Abstract

In an integrated fiber and wireless (FiWi) access network consisting of a wireless subnetwork and an optical subnetwork, multipath routing may be applied in the wireless subnetwork to improve throughput. Due to different delays along multiple paths, packets may arrive at the destination out of order, which may cause Transmission Control Protocl (TCP) performance degradation. In this paper, we propose two mechanisms to improve in-order departure of packets from the optical line terminal (OLT) in a FiWi network and enhance the TCP performance. We first propose an effective scheduling algorithm at the OLT to ensure possible in-order packet arrivals at the destination. We then design a dynamic bandwidth allocation (DBA) scheme in the optical subnetwork (i.e., an Ethernet passive optical network) that gives higher priorities to flows that may trigger fast retransmit and fast recovery in upstream bandwidth allocation. Simulation results show that both the proposed scheduling algorithm and the DBA scheme are effective in improving the TCP performance.

© 2011 OSA

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References

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  1. S. Sarkar, S. Dixit, and B. Mukherjee, "Hybrid wireless-optical broadband-access network (WOBAN): a review of relevant challenges," J. Lightwave Technol. 25(11), 3329‒3340 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. K. Marina and S. R. Das, "Ad hoc on-demand multipath distance vector routing," ACM SIGMOBILE Mob. Comput. Commun. Rev. 6(3), 92‒93 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. R. Pearlman, Z. J. Haas, P. Sholander, and S. S. Tabrizi, "On the impact of alternate path routing for load balancing in mobile ad hoc networks," MobiHoc ’00: Proc. 1st ACM Int. Symp. Mobile Ad Hoc Networking & Computing, 2000, pp. 3‒10.
  4. K. Leung and V. Li, "Flow assignment and packet scheduling for multipath routing," J. Commun. Netw. 5(3), 230‒239 (2003).
  5. W. R. Stevens, TCP/IP Illustrated, Addision-Wesley, 1994.
  6. M. Zhang, B. Karp, S. Floyd, and L. Peterson, "RR-TCP: a reordering-robust TCP with DSACK," Proc. 11th IEEE Int. Conf. on Network Protocols, 2003, pp. 95‒106.
  7. Y. Lee, I. Park, and Y. Choi, "Improving TCP performance in multipath packet forwarding networks," J. Commun. Netw. 4, 148‒157 (2002).
  8. B. Radunovi, C. Gkantsidis, D. Gunawardena, and P. Key, "Horizon: balancing TCP over multiple paths in wireless mesh network," Proc. 14th ACM Int. Conf. on Mobile Computing and Networking, 2008, San Francisco, CA, pp. 247‒258.
  9. J. Wang, K. Wu, S. Li, and C. Qiao, "Performance modeling and analysis of multipath routing in integrated fiber-wireless networks," Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, 2010, pp. 1‒5.
  10. J. Lane and A. Nakao, "Best-effort network layer packet reordering in support of multipath overlay packet dispersion," IEEE Global Telecommunications Conf., 2008, pp. 1‒6.
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  13. G. Kramer, B. Mukherjee, and G. Pesavento, "IPACT: a dynamic protocol for an Ethernet PON (EPON)," IEEE Commun. Mag. 40(2), 74‒80 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  14. G. Kramer, B. Mukherjee, and G. Pesavento, "Interleaved polling with adaptive cycle time (IPACT): a dynamic bandwidth distribution scheme in an optical access network," Photon. Netw. Commun. 4(1), 89‒107 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  15. H.-J. Byun, J.-M. Nho, and J.-T. Lim, "Dynamic bandwidth allocation algorithm in Ethernet passive optical networks," Electron. Lett. 39(13), 1001‒1002 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  16. Y. Luo and N. Ansari, "Limited sharing with traffic prediction for dynamic bandwidth allocation and QoS provisioning over Ethernet passive optical networks," J. Opt. Netw. 4(9), 561‒572 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  17. Y. Zhu and M. Ma, "IPACT with grant estimation (IPACT-GE) scheme for Ethernet passive optical networks," J. Lightwave Technol. 26(14), 2055‒2063 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  20. M. Hajduczenia, H. J. da Silva, and P. P. Monteiro, "Flexible logical-link-identifier assignment policy for Ethernet passive optical networks based on extended multipoint-control-protocol DU flow control," J. Opt. Netw. 5(9), 681‒698 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  21. The network simulator - ns-2 [Online]. Available: http://www.isi.edu/nsnam/ns/
  22. J. Padhye, V. Firoiu, D. Towsley, and J. Kurose, "Modeling TCP throughput: a simple model and its empirical validation," SIGCOMM Comput. Commun. Rev. 28(4), 303‒314 (1998).
    [CrossRef]

2009 (1)

2008 (1)

2007 (1)

2006 (1)

2005 (1)

2004 (1)

M. P. Mcgarry, M. Maier, and M. Reisslein, "Ethernet PONS: a survey of dynamic bandwidth allocation (DBA) algorithms," IEEE Commun. Mag. 42, 8‒15 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

H.-J. Byun, J.-M. Nho, and J.-T. Lim, "Dynamic bandwidth allocation algorithm in Ethernet passive optical networks," Electron. Lett. 39(13), 1001‒1002 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Leung and V. Li, "Flow assignment and packet scheduling for multipath routing," J. Commun. Netw. 5(3), 230‒239 (2003).

2002 (4)

Y. Lee, I. Park, and Y. Choi, "Improving TCP performance in multipath packet forwarding networks," J. Commun. Netw. 4, 148‒157 (2002).

M. K. Marina and S. R. Das, "Ad hoc on-demand multipath distance vector routing," ACM SIGMOBILE Mob. Comput. Commun. Rev. 6(3), 92‒93 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. Kramer, B. Mukherjee, and G. Pesavento, "IPACT: a dynamic protocol for an Ethernet PON (EPON)," IEEE Commun. Mag. 40(2), 74‒80 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. Kramer, B. Mukherjee, and G. Pesavento, "Interleaved polling with adaptive cycle time (IPACT): a dynamic bandwidth distribution scheme in an optical access network," Photon. Netw. Commun. 4(1), 89‒107 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

J. Padhye, V. Firoiu, D. Towsley, and J. Kurose, "Modeling TCP throughput: a simple model and its empirical validation," SIGCOMM Comput. Commun. Rev. 28(4), 303‒314 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

M. Shreedhar and G. Varghese, "Efficient fair queueing using deficit round-robin," IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 4(3), 375‒385 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ansari, N.

Byun, H.-J.

H.-J. Byun, J.-M. Nho, and J.-T. Lim, "Dynamic bandwidth allocation algorithm in Ethernet passive optical networks," Electron. Lett. 39(13), 1001‒1002 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Choi, Y.

Y. Lee, I. Park, and Y. Choi, "Improving TCP performance in multipath packet forwarding networks," J. Commun. Netw. 4, 148‒157 (2002).

Comer, D.

D. Comer, Computer Networks and Internets, Prentice Hall, 2008.

da Silva, H. J.

Das, S. R.

M. K. Marina and S. R. Das, "Ad hoc on-demand multipath distance vector routing," ACM SIGMOBILE Mob. Comput. Commun. Rev. 6(3), 92‒93 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dixit, S.

Firoiu, V.

J. Padhye, V. Firoiu, D. Towsley, and J. Kurose, "Modeling TCP throughput: a simple model and its empirical validation," SIGCOMM Comput. Commun. Rev. 28(4), 303‒314 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Floyd, S.

M. Zhang, B. Karp, S. Floyd, and L. Peterson, "RR-TCP: a reordering-robust TCP with DSACK," Proc. 11th IEEE Int. Conf. on Network Protocols, 2003, pp. 95‒106.

Gkantsidis, C.

B. Radunovi, C. Gkantsidis, D. Gunawardena, and P. Key, "Horizon: balancing TCP over multiple paths in wireless mesh network," Proc. 14th ACM Int. Conf. on Mobile Computing and Networking, 2008, San Francisco, CA, pp. 247‒258.

Gunawardena, D.

B. Radunovi, C. Gkantsidis, D. Gunawardena, and P. Key, "Horizon: balancing TCP over multiple paths in wireless mesh network," Proc. 14th ACM Int. Conf. on Mobile Computing and Networking, 2008, San Francisco, CA, pp. 247‒258.

Haas, Z. J.

M. R. Pearlman, Z. J. Haas, P. Sholander, and S. S. Tabrizi, "On the impact of alternate path routing for load balancing in mobile ad hoc networks," MobiHoc ’00: Proc. 1st ACM Int. Symp. Mobile Ad Hoc Networking & Computing, 2000, pp. 3‒10.

Hajduczenia, M.

Ikeda, H.

Karp, B.

M. Zhang, B. Karp, S. Floyd, and L. Peterson, "RR-TCP: a reordering-robust TCP with DSACK," Proc. 11th IEEE Int. Conf. on Network Protocols, 2003, pp. 95‒106.

Key, P.

B. Radunovi, C. Gkantsidis, D. Gunawardena, and P. Key, "Horizon: balancing TCP over multiple paths in wireless mesh network," Proc. 14th ACM Int. Conf. on Mobile Computing and Networking, 2008, San Francisco, CA, pp. 247‒258.

Kitayama, K.

Kramer, G.

G. Kramer, B. Mukherjee, and G. Pesavento, "Interleaved polling with adaptive cycle time (IPACT): a dynamic bandwidth distribution scheme in an optical access network," Photon. Netw. Commun. 4(1), 89‒107 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. Kramer, B. Mukherjee, and G. Pesavento, "IPACT: a dynamic protocol for an Ethernet PON (EPON)," IEEE Commun. Mag. 40(2), 74‒80 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kurose, J.

J. Padhye, V. Firoiu, D. Towsley, and J. Kurose, "Modeling TCP throughput: a simple model and its empirical validation," SIGCOMM Comput. Commun. Rev. 28(4), 303‒314 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lane, J.

J. Lane and A. Nakao, "Best-effort network layer packet reordering in support of multipath overlay packet dispersion," IEEE Global Telecommunications Conf., 2008, pp. 1‒6.

Lee, Y.

Y. Lee, I. Park, and Y. Choi, "Improving TCP performance in multipath packet forwarding networks," J. Commun. Netw. 4, 148‒157 (2002).

Leung, K.

K. Leung and V. Li, "Flow assignment and packet scheduling for multipath routing," J. Commun. Netw. 5(3), 230‒239 (2003).

Li, S.

J. Wang, K. Wu, S. Li, and C. Qiao, "Performance modeling and analysis of multipath routing in integrated fiber-wireless networks," Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, 2010, pp. 1‒5.

Li, V.

K. Leung and V. Li, "Flow assignment and packet scheduling for multipath routing," J. Commun. Netw. 5(3), 230‒239 (2003).

Lim, J.-T.

H.-J. Byun, J.-M. Nho, and J.-T. Lim, "Dynamic bandwidth allocation algorithm in Ethernet passive optical networks," Electron. Lett. 39(13), 1001‒1002 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Luo, Y.

Ma, M.

Maier, M.

M. P. Mcgarry, M. Maier, and M. Reisslein, "Ethernet PONS: a survey of dynamic bandwidth allocation (DBA) algorithms," IEEE Commun. Mag. 42, 8‒15 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Marina, M. K.

M. K. Marina and S. R. Das, "Ad hoc on-demand multipath distance vector routing," ACM SIGMOBILE Mob. Comput. Commun. Rev. 6(3), 92‒93 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mcgarry, M. P.

M. P. Mcgarry, M. Maier, and M. Reisslein, "Ethernet PONS: a survey of dynamic bandwidth allocation (DBA) algorithms," IEEE Commun. Mag. 42, 8‒15 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Monteiro, P. P.

Mukherjee, B.

S. Sarkar, S. Dixit, and B. Mukherjee, "Hybrid wireless-optical broadband-access network (WOBAN): a review of relevant challenges," J. Lightwave Technol. 25(11), 3329‒3340 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Kramer, B. Mukherjee, and G. Pesavento, "IPACT: a dynamic protocol for an Ethernet PON (EPON)," IEEE Commun. Mag. 40(2), 74‒80 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. Kramer, B. Mukherjee, and G. Pesavento, "Interleaved polling with adaptive cycle time (IPACT): a dynamic bandwidth distribution scheme in an optical access network," Photon. Netw. Commun. 4(1), 89‒107 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nakao, A.

J. Lane and A. Nakao, "Best-effort network layer packet reordering in support of multipath overlay packet dispersion," IEEE Global Telecommunications Conf., 2008, pp. 1‒6.

Nho, J.-M.

H.-J. Byun, J.-M. Nho, and J.-T. Lim, "Dynamic bandwidth allocation algorithm in Ethernet passive optical networks," Electron. Lett. 39(13), 1001‒1002 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Padhye, J.

J. Padhye, V. Firoiu, D. Towsley, and J. Kurose, "Modeling TCP throughput: a simple model and its empirical validation," SIGCOMM Comput. Commun. Rev. 28(4), 303‒314 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Park, I.

Y. Lee, I. Park, and Y. Choi, "Improving TCP performance in multipath packet forwarding networks," J. Commun. Netw. 4, 148‒157 (2002).

Pearlman, M. R.

M. R. Pearlman, Z. J. Haas, P. Sholander, and S. S. Tabrizi, "On the impact of alternate path routing for load balancing in mobile ad hoc networks," MobiHoc ’00: Proc. 1st ACM Int. Symp. Mobile Ad Hoc Networking & Computing, 2000, pp. 3‒10.

Pesavento, G.

G. Kramer, B. Mukherjee, and G. Pesavento, "Interleaved polling with adaptive cycle time (IPACT): a dynamic bandwidth distribution scheme in an optical access network," Photon. Netw. Commun. 4(1), 89‒107 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. Kramer, B. Mukherjee, and G. Pesavento, "IPACT: a dynamic protocol for an Ethernet PON (EPON)," IEEE Commun. Mag. 40(2), 74‒80 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Peterson, L.

M. Zhang, B. Karp, S. Floyd, and L. Peterson, "RR-TCP: a reordering-robust TCP with DSACK," Proc. 11th IEEE Int. Conf. on Network Protocols, 2003, pp. 95‒106.

Qiao, C.

J. Wang, K. Wu, S. Li, and C. Qiao, "Performance modeling and analysis of multipath routing in integrated fiber-wireless networks," Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, 2010, pp. 1‒5.

Radunovi, B.

B. Radunovi, C. Gkantsidis, D. Gunawardena, and P. Key, "Horizon: balancing TCP over multiple paths in wireless mesh network," Proc. 14th ACM Int. Conf. on Mobile Computing and Networking, 2008, San Francisco, CA, pp. 247‒258.

Reisslein, M.

M. P. Mcgarry, M. Maier, and M. Reisslein, "Ethernet PONS: a survey of dynamic bandwidth allocation (DBA) algorithms," IEEE Commun. Mag. 42, 8‒15 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sarkar, S.

Sholander, P.

M. R. Pearlman, Z. J. Haas, P. Sholander, and S. S. Tabrizi, "On the impact of alternate path routing for load balancing in mobile ad hoc networks," MobiHoc ’00: Proc. 1st ACM Int. Symp. Mobile Ad Hoc Networking & Computing, 2000, pp. 3‒10.

Shreedhar, M.

M. Shreedhar and G. Varghese, "Efficient fair queueing using deficit round-robin," IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 4(3), 375‒385 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Stevens, W. R.

W. R. Stevens, TCP/IP Illustrated, Addision-Wesley, 1994.

Tabrizi, S. S.

M. R. Pearlman, Z. J. Haas, P. Sholander, and S. S. Tabrizi, "On the impact of alternate path routing for load balancing in mobile ad hoc networks," MobiHoc ’00: Proc. 1st ACM Int. Symp. Mobile Ad Hoc Networking & Computing, 2000, pp. 3‒10.

Towsley, D.

J. Padhye, V. Firoiu, D. Towsley, and J. Kurose, "Modeling TCP throughput: a simple model and its empirical validation," SIGCOMM Comput. Commun. Rev. 28(4), 303‒314 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Varghese, G.

M. Shreedhar and G. Varghese, "Efficient fair queueing using deficit round-robin," IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 4(3), 375‒385 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

J. Wang, K. Wu, S. Li, and C. Qiao, "Performance modeling and analysis of multipath routing in integrated fiber-wireless networks," Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, 2010, pp. 1‒5.

Wu, K.

J. Wang, K. Wu, S. Li, and C. Qiao, "Performance modeling and analysis of multipath routing in integrated fiber-wireless networks," Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, 2010, pp. 1‒5.

Zhang, M.

M. Zhang, B. Karp, S. Floyd, and L. Peterson, "RR-TCP: a reordering-robust TCP with DSACK," Proc. 11th IEEE Int. Conf. on Network Protocols, 2003, pp. 95‒106.

Zhu, Y.

ACM SIGMOBILE Mob. Comput. Commun. Rev. (1)

M. K. Marina and S. R. Das, "Ad hoc on-demand multipath distance vector routing," ACM SIGMOBILE Mob. Comput. Commun. Rev. 6(3), 92‒93 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

H.-J. Byun, J.-M. Nho, and J.-T. Lim, "Dynamic bandwidth allocation algorithm in Ethernet passive optical networks," Electron. Lett. 39(13), 1001‒1002 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Commun. Mag. (2)

M. P. Mcgarry, M. Maier, and M. Reisslein, "Ethernet PONS: a survey of dynamic bandwidth allocation (DBA) algorithms," IEEE Commun. Mag. 42, 8‒15 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Kramer, B. Mukherjee, and G. Pesavento, "IPACT: a dynamic protocol for an Ethernet PON (EPON)," IEEE Commun. Mag. 40(2), 74‒80 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. (1)

M. Shreedhar and G. Varghese, "Efficient fair queueing using deficit round-robin," IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 4(3), 375‒385 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Commun. Netw. (2)

K. Leung and V. Li, "Flow assignment and packet scheduling for multipath routing," J. Commun. Netw. 5(3), 230‒239 (2003).

Y. Lee, I. Park, and Y. Choi, "Improving TCP performance in multipath packet forwarding networks," J. Commun. Netw. 4, 148‒157 (2002).

J. Lightwave Technol. (3)

J. Opt. Netw. (2)

Photon. Netw. Commun. (1)

G. Kramer, B. Mukherjee, and G. Pesavento, "Interleaved polling with adaptive cycle time (IPACT): a dynamic bandwidth distribution scheme in an optical access network," Photon. Netw. Commun. 4(1), 89‒107 (2002).
[CrossRef]

SIGCOMM Comput. Commun. Rev. (1)

J. Padhye, V. Firoiu, D. Towsley, and J. Kurose, "Modeling TCP throughput: a simple model and its empirical validation," SIGCOMM Comput. Commun. Rev. 28(4), 303‒314 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Other (8)

The network simulator - ns-2 [Online]. Available: http://www.isi.edu/nsnam/ns/

D. Comer, Computer Networks and Internets, Prentice Hall, 2008.

B. Radunovi, C. Gkantsidis, D. Gunawardena, and P. Key, "Horizon: balancing TCP over multiple paths in wireless mesh network," Proc. 14th ACM Int. Conf. on Mobile Computing and Networking, 2008, San Francisco, CA, pp. 247‒258.

J. Wang, K. Wu, S. Li, and C. Qiao, "Performance modeling and analysis of multipath routing in integrated fiber-wireless networks," Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, 2010, pp. 1‒5.

J. Lane and A. Nakao, "Best-effort network layer packet reordering in support of multipath overlay packet dispersion," IEEE Global Telecommunications Conf., 2008, pp. 1‒6.

W. R. Stevens, TCP/IP Illustrated, Addision-Wesley, 1994.

M. Zhang, B. Karp, S. Floyd, and L. Peterson, "RR-TCP: a reordering-robust TCP with DSACK," Proc. 11th IEEE Int. Conf. on Network Protocols, 2003, pp. 95‒106.

M. R. Pearlman, Z. J. Haas, P. Sholander, and S. S. Tabrizi, "On the impact of alternate path routing for load balancing in mobile ad hoc networks," MobiHoc ’00: Proc. 1st ACM Int. Symp. Mobile Ad Hoc Networking & Computing, 2000, pp. 3‒10.

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(Color online) A conceptual architecture of FiWi networks.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

A bit_vector for recording the OOD packet delivery.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

State change of d a c k at each queue.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(Color online) One LLID for each traffic type in each ONU.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Simulation network topology.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Goodput versus maximum delay difference.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Queueing delay at the OLT versus maximum delay difference.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Goodput versus buffer size in the OLT.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Min–max ratio versus maximum delay difference.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Goodput versus maximum delay difference with packet losses, where the packet loss rate = 0.1%.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Goodput versus maximum delay difference with packet losses, where the packet loss rate = 1%.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Goodput versus max_hold/maximum delay difference.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table I Notations for Flow State

Tables Icon

Table II Parameters for EPON System Simulation

Equations (17)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

C f ( s i m p l e ) = i = 0 k 1 W 2 i = W 4 W 2 + 1
C f ( s p c s ) = t τ R T T W m a x _ h o l d R T T W
C l ( s p c s ) = m a x _ h o l d R T T W
E [ s i m p l e ] = C f ( s i m p l e ) Pr ( f ) + C l ( s i m p l e ) Pr ( l ) = W 4 W 2 + 1 Pr ( f ) .
E [ s p c s ] = C f ( s p c s ) Pr ( f ) + C l ( s p c s ) Pr ( l ) m a x _ h o l d R T T W ( Pr ( f ) + Pr ( l ) ) .
E d i f f = E [ s i m p l e ] E [ s p c s ] W 1 4 W 2 + 1 Pr ( f ) m a x _ h o l d R T T ( Pr ( f ) + Pr ( l ) ) .
G [ i ] ( n + 1 ) = min ( R [ i ] ( n ) , W max ) ,
G [ i ] ( n + 1 ) = min ( R [ i ] ( n ) + α E [ i ] ( n + 1 ) , W max ) ,
M = ( X 1 , X 2 , , X N ) ,
x j i = 1 , E j ( t ) = 1 & π ( j ) = i 0 , otherwise ,
ϕ i = j = 1 F x j i .
α i = ϕ i max j { ϕ i } if  max j { ϕ i } > 0 1 if  max j { ϕ i } = 0 .
G [ i ] ( n + 1 ) = min ( R [ i ] ( n ) + α i E [ i ] ( n + 1 ) , W max ) .
D i [ IPACT-MPR ] D i [ IPACT-GE ] D i [ IPACT ] .
M = 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 .
B T C P = min B i , W max R T T M S S ,
r min max = min j { x i } max j { x i } = min i , j x i x j .