Abstract

A novel hierarchical architecture for hybrid wireless sensor and access networks has been proposed based on cost-effective radio-over-fiber (ROF) links with the coarse wavelength-division-multiplexing (CWDM) technique. Wireless fidelity (WiFi) signals are distributed to the remote radio units transparently over optical fibers in a star-shaped network topology. The wireless access traffic together with the perceiving usage scenarios including video monitoring and temperature sensing has been successfully demonstrated in the hybrid IEEE 802.11 and 802.15.4 networks. The transmission performance of the CWDM-ROF links is evaluated in terms of the error-vector magnitude (EVM) and data throughput for both uplinks and downlinks. The results show that the WiFi signals are successfully delivered through the CWDM-ROF links including a 4.5 km fiber and a 7 m wireless channel with a 3% EVM penalty. This CWDM-ROF technology can expand the application range of wireless sensor networks with the advantages of better capacity, larger coverage area, and lower investment on wired infrastructure.

© 2011 OSA

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References

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  5. M. Crisp, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, "Dual function sensing and multiservice communications radio over fiber network using second harmonic suppression," Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), Mar. 22–26, 2009, San Diego, CA, OWF5.
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    [CrossRef]
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  17. M. J. Crisp, S. Li, A. Watts, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, "Uplink and downlink coverage improvements of 802.11 g signals using a distributed antenna network," J. Lightwave Technol. 25, (11), 3388‒3395 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2010 (7)

2009 (4)

2008 (1)

L. Angrisani, M. Bertocco, D. Fortin, and A. Sona, "Experimental study of coexistence issues between IEEE 802.11 b and IEEE 802.15.4 wireless networks," IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 57, (8), 1514‒1523 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

M. Aime, G. Calandriello, and A. Lioy, "Dependability in wireless networks: can we rely on WiFi?," IEEE Secur. Privacy 5, (1), 23‒29 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Sauer, A. Kobyakov, and A. Ruffin, "Radio-over-fiber transmission with stimulated Brillouin scattering," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, (19), 1487‒1489 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Crisp, S. Li, A. Watts, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, "Uplink and downlink coverage improvements of 802.11 g signals using a distributed antenna network," J. Lightwave Technol. 25, (11), 3388‒3395 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Aime, M.

M. Aime, G. Calandriello, and A. Lioy, "Dependability in wireless networks: can we rely on WiFi?," IEEE Secur. Privacy 5, (1), 23‒29 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Angrisani, L.

L. Angrisani, M. Bertocco, D. Fortin, and A. Sona, "Experimental study of coexistence issues between IEEE 802.11 b and IEEE 802.15.4 wireless networks," IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 57, (8), 1514‒1523 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Balazinska, M.

E. Welbourne, L. Battle, G. Cole, K. Gould, K. Rector, S. Raymer, M. Balazinska, and G. Borriello, "Building the Internet of things using RFID: the RFID ecosystem experience," IEEE Internet Comput. 13, (3), 48‒55 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Battle, L.

E. Welbourne, L. Battle, G. Cole, K. Gould, K. Rector, S. Raymer, M. Balazinska, and G. Borriello, "Building the Internet of things using RFID: the RFID ecosystem experience," IEEE Internet Comput. 13, (3), 48‒55 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bertocco, M.

L. Angrisani, M. Bertocco, D. Fortin, and A. Sona, "Experimental study of coexistence issues between IEEE 802.11 b and IEEE 802.15.4 wireless networks," IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 57, (8), 1514‒1523 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Borriello, G.

E. Welbourne, L. Battle, G. Cole, K. Gould, K. Rector, S. Raymer, M. Balazinska, and G. Borriello, "Building the Internet of things using RFID: the RFID ecosystem experience," IEEE Internet Comput. 13, (3), 48‒55 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Calandriello, G.

M. Aime, G. Calandriello, and A. Lioy, "Dependability in wireless networks: can we rely on WiFi?," IEEE Secur. Privacy 5, (1), 23‒29 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cao, Z.

Cartaxo, A. V. T.

Chang, G.

Chen, L.

Chien, H.

Chowdhury, A.

Cole, G.

E. Welbourne, L. Battle, G. Cole, K. Gould, K. Rector, S. Raymer, M. Balazinska, and G. Borriello, "Building the Internet of things using RFID: the RFID ecosystem experience," IEEE Internet Comput. 13, (3), 48‒55 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Crisp, M.

M. Crisp, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, "Dual function sensing and multiservice communications radio over fiber network using second harmonic suppression," Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), Mar. 22–26, 2009, San Diego, CA, OWF5.

Crisp, M. J.

Dorsinville, R.

Ellinas, G.

Erkan, H.

Fan, S.

A. Chowdhury, H. Chien, S. Fan, J. Yu, N. Jayant, and G. Chang, "Radio over fiber technology for next-generation e-health in converged optical and wireless access network," Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), Mar. 6–10, 2011, Los Angeles, CA, OTuF1.

Fitton, D.

G. Kortuem, F. Kawsar, D. Fitton, and V. Sundramoorthy, "Smart objects as building blocks for the Internet of things," IEEE Internet Comput. 14, (1), 44‒51 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Floerkemeier, C.

A. Iera, C. Floerkemeier, J. Mitsugi, and G. Morabito, "The Internet of things [Guest Editorial]," IEEE Wireless Commun. 17, (6), 8‒9 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fortin, D.

L. Angrisani, M. Bertocco, D. Fortin, and A. Sona, "Experimental study of coexistence issues between IEEE 802.11 b and IEEE 802.15.4 wireless networks," IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 57, (8), 1514‒1523 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gibbon, T.

T. Gibbon, T. Pham, C. Neumeyr, E. Rönneberg, M. Ortsiefer, and I. Monroy, "VCSEL-based gigabit impulse radio UWB for converged wireless sensor and communication in-building networks," 36th European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC), Sept. 19–23, 2010, Torino, Italy, P6.10.

Gould, K.

E. Welbourne, L. Battle, G. Cole, K. Gould, K. Rector, S. Raymer, M. Balazinska, and G. Borriello, "Building the Internet of things using RFID: the RFID ecosystem experience," IEEE Internet Comput. 13, (3), 48‒55 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gumaste, A.

Hadjiantonis, A.

Hattori, T.

K. Nakatsuka, K. Nakamura, Y. Hirata, and T. Hattori, "A proposal of the co-existence MAC of IEEE 802.11 b/g and 802.15.4 used for the wireless sensor network," 5th IEEE Conf. Sensors (EXCO), Oct. 22–25, 2006, Daegu, South Korea, pp. 722‒725.

Hirata, Y.

K. Nakatsuka, K. Nakamura, Y. Hirata, and T. Hattori, "A proposal of the co-existence MAC of IEEE 802.11 b/g and 802.15.4 used for the wireless sensor network," 5th IEEE Conf. Sensors (EXCO), Oct. 22–25, 2006, Daegu, South Korea, pp. 722‒725.

Hong, X.

K. Xu, X. Sun, J. Yin, H. Huang, J. Wu, X. Hong, and J. Lin, "Enabling ROF technologies and integration architectures for in-building optical-wireless access networks," IEEE Photonics J. 2, (2), 102‒112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hsueh, Y.

Huang, H.

K. Xu, X. Sun, J. Yin, H. Huang, J. Wu, X. Hong, and J. Lin, "Enabling ROF technologies and integration architectures for in-building optical-wireless access networks," IEEE Photonics J. 2, (2), 102‒112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Huang, M.

Iera, A.

A. Iera, C. Floerkemeier, J. Mitsugi, and G. Morabito, "The Internet of things [Guest Editorial]," IEEE Wireless Commun. 17, (6), 8‒9 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jayant, N.

A. Chowdhury, H. Chien, S. Fan, J. Yu, N. Jayant, and G. Chang, "Radio over fiber technology for next-generation e-health in converged optical and wireless access network," Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), Mar. 6–10, 2011, Los Angeles, CA, OTuF1.

Jia, Z.

Kawsar, F.

G. Kortuem, F. Kawsar, D. Fitton, and V. Sundramoorthy, "Smart objects as building blocks for the Internet of things," IEEE Internet Comput. 14, (1), 44‒51 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kobyakov, A.

M. Sauer, A. Kobyakov, and A. Ruffin, "Radio-over-fiber transmission with stimulated Brillouin scattering," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, (19), 1487‒1489 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kortuem, G.

G. Kortuem, F. Kawsar, D. Fitton, and V. Sundramoorthy, "Smart objects as building blocks for the Internet of things," IEEE Internet Comput. 14, (1), 44‒51 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Li, S.

Li, Y.

Lin, J.

K. Xu, X. Sun, J. Yin, H. Huang, J. Wu, X. Hong, and J. Lin, "Enabling ROF technologies and integration architectures for in-building optical-wireless access networks," IEEE Photonics J. 2, (2), 102‒112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lioy, A.

M. Aime, G. Calandriello, and A. Lioy, "Dependability in wireless networks: can we rely on WiFi?," IEEE Secur. Privacy 5, (1), 23‒29 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mitsugi, J.

A. Iera, C. Floerkemeier, J. Mitsugi, and G. Morabito, "The Internet of things [Guest Editorial]," IEEE Wireless Commun. 17, (6), 8‒9 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mohamed, A.

Monroy, I.

T. Gibbon, T. Pham, C. Neumeyr, E. Rönneberg, M. Ortsiefer, and I. Monroy, "VCSEL-based gigabit impulse radio UWB for converged wireless sensor and communication in-building networks," 36th European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC), Sept. 19–23, 2010, Torino, Italy, P6.10.

Morabito, G.

A. Iera, C. Floerkemeier, J. Mitsugi, and G. Morabito, "The Internet of things [Guest Editorial]," IEEE Wireless Commun. 17, (6), 8‒9 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, K.

K. Nakatsuka, K. Nakamura, Y. Hirata, and T. Hattori, "A proposal of the co-existence MAC of IEEE 802.11 b/g and 802.15.4 used for the wireless sensor network," 5th IEEE Conf. Sensors (EXCO), Oct. 22–25, 2006, Daegu, South Korea, pp. 722‒725.

Nakatsuka, K.

K. Nakatsuka, K. Nakamura, Y. Hirata, and T. Hattori, "A proposal of the co-existence MAC of IEEE 802.11 b/g and 802.15.4 used for the wireless sensor network," 5th IEEE Conf. Sensors (EXCO), Oct. 22–25, 2006, Daegu, South Korea, pp. 722‒725.

Neumeyr, C.

T. Gibbon, T. Pham, C. Neumeyr, E. Rönneberg, M. Ortsiefer, and I. Monroy, "VCSEL-based gigabit impulse radio UWB for converged wireless sensor and communication in-building networks," 36th European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC), Sept. 19–23, 2010, Torino, Italy, P6.10.

Ortsiefer, M.

T. Gibbon, T. Pham, C. Neumeyr, E. Rönneberg, M. Ortsiefer, and I. Monroy, "VCSEL-based gigabit impulse radio UWB for converged wireless sensor and communication in-building networks," 36th European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC), Sept. 19–23, 2010, Torino, Italy, P6.10.

Penty, R. V.

M. J. Crisp, S. Li, A. Watts, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, "Uplink and downlink coverage improvements of 802.11 g signals using a distributed antenna network," J. Lightwave Technol. 25, (11), 3388‒3395 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Crisp, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, "Dual function sensing and multiservice communications radio over fiber network using second harmonic suppression," Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), Mar. 22–26, 2009, San Diego, CA, OWF5.

Pham, T.

T. Gibbon, T. Pham, C. Neumeyr, E. Rönneberg, M. Ortsiefer, and I. Monroy, "VCSEL-based gigabit impulse radio UWB for converged wireless sensor and communication in-building networks," 36th European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC), Sept. 19–23, 2010, Torino, Italy, P6.10.

Pleros, N.

Qiao, C.

Raymer, S.

E. Welbourne, L. Battle, G. Cole, K. Gould, K. Rector, S. Raymer, M. Balazinska, and G. Borriello, "Building the Internet of things using RFID: the RFID ecosystem experience," IEEE Internet Comput. 13, (3), 48‒55 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rector, K.

E. Welbourne, L. Battle, G. Cole, K. Gould, K. Rector, S. Raymer, M. Balazinska, and G. Borriello, "Building the Internet of things using RFID: the RFID ecosystem experience," IEEE Internet Comput. 13, (3), 48‒55 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rönneberg, E.

T. Gibbon, T. Pham, C. Neumeyr, E. Rönneberg, M. Ortsiefer, and I. Monroy, "VCSEL-based gigabit impulse radio UWB for converged wireless sensor and communication in-building networks," 36th European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC), Sept. 19–23, 2010, Torino, Italy, P6.10.

Ruffin, A.

M. Sauer, A. Kobyakov, and A. Ruffin, "Radio-over-fiber transmission with stimulated Brillouin scattering," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, (19), 1487‒1489 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sauer, M.

M. Sauer, A. Kobyakov, and A. Ruffin, "Radio-over-fiber transmission with stimulated Brillouin scattering," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, (19), 1487‒1489 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sona, A.

L. Angrisani, M. Bertocco, D. Fortin, and A. Sona, "Experimental study of coexistence issues between IEEE 802.11 b and IEEE 802.15.4 wireless networks," IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 57, (8), 1514‒1523 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sun, X.

K. Xu, X. Sun, J. Yin, H. Huang, J. Wu, X. Hong, and J. Lin, "Enabling ROF technologies and integration architectures for in-building optical-wireless access networks," IEEE Photonics J. 2, (2), 102‒112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sundramoorthy, V.

G. Kortuem, F. Kawsar, D. Fitton, and V. Sundramoorthy, "Smart objects as building blocks for the Internet of things," IEEE Internet Comput. 14, (1), 44‒51 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tang, Q.

Tsagkaris, K.

Tselikas, N. D.

Valente, T.

Vyrsokins, K.

Wang, J.

Wang, W.

Watts, A.

Welbourne, E.

E. Welbourne, L. Battle, G. Cole, K. Gould, K. Rector, S. Raymer, M. Balazinska, and G. Borriello, "Building the Internet of things using RFID: the RFID ecosystem experience," IEEE Internet Comput. 13, (3), 48‒55 (2009).
[CrossRef]

White, I. H.

M. J. Crisp, S. Li, A. Watts, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, "Uplink and downlink coverage improvements of 802.11 g signals using a distributed antenna network," J. Lightwave Technol. 25, (11), 3388‒3395 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Crisp, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, "Dual function sensing and multiservice communications radio over fiber network using second harmonic suppression," Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), Mar. 22–26, 2009, San Diego, CA, OWF5.

Wu, J.

K. Xu, X. Sun, J. Yin, H. Huang, J. Wu, X. Hong, and J. Lin, "Enabling ROF technologies and integration architectures for in-building optical-wireless access networks," IEEE Photonics J. 2, (2), 102‒112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Xia, M.

Xu, K.

K. Xu, X. Sun, J. Yin, H. Huang, J. Wu, X. Hong, and J. Lin, "Enabling ROF technologies and integration architectures for in-building optical-wireless access networks," IEEE Photonics J. 2, (2), 102‒112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Y.

Yin, J.

K. Xu, X. Sun, J. Yin, H. Huang, J. Wu, X. Hong, and J. Lin, "Enabling ROF technologies and integration architectures for in-building optical-wireless access networks," IEEE Photonics J. 2, (2), 102‒112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yu, J.

Z. Cao, J. Yu, H. Zhou, W. Wang, M. Xia, J. Wang, Q. Tang, and L. Chen, "WDM-RoF-PON architecture for flexible wireless and wire-line layout," J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 2, (2), 117‒121 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Chang, A. Chowdhury, Z. Jia, H. Chien, M. Huang, J. Yu, and G. Ellinas, "Key technologies of WDM-PON for future converged optical broadband access networks [Invited]," J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 1, (4), C35‒C50 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Chowdhury, H. Chien, S. Fan, J. Yu, N. Jayant, and G. Chang, "Radio over fiber technology for next-generation e-health in converged optical and wireless access network," Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), Mar. 6–10, 2011, Los Angeles, CA, OTuF1.

Zhou, H.

IEEE Internet Comput. (2)

E. Welbourne, L. Battle, G. Cole, K. Gould, K. Rector, S. Raymer, M. Balazinska, and G. Borriello, "Building the Internet of things using RFID: the RFID ecosystem experience," IEEE Internet Comput. 13, (3), 48‒55 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Kortuem, F. Kawsar, D. Fitton, and V. Sundramoorthy, "Smart objects as building blocks for the Internet of things," IEEE Internet Comput. 14, (1), 44‒51 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

M. Sauer, A. Kobyakov, and A. Ruffin, "Radio-over-fiber transmission with stimulated Brillouin scattering," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, (19), 1487‒1489 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photonics J. (1)

K. Xu, X. Sun, J. Yin, H. Huang, J. Wu, X. Hong, and J. Lin, "Enabling ROF technologies and integration architectures for in-building optical-wireless access networks," IEEE Photonics J. 2, (2), 102‒112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Secur. Privacy (1)

M. Aime, G. Calandriello, and A. Lioy, "Dependability in wireless networks: can we rely on WiFi?," IEEE Secur. Privacy 5, (1), 23‒29 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. (1)

L. Angrisani, M. Bertocco, D. Fortin, and A. Sona, "Experimental study of coexistence issues between IEEE 802.11 b and IEEE 802.15.4 wireless networks," IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 57, (8), 1514‒1523 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Wireless Commun. (1)

A. Iera, C. Floerkemeier, J. Mitsugi, and G. Morabito, "The Internet of things [Guest Editorial]," IEEE Wireless Commun. 17, (6), 8‒9 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (5)

J. Opt. Commun. Netw. (3)

Other (4)

K. Nakatsuka, K. Nakamura, Y. Hirata, and T. Hattori, "A proposal of the co-existence MAC of IEEE 802.11 b/g and 802.15.4 used for the wireless sensor network," 5th IEEE Conf. Sensors (EXCO), Oct. 22–25, 2006, Daegu, South Korea, pp. 722‒725.

T. Gibbon, T. Pham, C. Neumeyr, E. Rönneberg, M. Ortsiefer, and I. Monroy, "VCSEL-based gigabit impulse radio UWB for converged wireless sensor and communication in-building networks," 36th European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC), Sept. 19–23, 2010, Torino, Italy, P6.10.

A. Chowdhury, H. Chien, S. Fan, J. Yu, N. Jayant, and G. Chang, "Radio over fiber technology for next-generation e-health in converged optical and wireless access network," Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), Mar. 6–10, 2011, Los Angeles, CA, OTuF1.

M. Crisp, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, "Dual function sensing and multiservice communications radio over fiber network using second harmonic suppression," Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), Mar. 22–26, 2009, San Diego, CA, OWF5.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(Color online) WiFi-over-fiber hierarchical structure for the IOT including three layers: the perception, transport, and application layers.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(Color online) Direct-modulated CWDM-ROF architecture for the IOT providing both accessing and sensing services.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(Color online) Experimental setup of point-to-point transmission to demonstrate video monitoring, temperature sensing, and WLAN accessing services.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(Color online) Experimental setup for measurement of the EVM with and without wireless transmission.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(Color online) Optical transmission and reflection spectra for five channels after multiplexing.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(Color online) EVM performance against different (a) wavelength channels, (b) channel numbers, (c) RF input powers, and (d) wireless transmission distances.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(Color online) Constellation of the received symbols for an RF input power of (a) −3 dBm and (b) −25 dBm.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(Color online) Measured data throughput against wireless distance for uplink and downlink transmission.