Abstract

Most of the existing studies on traffic grooming focus on minimizing required network link capacity and providing a serving relationship between client services and link capacity. Subsequent to this step, it is important to plan for actual client service add/drop over client service ports and end-to-end lightpath establishment over network ports, which is, however, not well investigated. We call such an effort node hardware module planning. This is an industrially practical problem aiming to minimize the node hardware cost since hardware modules are usually the most expensive in a network. Based on a link-based traffic grooming result, we develop a mixed integer linear programming (MILP) model to optimally plan hardware modules. To overcome the computational difficulty of the MILP model under large-size planning scenarios, we also develop a fast suboptimal heuristic for hardware module planning. Simulation studies indicate that the heuristic is efficient to realize a design close to an optimal solution obtained by the MILP model for both of the single-hop and multi-hop grooming modes. Also, the multi-hop grooming mode requires not only fewer link capacity units than the single-hop mode as found in most of the existing studies, but also lower node hardware costs. Finally, the evaluation of the impact of the switch backplane size shows that given a certain set of hardware modules, a saturated switch backplane size exists after which a further increase of the backplane size will not bring further reduction of the network hardware cost.

© 2011 OSA

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References

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  1. O. Gerstel, P. Lin, and G. Sasaki, "Combined WDM and SONET network design," 18th Annu. Joint Conf. of the IEEE Computer and Communications Societies (INFOCOM’99), Mar. 1999, San Francisco, CA, pp. 734‒743.
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    [CrossRef]
  3. X. Niu, W. Zhong, G. Shen, and T. H. Cheng, "Connection establishment of label switched paths in IP/MPLS over optical networks," Photonic Network Commun. 6, (1), 33‒41 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  4. "Interfaces for the Optical Transport Network (OTN)," ITU Recommendation G.709/Y.1331, March 2003, (Amendment 1, December 2003).
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    [CrossRef]
  7. W. Yao, M. Li, and B. Ramamurthy, "Performance analysis of sparse traffic grooming in WDM mesh networks," IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications (ICC’05), 2005, pp. 1766‒1770.
  8. B. Chen, G. N. Rouskas, and R. Dutta, "On hierarchical traffic grooming in WDM networks," IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 16, (5), 1226‒1238 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  9. G. Shen and R. S. Tucker, "Sparse traffic grooming in translucent optical networks," J. Lightwave Technol. 27, (20), 4471‒4479 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. Batayneh, D. A. Schupke, M. Hoffmann, A. Kirstädter, and B. Mukherjee, "Optical network design for a multiline-rate carrier-grade Ethernet under transmission-range constraints," J. Lightwave Technol. 26, (1), 121‒130 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  11. G. Shen, Y. Shen, and H. P. Sardesai, "Cross-layer traffic grooming for optical networks with hybrid layer-one and layer-zero signal regeneration," Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (NFOEC 2010), Mar. 2010, San Diego, CA, NThA6.
  12. G. Shen and R. S. Tucker, "Energy-minimized design for IP over WDM networks," J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 1, (1), 176‒186 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  13. M. Hasan, F. Farahmand, A. Patel, and J. Jue, "Traffic grooming in green optical networks," IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications (ICC’10), May 2010, South Africa.
  14. Virtual concatenation concept [Online]. Available: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Virtual_concatenation
  15. Ciena’s CN4200 product introduction [Online]. Available: http://www.ciena.com/products/products_cn4200_overview.htm
  16. AMPL+Gurobi, Linear programming optimization software package [Online]. Available: http://www.gurobi.com/doc/30/ampl/

2009

2008

2004

C. Xin, C. Qiao, and S. Dixit, "Traffic grooming in the mesh WDM optical network-performance analysis," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 22, (9), 1658‒1669 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

X. Niu, W. Zhong, G. Shen, and T. H. Cheng, "Connection establishment of label switched paths in IP/MPLS over optical networks," Photonic Network Commun. 6, (1), 33‒41 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

K. Zhu and B. Mukherjee, "Traffic grooming in an optical WDM mesh network," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 20, (1), 122‒133 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Batayneh, M.

Chen, B.

B. Chen, G. N. Rouskas, and R. Dutta, "On hierarchical traffic grooming in WDM networks," IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 16, (5), 1226‒1238 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, T. H.

X. Niu, W. Zhong, G. Shen, and T. H. Cheng, "Connection establishment of label switched paths in IP/MPLS over optical networks," Photonic Network Commun. 6, (1), 33‒41 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dixit, S.

C. Xin, C. Qiao, and S. Dixit, "Traffic grooming in the mesh WDM optical network-performance analysis," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 22, (9), 1658‒1669 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dutta, R.

B. Chen, G. N. Rouskas, and R. Dutta, "On hierarchical traffic grooming in WDM networks," IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 16, (5), 1226‒1238 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Farahmand, F.

M. Hasan, F. Farahmand, A. Patel, and J. Jue, "Traffic grooming in green optical networks," IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications (ICC’10), May 2010, South Africa.

Gerstel, O.

O. Gerstel, P. Lin, and G. Sasaki, "Combined WDM and SONET network design," 18th Annu. Joint Conf. of the IEEE Computer and Communications Societies (INFOCOM’99), Mar. 1999, San Francisco, CA, pp. 734‒743.

Hasan, M.

M. Hasan, F. Farahmand, A. Patel, and J. Jue, "Traffic grooming in green optical networks," IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications (ICC’10), May 2010, South Africa.

Hoffmann, M.

Jue, J.

M. Hasan, F. Farahmand, A. Patel, and J. Jue, "Traffic grooming in green optical networks," IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications (ICC’10), May 2010, South Africa.

Kirstädter, A.

Li, M.

W. Yao, M. Li, and B. Ramamurthy, "Performance analysis of sparse traffic grooming in WDM mesh networks," IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications (ICC’05), 2005, pp. 1766‒1770.

Lin, P.

O. Gerstel, P. Lin, and G. Sasaki, "Combined WDM and SONET network design," 18th Annu. Joint Conf. of the IEEE Computer and Communications Societies (INFOCOM’99), Mar. 1999, San Francisco, CA, pp. 734‒743.

Mukherjee, B.

Niu, X.

X. Niu, W. Zhong, G. Shen, and T. H. Cheng, "Connection establishment of label switched paths in IP/MPLS over optical networks," Photonic Network Commun. 6, (1), 33‒41 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Patel, A.

M. Hasan, F. Farahmand, A. Patel, and J. Jue, "Traffic grooming in green optical networks," IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications (ICC’10), May 2010, South Africa.

Qiao, C.

C. Xin, C. Qiao, and S. Dixit, "Traffic grooming in the mesh WDM optical network-performance analysis," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 22, (9), 1658‒1669 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ramamurthy, B.

W. Yao, M. Li, and B. Ramamurthy, "Performance analysis of sparse traffic grooming in WDM mesh networks," IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications (ICC’05), 2005, pp. 1766‒1770.

Rouskas, G. N.

B. Chen, G. N. Rouskas, and R. Dutta, "On hierarchical traffic grooming in WDM networks," IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 16, (5), 1226‒1238 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sardesai, H. P.

G. Shen, Y. Shen, and H. P. Sardesai, "Cross-layer traffic grooming for optical networks with hybrid layer-one and layer-zero signal regeneration," Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (NFOEC 2010), Mar. 2010, San Diego, CA, NThA6.

Sasaki, G.

O. Gerstel, P. Lin, and G. Sasaki, "Combined WDM and SONET network design," 18th Annu. Joint Conf. of the IEEE Computer and Communications Societies (INFOCOM’99), Mar. 1999, San Francisco, CA, pp. 734‒743.

Schupke, D. A.

Shen, G.

G. Shen and R. S. Tucker, "Sparse traffic grooming in translucent optical networks," J. Lightwave Technol. 27, (20), 4471‒4479 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Shen and R. S. Tucker, "Energy-minimized design for IP over WDM networks," J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 1, (1), 176‒186 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. Niu, W. Zhong, G. Shen, and T. H. Cheng, "Connection establishment of label switched paths in IP/MPLS over optical networks," Photonic Network Commun. 6, (1), 33‒41 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. Shen, Y. Shen, and H. P. Sardesai, "Cross-layer traffic grooming for optical networks with hybrid layer-one and layer-zero signal regeneration," Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (NFOEC 2010), Mar. 2010, San Diego, CA, NThA6.

Shen, Y.

G. Shen, Y. Shen, and H. P. Sardesai, "Cross-layer traffic grooming for optical networks with hybrid layer-one and layer-zero signal regeneration," Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (NFOEC 2010), Mar. 2010, San Diego, CA, NThA6.

Tucker, R. S.

Xin, C.

C. Xin, C. Qiao, and S. Dixit, "Traffic grooming in the mesh WDM optical network-performance analysis," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 22, (9), 1658‒1669 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yao, W.

W. Yao, M. Li, and B. Ramamurthy, "Performance analysis of sparse traffic grooming in WDM mesh networks," IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications (ICC’05), 2005, pp. 1766‒1770.

Zhong, W.

X. Niu, W. Zhong, G. Shen, and T. H. Cheng, "Connection establishment of label switched paths in IP/MPLS over optical networks," Photonic Network Commun. 6, (1), 33‒41 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, K.

K. Zhu and B. Mukherjee, "Traffic grooming in an optical WDM mesh network," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 20, (1), 122‒133 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun.

K. Zhu and B. Mukherjee, "Traffic grooming in an optical WDM mesh network," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 20, (1), 122‒133 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. Xin, C. Qiao, and S. Dixit, "Traffic grooming in the mesh WDM optical network-performance analysis," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 22, (9), 1658‒1669 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw.

B. Chen, G. N. Rouskas, and R. Dutta, "On hierarchical traffic grooming in WDM networks," IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 16, (5), 1226‒1238 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

J. Opt. Commun. Netw.

Photonic Network Commun.

X. Niu, W. Zhong, G. Shen, and T. H. Cheng, "Connection establishment of label switched paths in IP/MPLS over optical networks," Photonic Network Commun. 6, (1), 33‒41 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Other

"Interfaces for the Optical Transport Network (OTN)," ITU Recommendation G.709/Y.1331, March 2003, (Amendment 1, December 2003).

Bin packing problem [Online]. Available: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bin_packing_problem

G. Shen, Y. Shen, and H. P. Sardesai, "Cross-layer traffic grooming for optical networks with hybrid layer-one and layer-zero signal regeneration," Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (NFOEC 2010), Mar. 2010, San Diego, CA, NThA6.

M. Hasan, F. Farahmand, A. Patel, and J. Jue, "Traffic grooming in green optical networks," IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications (ICC’10), May 2010, South Africa.

Virtual concatenation concept [Online]. Available: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Virtual_concatenation

Ciena’s CN4200 product introduction [Online]. Available: http://www.ciena.com/products/products_cn4200_overview.htm

AMPL+Gurobi, Linear programming optimization software package [Online]. Available: http://www.gurobi.com/doc/30/ampl/

W. Yao, M. Li, and B. Ramamurthy, "Performance analysis of sparse traffic grooming in WDM mesh networks," IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications (ICC’05), 2005, pp. 1766‒1770.

O. Gerstel, P. Lin, and G. Sasaki, "Combined WDM and SONET network design," 18th Annu. Joint Conf. of the IEEE Computer and Communications Societies (INFOCOM’99), Mar. 1999, San Francisco, CA, pp. 734‒743.

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(Color online) (a) A switch node with multiple groups of hardware modules; (b) modules connecting to a common switch backplane.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Tree representation of traffic demand at a node.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(Color online) Illustration of a switch node with optical and electronic add/drop and bypass.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Flowchart of the heuristic of hardware module planning.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Test network topologies: (a) 14-node 21-link NSFNET, (b) 24-node 43-link USNET.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Network hardware costs versus traffic demand intensities in the NSFNET network: (a) single-hop grooming, (b) multi-hop grooming.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Total network hardware costs and capacity units in the NSFNET network: single-hop versus multi-hop grooming.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Network hardware costs versus traffic demand intensities in the USNET network: (a) single-hop grooming, (b) multi-hop grooming.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Total network hardware costs and capacity units in the USNET network: single-hop versus multi-hop grooming.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

The impact of switch backplane size on hardware module planning (the NSFNET network).

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

The impact of switch backplane size on hardware module planning (the USNET network).

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table I Costs of Hardware Modules and Switch Backplanes

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

b B x , x X y b , x δ x + m M p , p P ; b B x , x X z b , x m , p χ m p + m M G ; b B x , x X z b , x m , G χ m G
b B x , x X θ b , x t , r 1 t T r , r R ,
t T r θ b , x t , r m M p , p P z b , x m , p N m , p r + m M G z b , x m , G N m , G r b B x , x X ; r R ,
t T r , r R θ b , x t , r β t , r p m M p z b , x m , p ξ m p Φ b , x p b B x , x X ; p P ,
p P Φ b , x p m M G z b , x m , G ξ m G b B x , x X ,
m M p , p P z b , x m , p + m M G z b , x m , G α x b B x , x X ,
Δ y b , x m M p , p P z b , x m , p + m M G z b , x m , G b B x , x X .