-error ratio of the field trial measurements at various points in the dark fiber network. Here, we report the specific scenario in which the Ipswich node performs WDM-to-OTDM conversion of burst traffic which originates in an edge 3 × 43 Gbit/sWDM domain. The Chelmsford node performs 2 R multi-wavelength regeneration of two 130 Gbit/s channels and also OTDM-to-WDM demultiplexing of the OTDM channel. Eye diagram (A) shows the groomed OTDM signal consisting of the output of the ADORE unit combined with two MLL pulses converted onto the same wavelength and interleaved. This OTDM signal is combined with a second 130 Gbit/s OTDM signal (B) which transited through the Ipswich node. At the Chelmsford node the two signals are simultaneously regenerated and one channel is dropped (eye (D)), whereas the other channel is passed through the node (C). The OTDM-to-WDM converter generates lower data rate tributaries of 3 × 43 Gbit/s. After space switching the traffic to the access ring, the signal quality of each tributary is measured (E).