Abstract

In the field of indoor wireless networks, visible-light communications is garnering increasing attention. One of the type of emitters used in this technology is white light-emitting diodes, which can synergistically provide both illumination and data transmission. Discrete multitone modulation is attractive for visible-light communications. One of the issues to be addressed in these synergetic use cases is how to incorporate light dimming while not corrupting the communication link. In this paper, the performance of a visible-light communication system combining pulse-width modulation for dimming and discrete multitone for data transmission was investigated. Performance indicators were addressed, i.e., the signal-to-interference ratio due to dimming and the achievable bit-error ratio in the absence of additional noise. By aid of simulations it was shown that practical communication is only feasible when the line rate of the dimming modulation is at least twice the frequency assigned to the largest multitone subcarrier frequency. The results demonstrate that under this constraint and when using a suitably modified demodulation scheme, dimming does not influence the data transmission.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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  1. O. Bouchet, M. Wolf, M. El Tabach, T. Kamalakis, F. Grahame, J. Walewski, S. Nerreter, M. Franke, J. Grubor, D. O’Brien, K. D. Langer, “Hybrid wireless optics (HWO): building the next-generation home network,” in 6th Int. Symp. on Communications Systems, Networks and Digital Processing, Graz, Austria, 2008, pp. 283–287.
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    [Crossref]
  3. D. C. O’Brien, L. Zeng, H. Le-Minh, G. Faulkner, O. Bouchet, S. Randel, J. Walewski, J. A. R. Borges, K.-D. Langer, J. Grubor, K. Lee, E. T. Won, “Visible light communications,” in Wireless World Research Forum 20, Ottawa, Canada, 2007.
  4. H. Le-Minh, D. C. O’Brien, L. Zeng, O. Bouchet, S. Randel, J. Walewski, J. A. R. Borges, K.-D. Langer, J. Grubor, K. Lee, E. T. Won, “Short-range visible light communications,” in Wireless World Research Forum 19, Chennai, India, 2007.
  5. T. Komine, Y. Tanaka, S. Haruyama, M. Nakagawa, “Basic study on visible-light communication using light emitting diode illumination,” in Proc. of the 11th Int. Symp. on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications, London, 2000, pp. 1325–1329.
  6. J. Grubor, O. C. Gaete Jamett, J. W. Walewski, S. Randel, K.-D. Langer, “High-speed wireless indoor communication via visible light,” ITG Fachbericht, 2007, pp. 203–208.
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    [Crossref]
  9. M. Ishida, “InGaN based LEDs and their application,” Lasers Optronics, vol. 19, no. 228, pp. 126–131, 2000.
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    [Crossref]
  13. J. A. C. Bingham, “Multicarrier modulation for data transmission: an idea whose time has come,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 28, pp. 5–14, May 1990.
    [Crossref]
  14. J. Vucic, C. Kottke, S. Nerreter, A. Buttner, K.-D. Langer, J. W. Walewski, “White light wireless transmission at 200+ Mb/s net data rate by use of discrete-multitone modulation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 21, no. 20, pp. 1511–1513, Oct. 2009.
    [Crossref]
  15. Y. Zhang, Z. Zhang, Z. Huang, H. Cai, L. Xia, J. Zhao, “Apparent brightness of LEDs under different dimming methods,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 6841, paper 684109, 2007.
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2010 (1)

S. Randel, F. Breyer, S. C. J. Lee, J. W. Walewski, “Advanced modulation schemes for short-range optical communications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol. 16, no. 5, pp. 1280–1289, Sept./Oct. 2010.
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

J. Vucic, C. Kottke, S. Nerreter, A. Buttner, K.-D. Langer, J. W. Walewski, “White light wireless transmission at 200+ Mb/s net data rate by use of discrete-multitone modulation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 21, no. 20, pp. 1511–1513, Oct. 2009.
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

J. Grubor, S. Randel, K.-D. Langer, J. W. Walewski, “Broadband information broadcasting using LED-based interior lighting,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 26, no. 24, pp. 3883–3892, Dec. 2008.
[Crossref]

N. Kumar, N. Lourenco, M. Spiez, R. L. Aguiar, “Visible light communication systems conception and VIDAS,” IETE Tech. Rev., vol. 25, no. 6, pp. 359–367, 2008.
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

Y. Zhang, Z. Zhang, Z. Huang, H. Cai, L. Xia, J. Zhao, “Apparent brightness of LEDs under different dimming methods,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 6841, paper 684109, 2007.

2000 (1)

M. Ishida, “InGaN based LEDs and their application,” Lasers Optronics, vol. 19, no. 228, pp. 126–131, 2000.

1992 (1)

M. G. Craford, “LEDs challenge the incandescents,” IEEE Circuits Devices Mag., vol. 8, no. 5, pp. 24–29, 1992.
[Crossref]

1990 (1)

J. A. C. Bingham, “Multicarrier modulation for data transmission: an idea whose time has come,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 28, pp. 5–14, May 1990.
[Crossref]

1979 (1)

F. R. Gfeller, U. Bapst, “Wireless in-house data communication via diffuse infrared radiation,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 67, pp. 529–551, Nov. 1979.
[Crossref]

Aguiar, R. L.

N. Kumar, N. Lourenco, M. Spiez, R. L. Aguiar, “Visible light communication systems conception and VIDAS,” IETE Tech. Rev., vol. 25, no. 6, pp. 359–367, 2008.
[Crossref]

Bapst, U.

F. R. Gfeller, U. Bapst, “Wireless in-house data communication via diffuse infrared radiation,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 67, pp. 529–551, Nov. 1979.
[Crossref]

Barry, J. R.

J. R. Barry, Wireless Infrared Communications. Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic, 1994.
[Crossref]

Bingham, J. A. C.

J. A. C. Bingham, “Multicarrier modulation for data transmission: an idea whose time has come,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 28, pp. 5–14, May 1990.
[Crossref]

Borges, J. A. R.

D. C. O’Brien, L. Zeng, H. Le-Minh, G. Faulkner, O. Bouchet, S. Randel, J. Walewski, J. A. R. Borges, K.-D. Langer, J. Grubor, K. Lee, E. T. Won, “Visible light communications,” in Wireless World Research Forum 20, Ottawa, Canada, 2007.

H. Le-Minh, D. C. O’Brien, L. Zeng, O. Bouchet, S. Randel, J. Walewski, J. A. R. Borges, K.-D. Langer, J. Grubor, K. Lee, E. T. Won, “Short-range visible light communications,” in Wireless World Research Forum 19, Chennai, India, 2007.

Bouchet, O.

H. Le-Minh, D. C. O’Brien, L. Zeng, O. Bouchet, S. Randel, J. Walewski, J. A. R. Borges, K.-D. Langer, J. Grubor, K. Lee, E. T. Won, “Short-range visible light communications,” in Wireless World Research Forum 19, Chennai, India, 2007.

D. C. O’Brien, L. Zeng, H. Le-Minh, G. Faulkner, O. Bouchet, S. Randel, J. Walewski, J. A. R. Borges, K.-D. Langer, J. Grubor, K. Lee, E. T. Won, “Visible light communications,” in Wireless World Research Forum 20, Ottawa, Canada, 2007.

O. Bouchet, M. Wolf, M. El Tabach, T. Kamalakis, F. Grahame, J. Walewski, S. Nerreter, M. Franke, J. Grubor, D. O’Brien, K. D. Langer, “Hybrid wireless optics (HWO): building the next-generation home network,” in 6th Int. Symp. on Communications Systems, Networks and Digital Processing, Graz, Austria, 2008, pp. 283–287.

Breyer, F.

S. Randel, F. Breyer, S. C. J. Lee, J. W. Walewski, “Advanced modulation schemes for short-range optical communications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol. 16, no. 5, pp. 1280–1289, Sept./Oct. 2010.
[Crossref]

Buttner, A.

J. Vucic, C. Kottke, S. Nerreter, A. Buttner, K.-D. Langer, J. W. Walewski, “White light wireless transmission at 200+ Mb/s net data rate by use of discrete-multitone modulation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 21, no. 20, pp. 1511–1513, Oct. 2009.
[Crossref]

Cai, H.

Y. Zhang, Z. Zhang, Z. Huang, H. Cai, L. Xia, J. Zhao, “Apparent brightness of LEDs under different dimming methods,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 6841, paper 684109, 2007.

Craford, M. G.

M. G. Craford, “LEDs challenge the incandescents,” IEEE Circuits Devices Mag., vol. 8, no. 5, pp. 24–29, 1992.
[Crossref]

El Tabach, M.

O. Bouchet, M. Wolf, M. El Tabach, T. Kamalakis, F. Grahame, J. Walewski, S. Nerreter, M. Franke, J. Grubor, D. O’Brien, K. D. Langer, “Hybrid wireless optics (HWO): building the next-generation home network,” in 6th Int. Symp. on Communications Systems, Networks and Digital Processing, Graz, Austria, 2008, pp. 283–287.

Faulkner, G.

D. C. O’Brien, L. Zeng, H. Le-Minh, G. Faulkner, O. Bouchet, S. Randel, J. Walewski, J. A. R. Borges, K.-D. Langer, J. Grubor, K. Lee, E. T. Won, “Visible light communications,” in Wireless World Research Forum 20, Ottawa, Canada, 2007.

Franke, M.

O. Bouchet, M. Wolf, M. El Tabach, T. Kamalakis, F. Grahame, J. Walewski, S. Nerreter, M. Franke, J. Grubor, D. O’Brien, K. D. Langer, “Hybrid wireless optics (HWO): building the next-generation home network,” in 6th Int. Symp. on Communications Systems, Networks and Digital Processing, Graz, Austria, 2008, pp. 283–287.

Gaete Jamett, O. C.

J. Grubor, O. C. Gaete Jamett, J. W. Walewski, S. Randel, K.-D. Langer, “High-speed wireless indoor communication via visible light,” ITG Fachbericht, 2007, pp. 203–208.

Gfeller, F. R.

F. R. Gfeller, U. Bapst, “Wireless in-house data communication via diffuse infrared radiation,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 67, pp. 529–551, Nov. 1979.
[Crossref]

Grahame, F.

O. Bouchet, M. Wolf, M. El Tabach, T. Kamalakis, F. Grahame, J. Walewski, S. Nerreter, M. Franke, J. Grubor, D. O’Brien, K. D. Langer, “Hybrid wireless optics (HWO): building the next-generation home network,” in 6th Int. Symp. on Communications Systems, Networks and Digital Processing, Graz, Austria, 2008, pp. 283–287.

Grubor, J.

J. Grubor, S. Randel, K.-D. Langer, J. W. Walewski, “Broadband information broadcasting using LED-based interior lighting,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 26, no. 24, pp. 3883–3892, Dec. 2008.
[Crossref]

J. Grubor, O. C. Gaete Jamett, J. W. Walewski, S. Randel, K.-D. Langer, “High-speed wireless indoor communication via visible light,” ITG Fachbericht, 2007, pp. 203–208.

O. Bouchet, M. Wolf, M. El Tabach, T. Kamalakis, F. Grahame, J. Walewski, S. Nerreter, M. Franke, J. Grubor, D. O’Brien, K. D. Langer, “Hybrid wireless optics (HWO): building the next-generation home network,” in 6th Int. Symp. on Communications Systems, Networks and Digital Processing, Graz, Austria, 2008, pp. 283–287.

D. C. O’Brien, L. Zeng, H. Le-Minh, G. Faulkner, O. Bouchet, S. Randel, J. Walewski, J. A. R. Borges, K.-D. Langer, J. Grubor, K. Lee, E. T. Won, “Visible light communications,” in Wireless World Research Forum 20, Ottawa, Canada, 2007.

H. Le-Minh, D. C. O’Brien, L. Zeng, O. Bouchet, S. Randel, J. Walewski, J. A. R. Borges, K.-D. Langer, J. Grubor, K. Lee, E. T. Won, “Short-range visible light communications,” in Wireless World Research Forum 19, Chennai, India, 2007.

Haruyama, S.

T. Komine, Y. Tanaka, S. Haruyama, M. Nakagawa, “Basic study on visible-light communication using light emitting diode illumination,” in Proc. of the 11th Int. Symp. on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications, London, 2000, pp. 1325–1329.

H. Sugiyama, S. Haruyama, M. Nakagawa, “Brightness control methods for illumination and visible-light communication systems,” in Proc. of the 3rd Int. Conf. on Wireless and Mobile Communications, 2007.

Huang, Z.

Y. Zhang, Z. Zhang, Z. Huang, H. Cai, L. Xia, J. Zhao, “Apparent brightness of LEDs under different dimming methods,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 6841, paper 684109, 2007.

Ishida, M.

M. Ishida, “InGaN based LEDs and their application,” Lasers Optronics, vol. 19, no. 228, pp. 126–131, 2000.

Kamalakis, T.

O. Bouchet, M. Wolf, M. El Tabach, T. Kamalakis, F. Grahame, J. Walewski, S. Nerreter, M. Franke, J. Grubor, D. O’Brien, K. D. Langer, “Hybrid wireless optics (HWO): building the next-generation home network,” in 6th Int. Symp. on Communications Systems, Networks and Digital Processing, Graz, Austria, 2008, pp. 283–287.

Komine, T.

T. Komine, Y. Tanaka, S. Haruyama, M. Nakagawa, “Basic study on visible-light communication using light emitting diode illumination,” in Proc. of the 11th Int. Symp. on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications, London, 2000, pp. 1325–1329.

Kottke, C.

J. Vucic, C. Kottke, S. Nerreter, A. Buttner, K.-D. Langer, J. W. Walewski, “White light wireless transmission at 200+ Mb/s net data rate by use of discrete-multitone modulation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 21, no. 20, pp. 1511–1513, Oct. 2009.
[Crossref]

Kumar, N.

N. Kumar, N. Lourenco, M. Spiez, R. L. Aguiar, “Visible light communication systems conception and VIDAS,” IETE Tech. Rev., vol. 25, no. 6, pp. 359–367, 2008.
[Crossref]

Langer, K. D.

O. Bouchet, M. Wolf, M. El Tabach, T. Kamalakis, F. Grahame, J. Walewski, S. Nerreter, M. Franke, J. Grubor, D. O’Brien, K. D. Langer, “Hybrid wireless optics (HWO): building the next-generation home network,” in 6th Int. Symp. on Communications Systems, Networks and Digital Processing, Graz, Austria, 2008, pp. 283–287.

Langer, K.-D.

J. Vucic, C. Kottke, S. Nerreter, A. Buttner, K.-D. Langer, J. W. Walewski, “White light wireless transmission at 200+ Mb/s net data rate by use of discrete-multitone modulation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 21, no. 20, pp. 1511–1513, Oct. 2009.
[Crossref]

J. Grubor, S. Randel, K.-D. Langer, J. W. Walewski, “Broadband information broadcasting using LED-based interior lighting,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 26, no. 24, pp. 3883–3892, Dec. 2008.
[Crossref]

J. Grubor, O. C. Gaete Jamett, J. W. Walewski, S. Randel, K.-D. Langer, “High-speed wireless indoor communication via visible light,” ITG Fachbericht, 2007, pp. 203–208.

H. Le-Minh, D. C. O’Brien, L. Zeng, O. Bouchet, S. Randel, J. Walewski, J. A. R. Borges, K.-D. Langer, J. Grubor, K. Lee, E. T. Won, “Short-range visible light communications,” in Wireless World Research Forum 19, Chennai, India, 2007.

D. C. O’Brien, L. Zeng, H. Le-Minh, G. Faulkner, O. Bouchet, S. Randel, J. Walewski, J. A. R. Borges, K.-D. Langer, J. Grubor, K. Lee, E. T. Won, “Visible light communications,” in Wireless World Research Forum 20, Ottawa, Canada, 2007.

Lee, K.

D. C. O’Brien, L. Zeng, H. Le-Minh, G. Faulkner, O. Bouchet, S. Randel, J. Walewski, J. A. R. Borges, K.-D. Langer, J. Grubor, K. Lee, E. T. Won, “Visible light communications,” in Wireless World Research Forum 20, Ottawa, Canada, 2007.

H. Le-Minh, D. C. O’Brien, L. Zeng, O. Bouchet, S. Randel, J. Walewski, J. A. R. Borges, K.-D. Langer, J. Grubor, K. Lee, E. T. Won, “Short-range visible light communications,” in Wireless World Research Forum 19, Chennai, India, 2007.

Lee, S. C. J.

S. Randel, F. Breyer, S. C. J. Lee, J. W. Walewski, “Advanced modulation schemes for short-range optical communications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol. 16, no. 5, pp. 1280–1289, Sept./Oct. 2010.
[Crossref]

Le-Minh, H.

H. Le-Minh, D. C. O’Brien, L. Zeng, O. Bouchet, S. Randel, J. Walewski, J. A. R. Borges, K.-D. Langer, J. Grubor, K. Lee, E. T. Won, “Short-range visible light communications,” in Wireless World Research Forum 19, Chennai, India, 2007.

D. C. O’Brien, L. Zeng, H. Le-Minh, G. Faulkner, O. Bouchet, S. Randel, J. Walewski, J. A. R. Borges, K.-D. Langer, J. Grubor, K. Lee, E. T. Won, “Visible light communications,” in Wireless World Research Forum 20, Ottawa, Canada, 2007.

Lourenco, N.

N. Kumar, N. Lourenco, M. Spiez, R. L. Aguiar, “Visible light communication systems conception and VIDAS,” IETE Tech. Rev., vol. 25, no. 6, pp. 359–367, 2008.
[Crossref]

Muthu, S.

S. Muthu, F. J. Schuurmans, M. D. Pashley, “Red, green, and blue LED based white light generation: issues and control,” in 37th Annu. IEEE-IAS Meeting, 2002, vol. 2, pp. 327–333.

Nakagawa, M.

H. Sugiyama, S. Haruyama, M. Nakagawa, “Brightness control methods for illumination and visible-light communication systems,” in Proc. of the 3rd Int. Conf. on Wireless and Mobile Communications, 2007.

T. Komine, Y. Tanaka, S. Haruyama, M. Nakagawa, “Basic study on visible-light communication using light emitting diode illumination,” in Proc. of the 11th Int. Symp. on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications, London, 2000, pp. 1325–1329.

Nerreter, S.

J. Vucic, C. Kottke, S. Nerreter, A. Buttner, K.-D. Langer, J. W. Walewski, “White light wireless transmission at 200+ Mb/s net data rate by use of discrete-multitone modulation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 21, no. 20, pp. 1511–1513, Oct. 2009.
[Crossref]

O. Bouchet, M. Wolf, M. El Tabach, T. Kamalakis, F. Grahame, J. Walewski, S. Nerreter, M. Franke, J. Grubor, D. O’Brien, K. D. Langer, “Hybrid wireless optics (HWO): building the next-generation home network,” in 6th Int. Symp. on Communications Systems, Networks and Digital Processing, Graz, Austria, 2008, pp. 283–287.

O’Brien, D.

O. Bouchet, M. Wolf, M. El Tabach, T. Kamalakis, F. Grahame, J. Walewski, S. Nerreter, M. Franke, J. Grubor, D. O’Brien, K. D. Langer, “Hybrid wireless optics (HWO): building the next-generation home network,” in 6th Int. Symp. on Communications Systems, Networks and Digital Processing, Graz, Austria, 2008, pp. 283–287.

O’Brien, D. C.

D. C. O’Brien, L. Zeng, H. Le-Minh, G. Faulkner, O. Bouchet, S. Randel, J. Walewski, J. A. R. Borges, K.-D. Langer, J. Grubor, K. Lee, E. T. Won, “Visible light communications,” in Wireless World Research Forum 20, Ottawa, Canada, 2007.

H. Le-Minh, D. C. O’Brien, L. Zeng, O. Bouchet, S. Randel, J. Walewski, J. A. R. Borges, K.-D. Langer, J. Grubor, K. Lee, E. T. Won, “Short-range visible light communications,” in Wireless World Research Forum 19, Chennai, India, 2007.

Pashley, M. D.

S. Muthu, F. J. Schuurmans, M. D. Pashley, “Red, green, and blue LED based white light generation: issues and control,” in 37th Annu. IEEE-IAS Meeting, 2002, vol. 2, pp. 327–333.

Randel, S.

S. Randel, F. Breyer, S. C. J. Lee, J. W. Walewski, “Advanced modulation schemes for short-range optical communications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol. 16, no. 5, pp. 1280–1289, Sept./Oct. 2010.
[Crossref]

J. Grubor, S. Randel, K.-D. Langer, J. W. Walewski, “Broadband information broadcasting using LED-based interior lighting,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 26, no. 24, pp. 3883–3892, Dec. 2008.
[Crossref]

J. Grubor, O. C. Gaete Jamett, J. W. Walewski, S. Randel, K.-D. Langer, “High-speed wireless indoor communication via visible light,” ITG Fachbericht, 2007, pp. 203–208.

H. Le-Minh, D. C. O’Brien, L. Zeng, O. Bouchet, S. Randel, J. Walewski, J. A. R. Borges, K.-D. Langer, J. Grubor, K. Lee, E. T. Won, “Short-range visible light communications,” in Wireless World Research Forum 19, Chennai, India, 2007.

D. C. O’Brien, L. Zeng, H. Le-Minh, G. Faulkner, O. Bouchet, S. Randel, J. Walewski, J. A. R. Borges, K.-D. Langer, J. Grubor, K. Lee, E. T. Won, “Visible light communications,” in Wireless World Research Forum 20, Ottawa, Canada, 2007.

Schubert, E. F.

E. F. Schubert, Light Emitting Diodes, 2nd ed.Cambridge U. Press, 2006.
[Crossref]

Schuurmans, F. J.

S. Muthu, F. J. Schuurmans, M. D. Pashley, “Red, green, and blue LED based white light generation: issues and control,” in 37th Annu. IEEE-IAS Meeting, 2002, vol. 2, pp. 327–333.

Spiez, M.

N. Kumar, N. Lourenco, M. Spiez, R. L. Aguiar, “Visible light communication systems conception and VIDAS,” IETE Tech. Rev., vol. 25, no. 6, pp. 359–367, 2008.
[Crossref]

Sugiyama, H.

H. Sugiyama, S. Haruyama, M. Nakagawa, “Brightness control methods for illumination and visible-light communication systems,” in Proc. of the 3rd Int. Conf. on Wireless and Mobile Communications, 2007.

Tanaka, Y.

T. Komine, Y. Tanaka, S. Haruyama, M. Nakagawa, “Basic study on visible-light communication using light emitting diode illumination,” in Proc. of the 11th Int. Symp. on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications, London, 2000, pp. 1325–1329.

Vucic, J.

J. Vucic, C. Kottke, S. Nerreter, A. Buttner, K.-D. Langer, J. W. Walewski, “White light wireless transmission at 200+ Mb/s net data rate by use of discrete-multitone modulation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 21, no. 20, pp. 1511–1513, Oct. 2009.
[Crossref]

Walewski, J.

H. Le-Minh, D. C. O’Brien, L. Zeng, O. Bouchet, S. Randel, J. Walewski, J. A. R. Borges, K.-D. Langer, J. Grubor, K. Lee, E. T. Won, “Short-range visible light communications,” in Wireless World Research Forum 19, Chennai, India, 2007.

D. C. O’Brien, L. Zeng, H. Le-Minh, G. Faulkner, O. Bouchet, S. Randel, J. Walewski, J. A. R. Borges, K.-D. Langer, J. Grubor, K. Lee, E. T. Won, “Visible light communications,” in Wireless World Research Forum 20, Ottawa, Canada, 2007.

O. Bouchet, M. Wolf, M. El Tabach, T. Kamalakis, F. Grahame, J. Walewski, S. Nerreter, M. Franke, J. Grubor, D. O’Brien, K. D. Langer, “Hybrid wireless optics (HWO): building the next-generation home network,” in 6th Int. Symp. on Communications Systems, Networks and Digital Processing, Graz, Austria, 2008, pp. 283–287.

Walewski, J. W.

S. Randel, F. Breyer, S. C. J. Lee, J. W. Walewski, “Advanced modulation schemes for short-range optical communications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol. 16, no. 5, pp. 1280–1289, Sept./Oct. 2010.
[Crossref]

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Wolf, M.

O. Bouchet, M. Wolf, M. El Tabach, T. Kamalakis, F. Grahame, J. Walewski, S. Nerreter, M. Franke, J. Grubor, D. O’Brien, K. D. Langer, “Hybrid wireless optics (HWO): building the next-generation home network,” in 6th Int. Symp. on Communications Systems, Networks and Digital Processing, Graz, Austria, 2008, pp. 283–287.

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D. C. O’Brien, L. Zeng, H. Le-Minh, G. Faulkner, O. Bouchet, S. Randel, J. Walewski, J. A. R. Borges, K.-D. Langer, J. Grubor, K. Lee, E. T. Won, “Visible light communications,” in Wireless World Research Forum 20, Ottawa, Canada, 2007.

H. Le-Minh, D. C. O’Brien, L. Zeng, O. Bouchet, S. Randel, J. Walewski, J. A. R. Borges, K.-D. Langer, J. Grubor, K. Lee, E. T. Won, “Short-range visible light communications,” in Wireless World Research Forum 19, Chennai, India, 2007.

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H. Le-Minh, D. C. O’Brien, L. Zeng, O. Bouchet, S. Randel, J. Walewski, J. A. R. Borges, K.-D. Langer, J. Grubor, K. Lee, E. T. Won, “Short-range visible light communications,” in Wireless World Research Forum 19, Chennai, India, 2007.

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Figures (13)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Basic blocks of a PWM-DMT VLC system.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Normalized PWM waveform, indication of the PWM period ( T PWM ) , and the on time of the LED ( T 1 ) . Both for 80% and 20% dimming. (b) PWM-sampled DMT signal for the same settings.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

PWM signal in the case of noninteger R.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Power spectrum of PWM-sampled base-line-free 32 subcarrier DMT with a 16-QAM scheme signal for pure DMT and 80% dimming for (a) f PWM = f M 1 and (b) f PWM = 2 f M 1 .

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Relative change in flickering factors with respect to the undimmed case for different PWM line rates when 20% and 80% dimming is considered.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Standard deviation of the demodulated symbol imaginary part as a function of dimming level. (b) Standard deviation of the demodulated symbol real part as a function of the dimming level for f PWM = 0.3 f M 1 .

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Inverse SIR for an unsynchronized signal as a function of the relative frequency for 80% dimming. (b) Inverse SIR for a synchronized signal as a function of the relative frequency for 80% dimming.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(a) Inverse SIR for an unsynchronized signal as a function of the relative frequency for 20% dimming. (b) Inverse SIR for a synchronized signal as a function of the relative frequency for 20% dimming.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(a) BER for unsynchronized signal and detection scheme A for 80% dimming. (b) BER for synchronized signal and detection scheme A for 80% dimming.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

(a) BER for unsynchronized signal and detection scheme B. (b) BER for synchronized signal and detection scheme B. In both cases 80% dimming is considered.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Mean BER for synchronized signal detection scheme B for various dimming levels.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

The three cases considered in the estimation of the interference terms in the case of noninteger T T PWM when τ + T 1 < T PWM .

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

The three cases considered in the estimation of the interference terms in the case of noninteger T T PWM when τ + T 1 > T PWM .

Equations (32)

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p ( t ) = { 1 0 t T 1 0 T 1 < t T PWM } .
x ( t ) = X DC + Re { m = 1 M 1 s m e j ω m t } , 0 t < T .
y ( t ) = x ( t ) p ( t ) .
s ̂ m = 2 A T 0 T d t y ( t ) e j ω m t .
s ̂ m = A ( X DC P ( ω m ) + s m P ( 0 ) + s m * P ( 2 ω m ) ) + A ( s n P ( ω n ω m ) + s n * P ( ω n + ω m ) ) ,
P ( ω ) = 1 T 0 T d t p ( t ) e j ω t .
s ̂ m = A ( s m P ( 0 ) + s m * P ( 2 ω m ) ) + A ( s n P ( ω n ω m ) + s n * P ( ω n + ω m ) ) .
s ̂ = s m + s m * P ( 2 ω m ) P ( 0 ) + 1 P ( 0 ) n m ( s n P ( ω n ω m ) + s n * P ( ω n + ω m ) ) .
P τ ( ω ) = P τ , 1 ( ω ) + 1 T e j ω R T PWM P τ , 2 ( ω ) ,
P τ , 1 ( ω ) = 1 T i = 1 R e j ω ( i 1 ) T PWM 0 T PWM d t p ( t τ ) e j ω t ,
P τ , 2 ( ω ) = 0 T RES d t p ( t τ ) e j ω t .
V m r ( τ ) = s ̂ m r 2 = P ( 0 ) 2 n m | P τ ( ω n ω m ) + P τ ( ω n + ω m ) | 2 ,
V m i ( τ ) = s ̂ m i 2 = P ( 0 ) 2 n m | P τ ( ω n ω m ) P τ ( ω n + ω m ) | 2 .
σ m r 2 = 1 T PWM 0 T RES d τ V m r ( τ ) ,
σ m i 2 = 1 T PWM 0 T RES d τ V m i ( τ ) .
SIR m = 1 2 { d min 2 4 σ m r 2 + d min 2 4 σ m i 2 } ,
p ( t ) = n = C n e j 2 π n t T PWM ,
Y ( f ) = + d t y ( t ) e j 2 π f t
Y ( f ) = n = + C n X ( f n f PWM ) .
Y ( f ) = X ( f ) d
y LOW ( t ) = f L f L Y ( f ) e j 2 π f t d t .
C F = max { | y LOW ( t ) | } min { | y LOW ( t ) | } Y ( 0 ) ,
P τ , 1 ( ω ) = 1 R T PWM τ T 1 + τ d t e j ω t i = 1 R e j ω ( i 1 ) T PWM ,
1 T PWM τ T 1 + τ d t e j ω t = d sinc ( k d R ) e j π k d R ,
S ( k ) = 1 R i = 1 R e j 2 π k ( i 1 ) R = { 1 k is divisible by R 0 otherwise } .
P τ , 1 ( ω ) = d sinc ( k d R ) e j π k d R S ( k ) .
P τ , 2 ( ω ) = ( T RES τ ) sin c ( ω ( T RES τ ) 2 π ) e j ( ω ( T RES + τ ) 2 ) .
P τ , 2 ( ω ) = T 1 sinc ( ω T 1 2 π ) e ( j ω ( T 1 + 2 τ ) 2 ) .
P τ , 2 ( ω ) = T RES sinc ( ω T RES 2 π ) e j ω T RES 2 0 T RES d t q ( t ) e j ω t .
0 T RES d t q ( t ) e j ω t = 0.
0 T RES d t q ( t ) e j ω t = ( T RES τ + T 2 ) sin c ( ω ( T RES τ + T 2 ) 2 ) e j ( ω ( T RES + τ T 2 ) 2 ) .
0 T RES d t q ( t ) e j ω t = T 2 sin c ( ω T 2 2 ) e j ( ω ( 2 τ T 2 ) 2 ) .