Abstract

This paper presents a wavelength assignment algorithm suitable for optical networks mainly impaired by physical layer effects, named the Intelligent Wavelength Assignment algorithm (iWA). The main idea is to determine the wavelength activation order for a first-fit algorithm that balances the impact of the physical layer effects by using a training algorithm inspired by evolutionary concepts. The iWA presents some recently proposed concepts in intelligent optimization algorithms, such as an external archive to store the best solutions. Some different physical layer effects, such as four-wave mixing and residual dispersion, were considered in the tests of our proposal. We tested our proposal for transparent optical networks. However, we believe iWA can be used in other types of network, such as opaque networks and translucent networks. The proposed wavelength assignment algorithm was compared with five other wavelength assignment algorithms for two network topologies in three different scenarios. The iWA algorithm outperformed the other WA algorithms in most cases. The robustness of our proposed algorithm to the load distribution changes was also analyzed.

© 2011 OSA

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  3. C. J. A. Bastos-Filho, D. A. R. Chaves, F. S. F. e Silva, R. V. B. Carvalho, H. A. Pereira, and J. F. Martins-Filho, "Impairment aware wavelength assignment for all-optical networks based on evolutionary computation," 11th Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), 2009, pp. 1‒4.
  4. D. A. R. Chaves, D. O. Aguiar, C. J. A. Bastos-Filho, and J. F. Martins-Filho, "Fast and adaptive impairment aware routing and wavelength assignment algorithm optimized by offline simulations," Opt. Switching Networking 7(3), 127‒138 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
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  6. C. J. A. Bastos-Filho, R. A. Santana, D. R. C. Silva, J. F. Martins-Filho, and D. A. R. Chaves, "Hopfield neural networks for routing in all-optical networks," Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), 2010, pp. 1‒4.
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    [CrossRef]
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  11. V. T. Le, X. Jiang, S. H. Ngo, and S. Horiguchi, "Dynamic RWA based on the combination of mobile agents technique and genetic algorithms in WDM networks with sparse wavelength conversion," IEICE Trans. Inf. Syst. E88-D(9), 2067‒2078 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  12. C. J. Zhou and X. Yuan, "A study of dynamic routing and wavelength assignment with imprecise network state information," Proc. Int. Conf. on Parallel Processing Workshops, 2002, pp. 207‒213.
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  14. I. Alfouzan and A. Jayasumana, "An adaptive wavelength assignment algorithm for WDM networks," Opt. Netw. Mag. 4(2), 46‒55 (2003).
  15. J. He and M. Brandt-Pearce, "RWA using wavelength ordering for crosstalk limited networks," Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), 2006, Anaheim, CA, USA, pp. 1‒3.
  16. J. He and M. Brandt Pearce, "Dynamic wavelength assignment using wavelength spectrum separation for crosstalk limited networks," Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. on Broadband Networks—Broadnets, 2006, pp. 1‒9.
  17. J. He, M. Brandt-Pearce, Y. Pointurier, C. Brown, and S. Subramaniam, "Adaptive wavelength assignment using wavelength spectrum separation for distributed optical networks," Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications (ICC), 2007, pp. 2406‒2411.
  18. Y. Pointurier, M. Brandt-Pearce, S. Subramaniam, and B. Xu, "Cross-layer adaptive routing and wavelength assignment in all-optical networks," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 26(6), 32‒44 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  19. I. E. Fonseca, R. C. Almeida Jr., H. Waldman, and M. Ribeiro, "Meeting optical QoS requirements with reduced complexity in dynamic wavelength assignment," Proc. 1st Int. Conf. on Broadband Networks—Broadnets, 2004, pp. 331‒333.
  20. N. Zulkifli, R. C. Almeida Jr., and K. M. Guild, "Efficient resource allocation of heterogeneous services in transparent optical networks," J. Opt. Netw. 6(12), 1349‒1359 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  21. D. W. Corne, N. R. Jerram, J. D. Knowles, and M. J. Oates, "PESA-II: Region based selection in evolutionary multiobjective optimization," Proc. Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conf. (GECCO), 2001, pp. 283‒290.
  22. E. Zitzler, M. Laumanns, and L. Thiele, "SPEA2: Improving the strength Pareto evolutionary algorithm," EUROGEN 2001. Evolutionary Methods for Design, Optimization and Control With Applications to Industrial Problems, 2001, pp. 95‒100.
  23. F. Forghieri, R. Tkach, A. Chraplyvy, and D. Marcuse, "Reduction of four-wave mixing crosstalk in WDM systems using unequally spaced channels," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6(6), 754‒756 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  24. A. Marsden, A. Maruta, and K.-I. Kitayama, "Routing and wavelength assignment encompassing FWM in WDM lightpath networks," Int. Conf. on Optical Network Design and Modeling (ONDM), 2008, pp. 1‒6.
  25. D. E. Goldberg, Genetic Algorithms in Search Optimization and Machine Learning, Addison Wesley, 1998.
  26. R. Storn and K. Price, "Differential evolution—a simple and efficient heuristic for global optimization over continuous spaces," J. Global Optim. 11, 341‒359 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  27. H. A. Pereira, D. A. R. Chaves, C. J. A. Bastos-Filho, and J. F. Martins-Filho, "OSNR model to consider physical layer impairments in transparent optical networks," Photon. Netw. Commun. 18(2), 137‒149 (2009).
    [CrossRef]

2010 (1)

D. A. R. Chaves, D. O. Aguiar, C. J. A. Bastos-Filho, and J. F. Martins-Filho, "Fast and adaptive impairment aware routing and wavelength assignment algorithm optimized by offline simulations," Opt. Switching Networking 7(3), 127‒138 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

S. Azodolmolky, M. Klinkowski, E. Marin-Tordera, D. Careglio, J. Sole-Pareta, and I. Tomkos, "A survey on physical layer impairments aware routing and wavelength assignment algorithms in optical networks," Comput. Netw. 53(7), 926‒944 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. A. Pereira, D. A. R. Chaves, C. J. A. Bastos-Filho, and J. F. Martins-Filho, "OSNR model to consider physical layer impairments in transparent optical networks," Photon. Netw. Commun. 18(2), 137‒149 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

Y. Pointurier, M. Brandt-Pearce, S. Subramaniam, and B. Xu, "Cross-layer adaptive routing and wavelength assignment in all-optical networks," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 26(6), 32‒44 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

2006 (1)

2005 (1)

V. T. Le, X. Jiang, S. H. Ngo, and S. Horiguchi, "Dynamic RWA based on the combination of mobile agents technique and genetic algorithms in WDM networks with sparse wavelength conversion," IEICE Trans. Inf. Syst. E88-D(9), 2067‒2078 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

I. Alfouzan and A. Jayasumana, "An adaptive wavelength assignment algorithm for WDM networks," Opt. Netw. Mag. 4(2), 46‒55 (2003).

2000 (2)

H. Zang, J. P. Jue, and B. Mukherjee, "A review of routing and wavelength assignment approaches for wavelength-routed optical WDM networks," Opt. Netw. Mag. 1(1), 47‒60 (2000).

A. G. Stoica and A. Sengupta, "On a dynamic wavelength assignment algorithm for wavelength routed all-optical networks," Proc. SPIE 4233, 211‒222 (2000).

1998 (1)

G. Di Caro and M. Dorigo, "Antnet: distributed stigmergetic control for communications networks," J. Artif. Intell. Res. 9, 317‒365 (1998).

1997 (1)

R. Storn and K. Price, "Differential evolution—a simple and efficient heuristic for global optimization over continuous spaces," J. Global Optim. 11, 341‒359 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

F. Forghieri, R. Tkach, A. Chraplyvy, and D. Marcuse, "Reduction of four-wave mixing crosstalk in WDM systems using unequally spaced channels," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6(6), 754‒756 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Aguiar, D. O.

D. A. R. Chaves, D. O. Aguiar, C. J. A. Bastos-Filho, and J. F. Martins-Filho, "Fast and adaptive impairment aware routing and wavelength assignment algorithm optimized by offline simulations," Opt. Switching Networking 7(3), 127‒138 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Martins-Filho, D. A. R. Chaves, C. J. A. Bastos-Filho, and D. O. Aguiar, "Intelligent and fast IRWA algorithm based on power series and particle swarm optimization," Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), 2008, pp. 158‒161.

Alfouzan, I.

I. Alfouzan and A. Jayasumana, "An adaptive wavelength assignment algorithm for WDM networks," Opt. Netw. Mag. 4(2), 46‒55 (2003).

Almeida Jr., R. C.

N. Zulkifli, R. C. Almeida Jr., and K. M. Guild, "Efficient resource allocation of heterogeneous services in transparent optical networks," J. Opt. Netw. 6(12), 1349‒1359 (2007).
[CrossRef]

I. E. Fonseca, R. C. Almeida Jr., H. Waldman, and M. Ribeiro, "Meeting optical QoS requirements with reduced complexity in dynamic wavelength assignment," Proc. 1st Int. Conf. on Broadband Networks—Broadnets, 2004, pp. 331‒333.

Azodolmolky, S.

S. Azodolmolky, M. Klinkowski, E. Marin-Tordera, D. Careglio, J. Sole-Pareta, and I. Tomkos, "A survey on physical layer impairments aware routing and wavelength assignment algorithms in optical networks," Comput. Netw. 53(7), 926‒944 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bastos-Filho, C. J. A.

D. A. R. Chaves, D. O. Aguiar, C. J. A. Bastos-Filho, and J. F. Martins-Filho, "Fast and adaptive impairment aware routing and wavelength assignment algorithm optimized by offline simulations," Opt. Switching Networking 7(3), 127‒138 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. A. Pereira, D. A. R. Chaves, C. J. A. Bastos-Filho, and J. F. Martins-Filho, "OSNR model to consider physical layer impairments in transparent optical networks," Photon. Netw. Commun. 18(2), 137‒149 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. J. A. Bastos-Filho, R. A. Santana, D. R. C. Silva, J. F. Martins-Filho, and D. A. R. Chaves, "Hopfield neural networks for routing in all-optical networks," Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), 2010, pp. 1‒4.

W. H. Schuler, C. J. A. Bastos-Filho, and A. L. I. Oliveira, "A hybrid Hopfield network-simulated annealing approach to optimize routing processes in telecommunications networks," 7th Int. Conf. on Intelligent Systems Design and Applications (ISDA), 2007, pp. 58‒63.

C. J. A. Bastos-Filho, D. A. R. Chaves, F. S. F. e Silva, R. V. B. Carvalho, H. A. Pereira, and J. F. Martins-Filho, "Impairment aware wavelength assignment for all-optical networks based on evolutionary computation," 11th Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), 2009, pp. 1‒4.

J. F. Martins-Filho, D. A. R. Chaves, C. J. A. Bastos-Filho, and D. O. Aguiar, "Intelligent and fast IRWA algorithm based on power series and particle swarm optimization," Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), 2008, pp. 158‒161.

Brandt Pearce, M.

J. He and M. Brandt Pearce, "Dynamic wavelength assignment using wavelength spectrum separation for crosstalk limited networks," Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. on Broadband Networks—Broadnets, 2006, pp. 1‒9.

Brandt-Pearce, M.

Y. Pointurier, M. Brandt-Pearce, S. Subramaniam, and B. Xu, "Cross-layer adaptive routing and wavelength assignment in all-optical networks," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 26(6), 32‒44 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. He, M. Brandt-Pearce, Y. Pointurier, C. Brown, and S. Subramaniam, "Adaptive wavelength assignment using wavelength spectrum separation for distributed optical networks," Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications (ICC), 2007, pp. 2406‒2411.

J. He and M. Brandt-Pearce, "RWA using wavelength ordering for crosstalk limited networks," Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), 2006, Anaheim, CA, USA, pp. 1‒3.

Brown, C.

J. He, M. Brandt-Pearce, Y. Pointurier, C. Brown, and S. Subramaniam, "Adaptive wavelength assignment using wavelength spectrum separation for distributed optical networks," Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications (ICC), 2007, pp. 2406‒2411.

Careglio, D.

S. Azodolmolky, M. Klinkowski, E. Marin-Tordera, D. Careglio, J. Sole-Pareta, and I. Tomkos, "A survey on physical layer impairments aware routing and wavelength assignment algorithms in optical networks," Comput. Netw. 53(7), 926‒944 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Carvalho, R. V. B.

C. J. A. Bastos-Filho, D. A. R. Chaves, F. S. F. e Silva, R. V. B. Carvalho, H. A. Pereira, and J. F. Martins-Filho, "Impairment aware wavelength assignment for all-optical networks based on evolutionary computation," 11th Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), 2009, pp. 1‒4.

Chaves, D. A. R.

D. A. R. Chaves, D. O. Aguiar, C. J. A. Bastos-Filho, and J. F. Martins-Filho, "Fast and adaptive impairment aware routing and wavelength assignment algorithm optimized by offline simulations," Opt. Switching Networking 7(3), 127‒138 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. A. Pereira, D. A. R. Chaves, C. J. A. Bastos-Filho, and J. F. Martins-Filho, "OSNR model to consider physical layer impairments in transparent optical networks," Photon. Netw. Commun. 18(2), 137‒149 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. J. A. Bastos-Filho, D. A. R. Chaves, F. S. F. e Silva, R. V. B. Carvalho, H. A. Pereira, and J. F. Martins-Filho, "Impairment aware wavelength assignment for all-optical networks based on evolutionary computation," 11th Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), 2009, pp. 1‒4.

C. J. A. Bastos-Filho, R. A. Santana, D. R. C. Silva, J. F. Martins-Filho, and D. A. R. Chaves, "Hopfield neural networks for routing in all-optical networks," Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), 2010, pp. 1‒4.

J. F. Martins-Filho, D. A. R. Chaves, C. J. A. Bastos-Filho, and D. O. Aguiar, "Intelligent and fast IRWA algorithm based on power series and particle swarm optimization," Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), 2008, pp. 158‒161.

Chraplyvy, A.

F. Forghieri, R. Tkach, A. Chraplyvy, and D. Marcuse, "Reduction of four-wave mixing crosstalk in WDM systems using unequally spaced channels," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6(6), 754‒756 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Corne, D. W.

D. W. Corne, N. R. Jerram, J. D. Knowles, and M. J. Oates, "PESA-II: Region based selection in evolutionary multiobjective optimization," Proc. Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conf. (GECCO), 2001, pp. 283‒290.

Desurvire, E. B.

Di Caro, G.

G. Di Caro and M. Dorigo, "Antnet: distributed stigmergetic control for communications networks," J. Artif. Intell. Res. 9, 317‒365 (1998).

Dorigo, M.

G. Di Caro and M. Dorigo, "Antnet: distributed stigmergetic control for communications networks," J. Artif. Intell. Res. 9, 317‒365 (1998).

e Silva, F. S. F.

C. J. A. Bastos-Filho, D. A. R. Chaves, F. S. F. e Silva, R. V. B. Carvalho, H. A. Pereira, and J. F. Martins-Filho, "Impairment aware wavelength assignment for all-optical networks based on evolutionary computation," 11th Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), 2009, pp. 1‒4.

Fonseca, I. E.

I. E. Fonseca, R. C. Almeida Jr., H. Waldman, and M. Ribeiro, "Meeting optical QoS requirements with reduced complexity in dynamic wavelength assignment," Proc. 1st Int. Conf. on Broadband Networks—Broadnets, 2004, pp. 331‒333.

Forghieri, F.

F. Forghieri, R. Tkach, A. Chraplyvy, and D. Marcuse, "Reduction of four-wave mixing crosstalk in WDM systems using unequally spaced channels," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6(6), 754‒756 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Goldberg, D. E.

D. E. Goldberg, Genetic Algorithms in Search Optimization and Machine Learning, Addison Wesley, 1998.

Guild, K. M.

He, J.

J. He and M. Brandt Pearce, "Dynamic wavelength assignment using wavelength spectrum separation for crosstalk limited networks," Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. on Broadband Networks—Broadnets, 2006, pp. 1‒9.

J. He, M. Brandt-Pearce, Y. Pointurier, C. Brown, and S. Subramaniam, "Adaptive wavelength assignment using wavelength spectrum separation for distributed optical networks," Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications (ICC), 2007, pp. 2406‒2411.

J. He and M. Brandt-Pearce, "RWA using wavelength ordering for crosstalk limited networks," Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), 2006, Anaheim, CA, USA, pp. 1‒3.

Horiguchi, S.

V. T. Le, X. Jiang, S. H. Ngo, and S. Horiguchi, "Dynamic RWA based on the combination of mobile agents technique and genetic algorithms in WDM networks with sparse wavelength conversion," IEICE Trans. Inf. Syst. E88-D(9), 2067‒2078 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jayasumana, A.

I. Alfouzan and A. Jayasumana, "An adaptive wavelength assignment algorithm for WDM networks," Opt. Netw. Mag. 4(2), 46‒55 (2003).

Jerram, N. R.

D. W. Corne, N. R. Jerram, J. D. Knowles, and M. J. Oates, "PESA-II: Region based selection in evolutionary multiobjective optimization," Proc. Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conf. (GECCO), 2001, pp. 283‒290.

Jiang, X.

V. T. Le, X. Jiang, S. H. Ngo, and S. Horiguchi, "Dynamic RWA based on the combination of mobile agents technique and genetic algorithms in WDM networks with sparse wavelength conversion," IEICE Trans. Inf. Syst. E88-D(9), 2067‒2078 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jue, J. P.

H. Zang, J. P. Jue, and B. Mukherjee, "A review of routing and wavelength assignment approaches for wavelength-routed optical WDM networks," Opt. Netw. Mag. 1(1), 47‒60 (2000).

Kitayama, K.-I.

A. Marsden, A. Maruta, and K.-I. Kitayama, "Routing and wavelength assignment encompassing FWM in WDM lightpath networks," Int. Conf. on Optical Network Design and Modeling (ONDM), 2008, pp. 1‒6.

Klinkowski, M.

S. Azodolmolky, M. Klinkowski, E. Marin-Tordera, D. Careglio, J. Sole-Pareta, and I. Tomkos, "A survey on physical layer impairments aware routing and wavelength assignment algorithms in optical networks," Comput. Netw. 53(7), 926‒944 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Knowles, J. D.

D. W. Corne, N. R. Jerram, J. D. Knowles, and M. J. Oates, "PESA-II: Region based selection in evolutionary multiobjective optimization," Proc. Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conf. (GECCO), 2001, pp. 283‒290.

Laumanns, M.

E. Zitzler, M. Laumanns, and L. Thiele, "SPEA2: Improving the strength Pareto evolutionary algorithm," EUROGEN 2001. Evolutionary Methods for Design, Optimization and Control With Applications to Industrial Problems, 2001, pp. 95‒100.

Le, V. T.

V. T. Le, X. Jiang, S. H. Ngo, and S. Horiguchi, "Dynamic RWA based on the combination of mobile agents technique and genetic algorithms in WDM networks with sparse wavelength conversion," IEICE Trans. Inf. Syst. E88-D(9), 2067‒2078 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Marcuse, D.

F. Forghieri, R. Tkach, A. Chraplyvy, and D. Marcuse, "Reduction of four-wave mixing crosstalk in WDM systems using unequally spaced channels," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6(6), 754‒756 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Marin-Tordera, E.

S. Azodolmolky, M. Klinkowski, E. Marin-Tordera, D. Careglio, J. Sole-Pareta, and I. Tomkos, "A survey on physical layer impairments aware routing and wavelength assignment algorithms in optical networks," Comput. Netw. 53(7), 926‒944 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Markidis, G.

I. Tomkos, S. Sygletos, A. Tzanakaki, and G. Markidis, "Impairment constraint based routing in mesh optical networks," Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), 2007, paper OWR1.

Marsden, A.

A. Marsden, A. Maruta, and K.-I. Kitayama, "Routing and wavelength assignment encompassing FWM in WDM lightpath networks," Int. Conf. on Optical Network Design and Modeling (ONDM), 2008, pp. 1‒6.

Martins-Filho, J. F.

D. A. R. Chaves, D. O. Aguiar, C. J. A. Bastos-Filho, and J. F. Martins-Filho, "Fast and adaptive impairment aware routing and wavelength assignment algorithm optimized by offline simulations," Opt. Switching Networking 7(3), 127‒138 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. J. A. Bastos-Filho, R. A. Santana, D. R. C. Silva, J. F. Martins-Filho, and D. A. R. Chaves, "Hopfield neural networks for routing in all-optical networks," Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), 2010, pp. 1‒4.

Martins-Filho, J. F.

H. A. Pereira, D. A. R. Chaves, C. J. A. Bastos-Filho, and J. F. Martins-Filho, "OSNR model to consider physical layer impairments in transparent optical networks," Photon. Netw. Commun. 18(2), 137‒149 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. J. A. Bastos-Filho, D. A. R. Chaves, F. S. F. e Silva, R. V. B. Carvalho, H. A. Pereira, and J. F. Martins-Filho, "Impairment aware wavelength assignment for all-optical networks based on evolutionary computation," 11th Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), 2009, pp. 1‒4.

J. F. Martins-Filho, D. A. R. Chaves, C. J. A. Bastos-Filho, and D. O. Aguiar, "Intelligent and fast IRWA algorithm based on power series and particle swarm optimization," Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), 2008, pp. 158‒161.

Maruta, A.

A. Marsden, A. Maruta, and K.-I. Kitayama, "Routing and wavelength assignment encompassing FWM in WDM lightpath networks," Int. Conf. on Optical Network Design and Modeling (ONDM), 2008, pp. 1‒6.

Mukherjee, B.

H. Zang, J. P. Jue, and B. Mukherjee, "A review of routing and wavelength assignment approaches for wavelength-routed optical WDM networks," Opt. Netw. Mag. 1(1), 47‒60 (2000).

Ngo, S. H.

V. T. Le, X. Jiang, S. H. Ngo, and S. Horiguchi, "Dynamic RWA based on the combination of mobile agents technique and genetic algorithms in WDM networks with sparse wavelength conversion," IEICE Trans. Inf. Syst. E88-D(9), 2067‒2078 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Oates, M. J.

D. W. Corne, N. R. Jerram, J. D. Knowles, and M. J. Oates, "PESA-II: Region based selection in evolutionary multiobjective optimization," Proc. Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conf. (GECCO), 2001, pp. 283‒290.

Oliveira, A. L. I.

W. H. Schuler, C. J. A. Bastos-Filho, and A. L. I. Oliveira, "A hybrid Hopfield network-simulated annealing approach to optimize routing processes in telecommunications networks," 7th Int. Conf. on Intelligent Systems Design and Applications (ISDA), 2007, pp. 58‒63.

Pereira, H. A.

H. A. Pereira, D. A. R. Chaves, C. J. A. Bastos-Filho, and J. F. Martins-Filho, "OSNR model to consider physical layer impairments in transparent optical networks," Photon. Netw. Commun. 18(2), 137‒149 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. J. A. Bastos-Filho, D. A. R. Chaves, F. S. F. e Silva, R. V. B. Carvalho, H. A. Pereira, and J. F. Martins-Filho, "Impairment aware wavelength assignment for all-optical networks based on evolutionary computation," 11th Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), 2009, pp. 1‒4.

Pointurier, Y.

Y. Pointurier, M. Brandt-Pearce, S. Subramaniam, and B. Xu, "Cross-layer adaptive routing and wavelength assignment in all-optical networks," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 26(6), 32‒44 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. He, M. Brandt-Pearce, Y. Pointurier, C. Brown, and S. Subramaniam, "Adaptive wavelength assignment using wavelength spectrum separation for distributed optical networks," Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications (ICC), 2007, pp. 2406‒2411.

Price, K.

R. Storn and K. Price, "Differential evolution—a simple and efficient heuristic for global optimization over continuous spaces," J. Global Optim. 11, 341‒359 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ribeiro, M.

I. E. Fonseca, R. C. Almeida Jr., H. Waldman, and M. Ribeiro, "Meeting optical QoS requirements with reduced complexity in dynamic wavelength assignment," Proc. 1st Int. Conf. on Broadband Networks—Broadnets, 2004, pp. 331‒333.

Santana, R. A.

C. J. A. Bastos-Filho, R. A. Santana, D. R. C. Silva, J. F. Martins-Filho, and D. A. R. Chaves, "Hopfield neural networks for routing in all-optical networks," Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), 2010, pp. 1‒4.

Schuler, W. H.

W. H. Schuler, C. J. A. Bastos-Filho, and A. L. I. Oliveira, "A hybrid Hopfield network-simulated annealing approach to optimize routing processes in telecommunications networks," 7th Int. Conf. on Intelligent Systems Design and Applications (ISDA), 2007, pp. 58‒63.

Sengupta, A.

A. G. Stoica and A. Sengupta, "On a dynamic wavelength assignment algorithm for wavelength routed all-optical networks," Proc. SPIE 4233, 211‒222 (2000).

Silva, D. R. C.

C. J. A. Bastos-Filho, R. A. Santana, D. R. C. Silva, J. F. Martins-Filho, and D. A. R. Chaves, "Hopfield neural networks for routing in all-optical networks," Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), 2010, pp. 1‒4.

Sole-Pareta, J.

S. Azodolmolky, M. Klinkowski, E. Marin-Tordera, D. Careglio, J. Sole-Pareta, and I. Tomkos, "A survey on physical layer impairments aware routing and wavelength assignment algorithms in optical networks," Comput. Netw. 53(7), 926‒944 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Stoica, A. G.

A. G. Stoica and A. Sengupta, "On a dynamic wavelength assignment algorithm for wavelength routed all-optical networks," Proc. SPIE 4233, 211‒222 (2000).

Storn, R.

R. Storn and K. Price, "Differential evolution—a simple and efficient heuristic for global optimization over continuous spaces," J. Global Optim. 11, 341‒359 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Subramaniam, S.

Y. Pointurier, M. Brandt-Pearce, S. Subramaniam, and B. Xu, "Cross-layer adaptive routing and wavelength assignment in all-optical networks," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 26(6), 32‒44 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. He, M. Brandt-Pearce, Y. Pointurier, C. Brown, and S. Subramaniam, "Adaptive wavelength assignment using wavelength spectrum separation for distributed optical networks," Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications (ICC), 2007, pp. 2406‒2411.

Sygletos, S.

I. Tomkos, S. Sygletos, A. Tzanakaki, and G. Markidis, "Impairment constraint based routing in mesh optical networks," Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), 2007, paper OWR1.

Thiele, L.

E. Zitzler, M. Laumanns, and L. Thiele, "SPEA2: Improving the strength Pareto evolutionary algorithm," EUROGEN 2001. Evolutionary Methods for Design, Optimization and Control With Applications to Industrial Problems, 2001, pp. 95‒100.

Tkach, R.

F. Forghieri, R. Tkach, A. Chraplyvy, and D. Marcuse, "Reduction of four-wave mixing crosstalk in WDM systems using unequally spaced channels," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6(6), 754‒756 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Tomkos, I.

S. Azodolmolky, M. Klinkowski, E. Marin-Tordera, D. Careglio, J. Sole-Pareta, and I. Tomkos, "A survey on physical layer impairments aware routing and wavelength assignment algorithms in optical networks," Comput. Netw. 53(7), 926‒944 (2009).
[CrossRef]

I. Tomkos, S. Sygletos, A. Tzanakaki, and G. Markidis, "Impairment constraint based routing in mesh optical networks," Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), 2007, paper OWR1.

Tzanakaki, A.

I. Tomkos, S. Sygletos, A. Tzanakaki, and G. Markidis, "Impairment constraint based routing in mesh optical networks," Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), 2007, paper OWR1.

Waldman, H.

I. E. Fonseca, R. C. Almeida Jr., H. Waldman, and M. Ribeiro, "Meeting optical QoS requirements with reduced complexity in dynamic wavelength assignment," Proc. 1st Int. Conf. on Broadband Networks—Broadnets, 2004, pp. 331‒333.

Xu, B.

Y. Pointurier, M. Brandt-Pearce, S. Subramaniam, and B. Xu, "Cross-layer adaptive routing and wavelength assignment in all-optical networks," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 26(6), 32‒44 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yuan, X.

C. J. Zhou and X. Yuan, "A study of dynamic routing and wavelength assignment with imprecise network state information," Proc. Int. Conf. on Parallel Processing Workshops, 2002, pp. 207‒213.

Zang, H.

H. Zang, J. P. Jue, and B. Mukherjee, "A review of routing and wavelength assignment approaches for wavelength-routed optical WDM networks," Opt. Netw. Mag. 1(1), 47‒60 (2000).

Zhou, C. J.

C. J. Zhou and X. Yuan, "A study of dynamic routing and wavelength assignment with imprecise network state information," Proc. Int. Conf. on Parallel Processing Workshops, 2002, pp. 207‒213.

Zitzler, E.

E. Zitzler, M. Laumanns, and L. Thiele, "SPEA2: Improving the strength Pareto evolutionary algorithm," EUROGEN 2001. Evolutionary Methods for Design, Optimization and Control With Applications to Industrial Problems, 2001, pp. 95‒100.

Zulkifli, N.

Comput. Netw. (1)

S. Azodolmolky, M. Klinkowski, E. Marin-Tordera, D. Careglio, J. Sole-Pareta, and I. Tomkos, "A survey on physical layer impairments aware routing and wavelength assignment algorithms in optical networks," Comput. Netw. 53(7), 926‒944 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. (1)

Y. Pointurier, M. Brandt-Pearce, S. Subramaniam, and B. Xu, "Cross-layer adaptive routing and wavelength assignment in all-optical networks," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 26(6), 32‒44 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

F. Forghieri, R. Tkach, A. Chraplyvy, and D. Marcuse, "Reduction of four-wave mixing crosstalk in WDM systems using unequally spaced channels," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6(6), 754‒756 (1994).
[CrossRef]

IEICE Trans. Inf. Syst. (1)

V. T. Le, X. Jiang, S. H. Ngo, and S. Horiguchi, "Dynamic RWA based on the combination of mobile agents technique and genetic algorithms in WDM networks with sparse wavelength conversion," IEICE Trans. Inf. Syst. E88-D(9), 2067‒2078 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Artif. Intell. Res. (1)

G. Di Caro and M. Dorigo, "Antnet: distributed stigmergetic control for communications networks," J. Artif. Intell. Res. 9, 317‒365 (1998).

J. Global Optim. (1)

R. Storn and K. Price, "Differential evolution—a simple and efficient heuristic for global optimization over continuous spaces," J. Global Optim. 11, 341‒359 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Opt. Netw. (1)

Opt. Netw. Mag. (2)

H. Zang, J. P. Jue, and B. Mukherjee, "A review of routing and wavelength assignment approaches for wavelength-routed optical WDM networks," Opt. Netw. Mag. 1(1), 47‒60 (2000).

I. Alfouzan and A. Jayasumana, "An adaptive wavelength assignment algorithm for WDM networks," Opt. Netw. Mag. 4(2), 46‒55 (2003).

Opt. Switching Networking (1)

D. A. R. Chaves, D. O. Aguiar, C. J. A. Bastos-Filho, and J. F. Martins-Filho, "Fast and adaptive impairment aware routing and wavelength assignment algorithm optimized by offline simulations," Opt. Switching Networking 7(3), 127‒138 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Photon. Netw. Commun. (1)

H. A. Pereira, D. A. R. Chaves, C. J. A. Bastos-Filho, and J. F. Martins-Filho, "OSNR model to consider physical layer impairments in transparent optical networks," Photon. Netw. Commun. 18(2), 137‒149 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

A. G. Stoica and A. Sengupta, "On a dynamic wavelength assignment algorithm for wavelength routed all-optical networks," Proc. SPIE 4233, 211‒222 (2000).

Other (14)

C. J. Zhou and X. Yuan, "A study of dynamic routing and wavelength assignment with imprecise network state information," Proc. Int. Conf. on Parallel Processing Workshops, 2002, pp. 207‒213.

A. Marsden, A. Maruta, and K.-I. Kitayama, "Routing and wavelength assignment encompassing FWM in WDM lightpath networks," Int. Conf. on Optical Network Design and Modeling (ONDM), 2008, pp. 1‒6.

D. E. Goldberg, Genetic Algorithms in Search Optimization and Machine Learning, Addison Wesley, 1998.

J. F. Martins-Filho, D. A. R. Chaves, C. J. A. Bastos-Filho, and D. O. Aguiar, "Intelligent and fast IRWA algorithm based on power series and particle swarm optimization," Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), 2008, pp. 158‒161.

C. J. A. Bastos-Filho, R. A. Santana, D. R. C. Silva, J. F. Martins-Filho, and D. A. R. Chaves, "Hopfield neural networks for routing in all-optical networks," Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), 2010, pp. 1‒4.

C. J. A. Bastos-Filho, D. A. R. Chaves, F. S. F. e Silva, R. V. B. Carvalho, H. A. Pereira, and J. F. Martins-Filho, "Impairment aware wavelength assignment for all-optical networks based on evolutionary computation," 11th Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), 2009, pp. 1‒4.

W. H. Schuler, C. J. A. Bastos-Filho, and A. L. I. Oliveira, "A hybrid Hopfield network-simulated annealing approach to optimize routing processes in telecommunications networks," 7th Int. Conf. on Intelligent Systems Design and Applications (ISDA), 2007, pp. 58‒63.

I. Tomkos, S. Sygletos, A. Tzanakaki, and G. Markidis, "Impairment constraint based routing in mesh optical networks," Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), 2007, paper OWR1.

J. He and M. Brandt-Pearce, "RWA using wavelength ordering for crosstalk limited networks," Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), 2006, Anaheim, CA, USA, pp. 1‒3.

J. He and M. Brandt Pearce, "Dynamic wavelength assignment using wavelength spectrum separation for crosstalk limited networks," Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. on Broadband Networks—Broadnets, 2006, pp. 1‒9.

J. He, M. Brandt-Pearce, Y. Pointurier, C. Brown, and S. Subramaniam, "Adaptive wavelength assignment using wavelength spectrum separation for distributed optical networks," Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications (ICC), 2007, pp. 2406‒2411.

I. E. Fonseca, R. C. Almeida Jr., H. Waldman, and M. Ribeiro, "Meeting optical QoS requirements with reduced complexity in dynamic wavelength assignment," Proc. 1st Int. Conf. on Broadband Networks—Broadnets, 2004, pp. 331‒333.

D. W. Corne, N. R. Jerram, J. D. Knowles, and M. J. Oates, "PESA-II: Region based selection in evolutionary multiobjective optimization," Proc. Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conf. (GECCO), 2001, pp. 283‒290.

E. Zitzler, M. Laumanns, and L. Thiele, "SPEA2: Improving the strength Pareto evolutionary algorithm," EUROGEN 2001. Evolutionary Methods for Design, Optimization and Control With Applications to Industrial Problems, 2001, pp. 95‒100.

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Figures (14)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The link configuration with optical devices considered by the PLI modeling [27].

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Operation flowchart of our NSE and CAC.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(Color online) Network topology similar to NSFNET used in our simulations.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(Color online) Pacific Bell network topology used in our simulations.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(Color online) Convergency analysis of the iWA training stage for the NSFNET topology.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(Color online) Convergency analysis of the iWA training stage for the Pacific Bell topology.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(Color online) Blocking probability as a function of the network load for the different WA algorithms in scenario S 1 on the NSFNET topology.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(Color online) Blocking probability as a function of the network load for the different WA algorithms in scenario S 2 on the NSFNET topology.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(Color online) Blocking probability as a function of the network load for the different WA algorithms in scenario S 3 on the NSFNET topology.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

(Color online) Blocking probability as a function of the network load for the different WA algorithms in scenario S 1 on the Pacific Bell topology.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

(Color online) Blocking probability as a function of the network load for the different WA algorithms in scenario S 2 on the Pacific Bell topology.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

(Color online) Blocking probability as a function of the network load for the different WA algorithms in scenario S 3 on the Pacific Bell topology.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

(Color online) Algorithm performance for different values of the maximum load variation per source–destination pair (R), for a total network load of 60 Erlangs in the S 2 scenario, for nonuniform (boxes) and uniform (closed symbols) load distribution.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

(Color online) Algorithm performance for different values of the maximum load variation per source–destination pair (R), for a total network load of 60 Erlangs in the S 2 scenario, for nonuniform (boxes) and uniform (closed symbols) load distribution.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table I Default Simulation Parameters

Tables Icon

Table II FF Lists Found by the iWA Algorithm in the Optimization Process for the NSFNET Topology

Tables Icon

Table III FF Lists Found by the iWA Algorithm in the Optimization Process for the Pacific Bell Topology