Abstract

This paper presents a new optical-label switching (OLS) router control plane controller for multihop asynchronous, variable-length packet switching incorporating fast, fair, and wavelength-aware arbitration. The proposed optical router controller implements efficient unicast/multicast packet contention resolution algorithms and channel scheduling schemes to resolve the data plane switch fabric contention. The paper evaluates the performance of proposed algorithms in a multihop OLS simulation network with self-similar traffic input under various traffic scenarios. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed algorithms effectively improve the multihop OLS network performance. The hardware-efficient design and implementation of the proposed router controller and major modules are evaluated in terms of the area and delay for various switch sizes on a Xilinx XCV1000E field programmable gate array (FPGA) chip. Finally, this paper experimentally demonstrates the combined unicast and multicast video streaming enabled by the proposed OLS router control techniques over a label switching testbed with edge routers and realistic Ethernet/IP traffic input.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]

2006

Z. Pan, H. Yang, Z. Zhu, S. J. B. Yoo, “Demonstration of an optical-label switching router with multicast and contention resolution at mixed data rates,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 307–309, Jan. 2006.
[CrossRef]

2004

Z. Pan, H. Yang, Z. Zhu, J. Cao, V. Akella, S. Butt, S. J. B. Yoo, “Demonstration of variable-size packet contention resolution and packet forwarding in an optical-label switching router,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, no. 7, pp. 1772–1774, July 2004.
[CrossRef]

F. Xue, Z. Pan, H. Yang, J. Yang, J. Cao, K. Okamoto, S. Kamei, V. Akella, S. J. B. Yoo, “Design and experimental demonstration of a variable-length optical packet routing system with unified contention resolution,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 22, no. 11, pp. 2570–2581, Nov. 2004.
[CrossRef]

G. Contestabile, M. Presi, E. Ciaramella, “Multiple wavelength conversion for WDM multicasting by FWM in an SOA,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, pp. 1775–1777, July 2004.
[CrossRef]

2003

F. Xue, Z. Pan, Y. Bansal, J. Cao, M. Jeon, K. Okamoto, S. Kamei, V. Akella, S. J. B. Yoo, “End-to-end contention resolution schemes for an optical packet switching network with enhanced edge routers,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 21, no. 11, pp. 2595–2604, Nov. 2003.
[CrossRef]

Z. Pan, M. Jeon, Y. Bansal, J. Cao, J. Taylor, V. Akella, S. Kamei, K. Okamoto, S. J. B. Yoo, “Packet-by-packet wavelength, time, space-domain contention resolution in an optical-label switching router with 2R regeneration,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 9, pp. 1312–1314, Sept. 2003.
[CrossRef]

S. J. B. Yoo, “Optical-label switching, MPLS, MPLambdaS, and GMPLS,” Opt. Networks Mag., vol. 4, pp. 17–31, May/June 2003.

2002

S. J. B. Yoo, H. J. Lee, Z. Pan, J. Cao, Y. Zhang, K. Okamoto, S. Kamei, “Rapidly switching all-optical packet routing system with optical-label swapping incorporating tunable wavelength conversion and a uniform-loss cyclic frequency AWGR,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 14, no. 8, pp. 1211–1213, Aug. 2002.
[CrossRef]

2001

H. J. Lee, S. J. B. Yoo, V. K. Tsui, S. K. H. Fong, “A simple all-optical label detection and swapping technique incorporating a fiber Bragg grating filter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 13, pp. 635–637, 2001.
[CrossRef]

2000

1998

1997

B. Prabhakar, N. McKeown, R. Ahuja, “Multicast scheduling for input-queued switches,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 15, no. 5, pp. 855–866, 1997.
[CrossRef]

1996

I. Chlamtac, A. Fumagalli, L. G. Kazovsky, P. Melman, W. H. Nelson, P. Poggiolini, M. Cerisola, A. N. M. M. Choudhury, T. K. Fong, R. T. Hofmeister, C.-L. Lu, A. Mekkittikul, D. J. M. Sabido IX, C.-J. Suh, E. W. M. Wong, “CORD: contention resolution by delay lines,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 14, pp. 1014–1029, June 1996.
[CrossRef]

1995

F. Forghierri, A. Bononi, P. R. Prucnal, “Analysis and comparison of hot-potato and single-buffer deflection routing in very high bit rate optical mesh networks,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 43, pp. 88–98, Jan. 1995.
[CrossRef]

Ahuja, R.

B. Prabhakar, N. McKeown, R. Ahuja, “Multicast scheduling for input-queued switches,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 15, no. 5, pp. 855–866, 1997.
[CrossRef]

Akella, V.

Z. Pan, H. Yang, Z. Zhu, J. Cao, V. Akella, S. Butt, S. J. B. Yoo, “Demonstration of variable-size packet contention resolution and packet forwarding in an optical-label switching router,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, no. 7, pp. 1772–1774, July 2004.
[CrossRef]

F. Xue, Z. Pan, H. Yang, J. Yang, J. Cao, K. Okamoto, S. Kamei, V. Akella, S. J. B. Yoo, “Design and experimental demonstration of a variable-length optical packet routing system with unified contention resolution,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 22, no. 11, pp. 2570–2581, Nov. 2004.
[CrossRef]

F. Xue, Z. Pan, Y. Bansal, J. Cao, M. Jeon, K. Okamoto, S. Kamei, V. Akella, S. J. B. Yoo, “End-to-end contention resolution schemes for an optical packet switching network with enhanced edge routers,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 21, no. 11, pp. 2595–2604, Nov. 2003.
[CrossRef]

Z. Pan, M. Jeon, Y. Bansal, J. Cao, J. Taylor, V. Akella, S. Kamei, K. Okamoto, S. J. B. Yoo, “Packet-by-packet wavelength, time, space-domain contention resolution in an optical-label switching router with 2R regeneration,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 9, pp. 1312–1314, Sept. 2003.
[CrossRef]

Z. Pan, H. Yang, Z. Zhu, V. Akella, S. J. B. Yoo, “Experimental demonstration of variable-size packet contention resolution and switching in an optical-label switching router,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Los Angeles, CA, 2004, paper FO4.

H. Yang, V. Akella, C.-N. Chuah, S. J. B. Yoo, “Scheduling optical packets in wavelength, time, and space domains for all-optical packet switching routers,” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications, Seoul, South Korea, 2005, pp. 1836–1842.

Andonovic, I.

Bansal, Y.

F. Xue, Z. Pan, Y. Bansal, J. Cao, M. Jeon, K. Okamoto, S. Kamei, V. Akella, S. J. B. Yoo, “End-to-end contention resolution schemes for an optical packet switching network with enhanced edge routers,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 21, no. 11, pp. 2595–2604, Nov. 2003.
[CrossRef]

Z. Pan, M. Jeon, Y. Bansal, J. Cao, J. Taylor, V. Akella, S. Kamei, K. Okamoto, S. J. B. Yoo, “Packet-by-packet wavelength, time, space-domain contention resolution in an optical-label switching router with 2R regeneration,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 9, pp. 1312–1314, Sept. 2003.
[CrossRef]

Bononi, A.

F. Forghierri, A. Bononi, P. R. Prucnal, “Analysis and comparison of hot-potato and single-buffer deflection routing in very high bit rate optical mesh networks,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 43, pp. 88–98, Jan. 1995.
[CrossRef]

Butt, S.

Z. Pan, H. Yang, Z. Zhu, J. Cao, V. Akella, S. Butt, S. J. B. Yoo, “Demonstration of variable-size packet contention resolution and packet forwarding in an optical-label switching router,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, no. 7, pp. 1772–1774, July 2004.
[CrossRef]

Cao, J.

Z. Pan, H. Yang, Z. Zhu, J. Cao, V. Akella, S. Butt, S. J. B. Yoo, “Demonstration of variable-size packet contention resolution and packet forwarding in an optical-label switching router,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, no. 7, pp. 1772–1774, July 2004.
[CrossRef]

F. Xue, Z. Pan, H. Yang, J. Yang, J. Cao, K. Okamoto, S. Kamei, V. Akella, S. J. B. Yoo, “Design and experimental demonstration of a variable-length optical packet routing system with unified contention resolution,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 22, no. 11, pp. 2570–2581, Nov. 2004.
[CrossRef]

Z. Pan, M. Jeon, Y. Bansal, J. Cao, J. Taylor, V. Akella, S. Kamei, K. Okamoto, S. J. B. Yoo, “Packet-by-packet wavelength, time, space-domain contention resolution in an optical-label switching router with 2R regeneration,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 9, pp. 1312–1314, Sept. 2003.
[CrossRef]

F. Xue, Z. Pan, Y. Bansal, J. Cao, M. Jeon, K. Okamoto, S. Kamei, V. Akella, S. J. B. Yoo, “End-to-end contention resolution schemes for an optical packet switching network with enhanced edge routers,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 21, no. 11, pp. 2595–2604, Nov. 2003.
[CrossRef]

S. J. B. Yoo, H. J. Lee, Z. Pan, J. Cao, Y. Zhang, K. Okamoto, S. Kamei, “Rapidly switching all-optical packet routing system with optical-label swapping incorporating tunable wavelength conversion and a uniform-loss cyclic frequency AWGR,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 14, no. 8, pp. 1211–1213, Aug. 2002.
[CrossRef]

Cerisola, M.

I. Chlamtac, A. Fumagalli, L. G. Kazovsky, P. Melman, W. H. Nelson, P. Poggiolini, M. Cerisola, A. N. M. M. Choudhury, T. K. Fong, R. T. Hofmeister, C.-L. Lu, A. Mekkittikul, D. J. M. Sabido IX, C.-J. Suh, E. W. M. Wong, “CORD: contention resolution by delay lines,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 14, pp. 1014–1029, June 1996.
[CrossRef]

Chang, G. K.

Chen, T. F.

Chen, Y. J.

Chia, M. C.

Chlamtac, I.

I. Chlamtac, A. Fumagalli, L. G. Kazovsky, P. Melman, W. H. Nelson, P. Poggiolini, M. Cerisola, A. N. M. M. Choudhury, T. K. Fong, R. T. Hofmeister, C.-L. Lu, A. Mekkittikul, D. J. M. Sabido IX, C.-J. Suh, E. W. M. Wong, “CORD: contention resolution by delay lines,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 14, pp. 1014–1029, June 1996.
[CrossRef]

Choudhury, A. N. M. M.

I. Chlamtac, A. Fumagalli, L. G. Kazovsky, P. Melman, W. H. Nelson, P. Poggiolini, M. Cerisola, A. N. M. M. Choudhury, T. K. Fong, R. T. Hofmeister, C.-L. Lu, A. Mekkittikul, D. J. M. Sabido IX, C.-J. Suh, E. W. M. Wong, “CORD: contention resolution by delay lines,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 14, pp. 1014–1029, June 1996.
[CrossRef]

Chowdhury, A.

Chuah, C.-N.

H. Yang, V. Akella, C.-N. Chuah, S. J. B. Yoo, “Scheduling optical packets in wavelength, time, and space domains for all-optical packet switching routers,” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications, Seoul, South Korea, 2005, pp. 1836–1842.

Ciaramella, E.

G. Contestabile, M. Presi, E. Ciaramella, “Multiple wavelength conversion for WDM multicasting by FWM in an SOA,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, pp. 1775–1777, July 2004.
[CrossRef]

Contestabile, G.

G. Contestabile, M. Presi, E. Ciaramella, “Multiple wavelength conversion for WDM multicasting by FWM in an SOA,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, pp. 1775–1777, July 2004.
[CrossRef]

Dai, H.

Danielsen, S. L.

Dixit, S.

S. Yao, B. Mukherjee, S. Dixit, “Advances in photonic packet switching: an overview,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 38, pp. 84–94, Feb. 2000.
[CrossRef]

Ellinas, G.

Fong, S. K. H.

H. J. Lee, S. J. B. Yoo, V. K. Tsui, S. K. H. Fong, “A simple all-optical label detection and swapping technique incorporating a fiber Bragg grating filter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 13, pp. 635–637, 2001.
[CrossRef]

Fong, T. K.

I. Chlamtac, A. Fumagalli, L. G. Kazovsky, P. Melman, W. H. Nelson, P. Poggiolini, M. Cerisola, A. N. M. M. Choudhury, T. K. Fong, R. T. Hofmeister, C.-L. Lu, A. Mekkittikul, D. J. M. Sabido IX, C.-J. Suh, E. W. M. Wong, “CORD: contention resolution by delay lines,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 14, pp. 1014–1029, June 1996.
[CrossRef]

Forghierri, F.

F. Forghierri, A. Bononi, P. R. Prucnal, “Analysis and comparison of hot-potato and single-buffer deflection routing in very high bit rate optical mesh networks,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 43, pp. 88–98, Jan. 1995.
[CrossRef]

Fumagalli, A.

I. Chlamtac, A. Fumagalli, L. G. Kazovsky, P. Melman, W. H. Nelson, P. Poggiolini, M. Cerisola, A. N. M. M. Choudhury, T. K. Fong, R. T. Hofmeister, C.-L. Lu, A. Mekkittikul, D. J. M. Sabido IX, C.-J. Suh, E. W. M. Wong, “CORD: contention resolution by delay lines,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 14, pp. 1014–1029, June 1996.
[CrossRef]

Hansen, P. B.

Hofmeister, R. T.

I. Chlamtac, A. Fumagalli, L. G. Kazovsky, P. Melman, W. H. Nelson, P. Poggiolini, M. Cerisola, A. N. M. M. Choudhury, T. K. Fong, R. T. Hofmeister, C.-L. Lu, A. Mekkittikul, D. J. M. Sabido IX, C.-J. Suh, E. W. M. Wong, “CORD: contention resolution by delay lines,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 14, pp. 1014–1029, June 1996.
[CrossRef]

Hunter, D. K.

Iqbal, M. Z.

Jeon, M.

F. Xue, Z. Pan, Y. Bansal, J. Cao, M. Jeon, K. Okamoto, S. Kamei, V. Akella, S. J. B. Yoo, “End-to-end contention resolution schemes for an optical packet switching network with enhanced edge routers,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 21, no. 11, pp. 2595–2604, Nov. 2003.
[CrossRef]

Z. Pan, M. Jeon, Y. Bansal, J. Cao, J. Taylor, V. Akella, S. Kamei, K. Okamoto, S. J. B. Yoo, “Packet-by-packet wavelength, time, space-domain contention resolution in an optical-label switching router with 2R regeneration,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 9, pp. 1312–1314, Sept. 2003.
[CrossRef]

Kamei, S.

F. Xue, Z. Pan, H. Yang, J. Yang, J. Cao, K. Okamoto, S. Kamei, V. Akella, S. J. B. Yoo, “Design and experimental demonstration of a variable-length optical packet routing system with unified contention resolution,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 22, no. 11, pp. 2570–2581, Nov. 2004.
[CrossRef]

F. Xue, Z. Pan, Y. Bansal, J. Cao, M. Jeon, K. Okamoto, S. Kamei, V. Akella, S. J. B. Yoo, “End-to-end contention resolution schemes for an optical packet switching network with enhanced edge routers,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 21, no. 11, pp. 2595–2604, Nov. 2003.
[CrossRef]

Z. Pan, M. Jeon, Y. Bansal, J. Cao, J. Taylor, V. Akella, S. Kamei, K. Okamoto, S. J. B. Yoo, “Packet-by-packet wavelength, time, space-domain contention resolution in an optical-label switching router with 2R regeneration,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 9, pp. 1312–1314, Sept. 2003.
[CrossRef]

S. J. B. Yoo, H. J. Lee, Z. Pan, J. Cao, Y. Zhang, K. Okamoto, S. Kamei, “Rapidly switching all-optical packet routing system with optical-label swapping incorporating tunable wavelength conversion and a uniform-loss cyclic frequency AWGR,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 14, no. 8, pp. 1211–1213, Aug. 2002.
[CrossRef]

Kazovsky, L. G.

I. Chlamtac, A. Fumagalli, L. G. Kazovsky, P. Melman, W. H. Nelson, P. Poggiolini, M. Cerisola, A. N. M. M. Choudhury, T. K. Fong, R. T. Hofmeister, C.-L. Lu, A. Mekkittikul, D. J. M. Sabido IX, C.-J. Suh, E. W. M. Wong, “CORD: contention resolution by delay lines,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 14, pp. 1014–1029, June 1996.
[CrossRef]

Lee, C.

Lee, H. J.

S. J. B. Yoo, H. J. Lee, Z. Pan, J. Cao, Y. Zhang, K. Okamoto, S. Kamei, “Rapidly switching all-optical packet routing system with optical-label swapping incorporating tunable wavelength conversion and a uniform-loss cyclic frequency AWGR,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 14, no. 8, pp. 1211–1213, Aug. 2002.
[CrossRef]

H. J. Lee, S. J. B. Yoo, V. K. Tsui, S. K. H. Fong, “A simple all-optical label detection and swapping technique incorporating a fiber Bragg grating filter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 13, pp. 635–637, 2001.
[CrossRef]

Lin, Y. M.

Lowen, S. B.

B. K. Ryu, S. B. Lowen, “Point process approaches to the modeling and analysis of self-similar traffic. I. Model construction,” in 15th Annu. Joint Conf. of the IEEE Computer Societies, 1996, vol. 3, pp. 1468–1475.

Lu, C.-L.

I. Chlamtac, A. Fumagalli, L. G. Kazovsky, P. Melman, W. H. Nelson, P. Poggiolini, M. Cerisola, A. N. M. M. Choudhury, T. K. Fong, R. T. Hofmeister, C.-L. Lu, A. Mekkittikul, D. J. M. Sabido IX, C.-J. Suh, E. W. M. Wong, “CORD: contention resolution by delay lines,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 14, pp. 1014–1029, June 1996.
[CrossRef]

McKeown, N.

B. Prabhakar, N. McKeown, R. Ahuja, “Multicast scheduling for input-queued switches,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 15, no. 5, pp. 855–866, 1997.
[CrossRef]

Meagher, B.

Mekkittikul, A.

I. Chlamtac, A. Fumagalli, L. G. Kazovsky, P. Melman, W. H. Nelson, P. Poggiolini, M. Cerisola, A. N. M. M. Choudhury, T. K. Fong, R. T. Hofmeister, C.-L. Lu, A. Mekkittikul, D. J. M. Sabido IX, C.-J. Suh, E. W. M. Wong, “CORD: contention resolution by delay lines,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 14, pp. 1014–1029, June 1996.
[CrossRef]

Melman, P.

I. Chlamtac, A. Fumagalli, L. G. Kazovsky, P. Melman, W. H. Nelson, P. Poggiolini, M. Cerisola, A. N. M. M. Choudhury, T. K. Fong, R. T. Hofmeister, C.-L. Lu, A. Mekkittikul, D. J. M. Sabido IX, C.-J. Suh, E. W. M. Wong, “CORD: contention resolution by delay lines,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 14, pp. 1014–1029, June 1996.
[CrossRef]

Mukherjee, B.

S. Yao, B. Mukherjee, S. Dixit, “Advances in photonic packet switching: an overview,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 38, pp. 84–94, Feb. 2000.
[CrossRef]

Nelson, W. H.

I. Chlamtac, A. Fumagalli, L. G. Kazovsky, P. Melman, W. H. Nelson, P. Poggiolini, M. Cerisola, A. N. M. M. Choudhury, T. K. Fong, R. T. Hofmeister, C.-L. Lu, A. Mekkittikul, D. J. M. Sabido IX, C.-J. Suh, E. W. M. Wong, “CORD: contention resolution by delay lines,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 14, pp. 1014–1029, June 1996.
[CrossRef]

Okamoto, K.

F. Xue, Z. Pan, H. Yang, J. Yang, J. Cao, K. Okamoto, S. Kamei, V. Akella, S. J. B. Yoo, “Design and experimental demonstration of a variable-length optical packet routing system with unified contention resolution,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 22, no. 11, pp. 2570–2581, Nov. 2004.
[CrossRef]

Z. Pan, M. Jeon, Y. Bansal, J. Cao, J. Taylor, V. Akella, S. Kamei, K. Okamoto, S. J. B. Yoo, “Packet-by-packet wavelength, time, space-domain contention resolution in an optical-label switching router with 2R regeneration,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 9, pp. 1312–1314, Sept. 2003.
[CrossRef]

F. Xue, Z. Pan, Y. Bansal, J. Cao, M. Jeon, K. Okamoto, S. Kamei, V. Akella, S. J. B. Yoo, “End-to-end contention resolution schemes for an optical packet switching network with enhanced edge routers,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 21, no. 11, pp. 2595–2604, Nov. 2003.
[CrossRef]

S. J. B. Yoo, H. J. Lee, Z. Pan, J. Cao, Y. Zhang, K. Okamoto, S. Kamei, “Rapidly switching all-optical packet routing system with optical-label swapping incorporating tunable wavelength conversion and a uniform-loss cyclic frequency AWGR,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 14, no. 8, pp. 1211–1213, Aug. 2002.
[CrossRef]

Pan, Z.

Z. Pan, H. Yang, Z. Zhu, S. J. B. Yoo, “Demonstration of an optical-label switching router with multicast and contention resolution at mixed data rates,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 307–309, Jan. 2006.
[CrossRef]

F. Xue, Z. Pan, H. Yang, J. Yang, J. Cao, K. Okamoto, S. Kamei, V. Akella, S. J. B. Yoo, “Design and experimental demonstration of a variable-length optical packet routing system with unified contention resolution,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 22, no. 11, pp. 2570–2581, Nov. 2004.
[CrossRef]

Z. Pan, H. Yang, Z. Zhu, J. Cao, V. Akella, S. Butt, S. J. B. Yoo, “Demonstration of variable-size packet contention resolution and packet forwarding in an optical-label switching router,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, no. 7, pp. 1772–1774, July 2004.
[CrossRef]

F. Xue, Z. Pan, Y. Bansal, J. Cao, M. Jeon, K. Okamoto, S. Kamei, V. Akella, S. J. B. Yoo, “End-to-end contention resolution schemes for an optical packet switching network with enhanced edge routers,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 21, no. 11, pp. 2595–2604, Nov. 2003.
[CrossRef]

Z. Pan, M. Jeon, Y. Bansal, J. Cao, J. Taylor, V. Akella, S. Kamei, K. Okamoto, S. J. B. Yoo, “Packet-by-packet wavelength, time, space-domain contention resolution in an optical-label switching router with 2R regeneration,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 9, pp. 1312–1314, Sept. 2003.
[CrossRef]

S. J. B. Yoo, H. J. Lee, Z. Pan, J. Cao, Y. Zhang, K. Okamoto, S. Kamei, “Rapidly switching all-optical packet routing system with optical-label swapping incorporating tunable wavelength conversion and a uniform-loss cyclic frequency AWGR,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 14, no. 8, pp. 1211–1213, Aug. 2002.
[CrossRef]

Z. Pan, H. Yang, Z. Zhu, V. Akella, S. J. B. Yoo, “Experimental demonstration of variable-size packet contention resolution and switching in an optical-label switching router,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Los Angeles, CA, 2004, paper FO4.

Z. Pan, H. Yang, Z. Zhu, S. J. B. Yoo, “Experimental demonstration of a multicast-capable optical-label switching router,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Anaheim, CA, 2005, paper OTuC8.

Paul, S.

S. Paul, Multicasting on the Internet and Its Applications. Kluwer Academic, Boston, MA, 1998.
[CrossRef]

Poggiolini, P.

I. Chlamtac, A. Fumagalli, L. G. Kazovsky, P. Melman, W. H. Nelson, P. Poggiolini, M. Cerisola, A. N. M. M. Choudhury, T. K. Fong, R. T. Hofmeister, C.-L. Lu, A. Mekkittikul, D. J. M. Sabido IX, C.-J. Suh, E. W. M. Wong, “CORD: contention resolution by delay lines,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 14, pp. 1014–1029, June 1996.
[CrossRef]

Prabhakar, B.

B. Prabhakar, N. McKeown, R. Ahuja, “Multicast scheduling for input-queued switches,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 15, no. 5, pp. 855–866, 1997.
[CrossRef]

Presi, M.

G. Contestabile, M. Presi, E. Ciaramella, “Multiple wavelength conversion for WDM multicasting by FWM in an SOA,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, pp. 1775–1777, July 2004.
[CrossRef]

Prucnal, P. R.

F. Forghierri, A. Bononi, P. R. Prucnal, “Analysis and comparison of hot-potato and single-buffer deflection routing in very high bit rate optical mesh networks,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 43, pp. 88–98, Jan. 1995.
[CrossRef]

Robe, T.

Ryu, B. K.

B. K. Ryu, S. B. Lowen, “Point process approaches to the modeling and analysis of self-similar traffic. I. Model construction,” in 15th Annu. Joint Conf. of the IEEE Computer Societies, 1996, vol. 3, pp. 1468–1475.

Sabido IX, D. J. M.

I. Chlamtac, A. Fumagalli, L. G. Kazovsky, P. Melman, W. H. Nelson, P. Poggiolini, M. Cerisola, A. N. M. M. Choudhury, T. K. Fong, R. T. Hofmeister, C.-L. Lu, A. Mekkittikul, D. J. M. Sabido IX, C.-J. Suh, E. W. M. Wong, “CORD: contention resolution by delay lines,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 14, pp. 1014–1029, June 1996.
[CrossRef]

Stubkjear, K. E.

Suh, C.-J.

I. Chlamtac, A. Fumagalli, L. G. Kazovsky, P. Melman, W. H. Nelson, P. Poggiolini, M. Cerisola, A. N. M. M. Choudhury, T. K. Fong, R. T. Hofmeister, C.-L. Lu, A. Mekkittikul, D. J. M. Sabido IX, C.-J. Suh, E. W. M. Wong, “CORD: contention resolution by delay lines,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 14, pp. 1014–1029, June 1996.
[CrossRef]

Taylor, J.

Z. Pan, M. Jeon, Y. Bansal, J. Cao, J. Taylor, V. Akella, S. Kamei, K. Okamoto, S. J. B. Yoo, “Packet-by-packet wavelength, time, space-domain contention resolution in an optical-label switching router with 2R regeneration,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 9, pp. 1312–1314, Sept. 2003.
[CrossRef]

Tsui, V. K.

H. J. Lee, S. J. B. Yoo, V. K. Tsui, S. K. H. Fong, “A simple all-optical label detection and swapping technique incorporating a fiber Bragg grating filter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 13, pp. 635–637, 2001.
[CrossRef]

Way, W. I.

Wong, E. W. M.

I. Chlamtac, A. Fumagalli, L. G. Kazovsky, P. Melman, W. H. Nelson, P. Poggiolini, M. Cerisola, A. N. M. M. Choudhury, T. K. Fong, R. T. Hofmeister, C.-L. Lu, A. Mekkittikul, D. J. M. Sabido IX, C.-J. Suh, E. W. M. Wong, “CORD: contention resolution by delay lines,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 14, pp. 1014–1029, June 1996.
[CrossRef]

Xin, W.

Xue, F.

Yang, H.

Z. Pan, H. Yang, Z. Zhu, S. J. B. Yoo, “Demonstration of an optical-label switching router with multicast and contention resolution at mixed data rates,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 307–309, Jan. 2006.
[CrossRef]

F. Xue, Z. Pan, H. Yang, J. Yang, J. Cao, K. Okamoto, S. Kamei, V. Akella, S. J. B. Yoo, “Design and experimental demonstration of a variable-length optical packet routing system with unified contention resolution,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 22, no. 11, pp. 2570–2581, Nov. 2004.
[CrossRef]

Z. Pan, H. Yang, Z. Zhu, J. Cao, V. Akella, S. Butt, S. J. B. Yoo, “Demonstration of variable-size packet contention resolution and packet forwarding in an optical-label switching router,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, no. 7, pp. 1772–1774, July 2004.
[CrossRef]

Z. Pan, H. Yang, Z. Zhu, V. Akella, S. J. B. Yoo, “Experimental demonstration of variable-size packet contention resolution and switching in an optical-label switching router,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Los Angeles, CA, 2004, paper FO4.

Z. Pan, H. Yang, Z. Zhu, S. J. B. Yoo, “Experimental demonstration of a multicast-capable optical-label switching router,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Anaheim, CA, 2005, paper OTuC8.

H. Yang, V. Akella, C.-N. Chuah, S. J. B. Yoo, “Scheduling optical packets in wavelength, time, and space domains for all-optical packet switching routers,” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications, Seoul, South Korea, 2005, pp. 1836–1842.

Yang, J.

Yang, X.

Yao, S.

S. Yao, B. Mukherjee, S. Dixit, “Advances in photonic packet switching: an overview,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 38, pp. 84–94, Feb. 2000.
[CrossRef]

Yoo, S. J. B.

Z. Pan, H. Yang, Z. Zhu, S. J. B. Yoo, “Demonstration of an optical-label switching router with multicast and contention resolution at mixed data rates,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 307–309, Jan. 2006.
[CrossRef]

F. Xue, Z. Pan, H. Yang, J. Yang, J. Cao, K. Okamoto, S. Kamei, V. Akella, S. J. B. Yoo, “Design and experimental demonstration of a variable-length optical packet routing system with unified contention resolution,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 22, no. 11, pp. 2570–2581, Nov. 2004.
[CrossRef]

Z. Pan, H. Yang, Z. Zhu, J. Cao, V. Akella, S. Butt, S. J. B. Yoo, “Demonstration of variable-size packet contention resolution and packet forwarding in an optical-label switching router,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, no. 7, pp. 1772–1774, July 2004.
[CrossRef]

S. J. B. Yoo, “Optical-label switching, MPLS, MPLambdaS, and GMPLS,” Opt. Networks Mag., vol. 4, pp. 17–31, May/June 2003.

Z. Pan, M. Jeon, Y. Bansal, J. Cao, J. Taylor, V. Akella, S. Kamei, K. Okamoto, S. J. B. Yoo, “Packet-by-packet wavelength, time, space-domain contention resolution in an optical-label switching router with 2R regeneration,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 9, pp. 1312–1314, Sept. 2003.
[CrossRef]

F. Xue, Z. Pan, Y. Bansal, J. Cao, M. Jeon, K. Okamoto, S. Kamei, V. Akella, S. J. B. Yoo, “End-to-end contention resolution schemes for an optical packet switching network with enhanced edge routers,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 21, no. 11, pp. 2595–2604, Nov. 2003.
[CrossRef]

S. J. B. Yoo, H. J. Lee, Z. Pan, J. Cao, Y. Zhang, K. Okamoto, S. Kamei, “Rapidly switching all-optical packet routing system with optical-label swapping incorporating tunable wavelength conversion and a uniform-loss cyclic frequency AWGR,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 14, no. 8, pp. 1211–1213, Aug. 2002.
[CrossRef]

H. J. Lee, S. J. B. Yoo, V. K. Tsui, S. K. H. Fong, “A simple all-optical label detection and swapping technique incorporating a fiber Bragg grating filter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 13, pp. 635–637, 2001.
[CrossRef]

B. Meagher, G. K. Chang, G. Ellinas, Y. M. Lin, W. Xin, T. F. Chen, X. Yang, A. Chowdhury, J. Young, S. J. B. Yoo, C. Lee, M. Z. Iqbal, T. Robe, H. Dai, Y. J. Chen, W. I. Way, “Design and implementation of ultra-low latency optical label switching for packet-switched WDM networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 18, pp. 1978–1987, Dec. 2000.
[CrossRef]

Z. Pan, H. Yang, Z. Zhu, V. Akella, S. J. B. Yoo, “Experimental demonstration of variable-size packet contention resolution and switching in an optical-label switching router,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Los Angeles, CA, 2004, paper FO4.

H. Yang, V. Akella, C.-N. Chuah, S. J. B. Yoo, “Scheduling optical packets in wavelength, time, and space domains for all-optical packet switching routers,” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications, Seoul, South Korea, 2005, pp. 1836–1842.

Z. Pan, H. Yang, Z. Zhu, S. J. B. Yoo, “Experimental demonstration of a multicast-capable optical-label switching router,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Anaheim, CA, 2005, paper OTuC8.

Young, J.

Zhang, Y.

S. J. B. Yoo, H. J. Lee, Z. Pan, J. Cao, Y. Zhang, K. Okamoto, S. Kamei, “Rapidly switching all-optical packet routing system with optical-label swapping incorporating tunable wavelength conversion and a uniform-loss cyclic frequency AWGR,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 14, no. 8, pp. 1211–1213, Aug. 2002.
[CrossRef]

Zhu, Z.

Z. Pan, H. Yang, Z. Zhu, S. J. B. Yoo, “Demonstration of an optical-label switching router with multicast and contention resolution at mixed data rates,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 307–309, Jan. 2006.
[CrossRef]

Z. Pan, H. Yang, Z. Zhu, J. Cao, V. Akella, S. Butt, S. J. B. Yoo, “Demonstration of variable-size packet contention resolution and packet forwarding in an optical-label switching router,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, no. 7, pp. 1772–1774, July 2004.
[CrossRef]

Z. Pan, H. Yang, Z. Zhu, V. Akella, S. J. B. Yoo, “Experimental demonstration of variable-size packet contention resolution and switching in an optical-label switching router,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Los Angeles, CA, 2004, paper FO4.

Z. Pan, H. Yang, Z. Zhu, S. J. B. Yoo, “Experimental demonstration of a multicast-capable optical-label switching router,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Anaheim, CA, 2005, paper OTuC8.

IEEE Commun. Mag.

S. Yao, B. Mukherjee, S. Dixit, “Advances in photonic packet switching: an overview,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 38, pp. 84–94, Feb. 2000.
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun.

I. Chlamtac, A. Fumagalli, L. G. Kazovsky, P. Melman, W. H. Nelson, P. Poggiolini, M. Cerisola, A. N. M. M. Choudhury, T. K. Fong, R. T. Hofmeister, C.-L. Lu, A. Mekkittikul, D. J. M. Sabido IX, C.-J. Suh, E. W. M. Wong, “CORD: contention resolution by delay lines,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 14, pp. 1014–1029, June 1996.
[CrossRef]

B. Prabhakar, N. McKeown, R. Ahuja, “Multicast scheduling for input-queued switches,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 15, no. 5, pp. 855–866, 1997.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

Z. Pan, H. Yang, Z. Zhu, J. Cao, V. Akella, S. Butt, S. J. B. Yoo, “Demonstration of variable-size packet contention resolution and packet forwarding in an optical-label switching router,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, no. 7, pp. 1772–1774, July 2004.
[CrossRef]

Z. Pan, H. Yang, Z. Zhu, S. J. B. Yoo, “Demonstration of an optical-label switching router with multicast and contention resolution at mixed data rates,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 307–309, Jan. 2006.
[CrossRef]

Z. Pan, M. Jeon, Y. Bansal, J. Cao, J. Taylor, V. Akella, S. Kamei, K. Okamoto, S. J. B. Yoo, “Packet-by-packet wavelength, time, space-domain contention resolution in an optical-label switching router with 2R regeneration,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 9, pp. 1312–1314, Sept. 2003.
[CrossRef]

G. Contestabile, M. Presi, E. Ciaramella, “Multiple wavelength conversion for WDM multicasting by FWM in an SOA,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, pp. 1775–1777, July 2004.
[CrossRef]

S. J. B. Yoo, H. J. Lee, Z. Pan, J. Cao, Y. Zhang, K. Okamoto, S. Kamei, “Rapidly switching all-optical packet routing system with optical-label swapping incorporating tunable wavelength conversion and a uniform-loss cyclic frequency AWGR,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 14, no. 8, pp. 1211–1213, Aug. 2002.
[CrossRef]

H. J. Lee, S. J. B. Yoo, V. K. Tsui, S. K. H. Fong, “A simple all-optical label detection and swapping technique incorporating a fiber Bragg grating filter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 13, pp. 635–637, 2001.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Commun.

F. Forghierri, A. Bononi, P. R. Prucnal, “Analysis and comparison of hot-potato and single-buffer deflection routing in very high bit rate optical mesh networks,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 43, pp. 88–98, Jan. 1995.
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

Opt. Networks Mag.

S. J. B. Yoo, “Optical-label switching, MPLS, MPLambdaS, and GMPLS,” Opt. Networks Mag., vol. 4, pp. 17–31, May/June 2003.

Other

Z. Pan, H. Yang, Z. Zhu, V. Akella, S. J. B. Yoo, “Experimental demonstration of variable-size packet contention resolution and switching in an optical-label switching router,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Los Angeles, CA, 2004, paper FO4.

Z. Pan, H. Yang, Z. Zhu, S. J. B. Yoo, “Experimental demonstration of a multicast-capable optical-label switching router,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Anaheim, CA, 2005, paper OTuC8.

S. Paul, Multicasting on the Internet and Its Applications. Kluwer Academic, Boston, MA, 1998.
[CrossRef]

Agilent Technologies. “How can I generate traffic representative of “realistic” Internet traffic insight.” Available: http://advanced.comms.agilent.com/insight/2001-08/Questions/traffic_gen.htm.

B. K. Ryu, S. B. Lowen, “Point process approaches to the modeling and analysis of self-similar traffic. I. Model construction,” in 15th Annu. Joint Conf. of the IEEE Computer Societies, 1996, vol. 3, pp. 1468–1475.

Xilinx, “Virtex-E 1.8V FPGA complete data sheet,” 2006.

VideoLAN project, “VideoLAN—Free software and open source video streaming solution for every OS!,” 2004. Available: http://www.videolan.org.

H. Yang, V. Akella, C.-N. Chuah, S. J. B. Yoo, “Scheduling optical packets in wavelength, time, and space domains for all-optical packet switching routers,” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications, Seoul, South Korea, 2005, pp. 1836–1842.

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Figures (23)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Optical router data plane and control plane.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Optical router controller architecture.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Label processor structure.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Port arbiter and channel scheduler structure.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Channel controller structure.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

MTA architecture.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Structure of the RRTD.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Basic 1 × 1 STD cell.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Flow chart of UCAST.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Flow chart of CMPD.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Flow chart of FAFD.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Output channel scheduling scheme: (a) FF, (b) FFR.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Simulation networks setup.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

IP packet length distribution.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

(a) Multicast simulation network with one multicast traffic source, (b) unicast simulation network without multicast-capable nodes.

Fig. 16
Fig. 16

(a) Packet loss rate under various percentages of multicast traffic, (b) packet loss rate under various traffic loads, (c) contribution of both unicast and multicast packet loss to overall packet loss.

Fig. 17
Fig. 17

Link utilization between nodes 2 and 3.

Fig. 18
Fig. 18

Simulation network with two multicast traffic sources.

Fig. 19
Fig. 19

Overall packet loss rate.

Fig. 20
Fig. 20

Comparison of required number of components in terms of TWC, FWC, and MWC.

Fig. 21
Fig. 21

Pipelined port arbiter implementations.

Fig. 22
Fig. 22

(a) Experimental setup for multicast video streaming using edge routers and an OLS core router. (b) Details of the functional blocks in (a). LE, label extractor; LO, local oscillator; RF, radio frequency; LR, label receiver; FBG, fiber Bragg grating; CIR, circulator; TLD, tunable laser diode; EDFA, erbium-doped fiber amplifier; VOA, variable optical attenuator; OBPF, optical bandpass filter; PC, polarization controller; SOA-MZI, semiconductor-optical-amplifier-based Mach–Zehnder interferometer; AMP, amplifier; DFB, distributed feedback.

Fig. 23
Fig. 23

Video screen shots from various video sources and the optical packet sequences before the egress edge routers. Video images in Unicast Server and Unicast Client are from “It’s the Great Pumpkin, Charlie Brown,” © PEANUTS Worldwide LLC. Video images in Multicast Server, Multicast Client 1, and Multicast Client 2 are from “The Truman Show,” © Paramount Pictures Corporation.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Simulation Configurations

Tables Icon

Table 2 FPGA Area and Timing Results

Tables Icon

Table 3 FPGA Area and Timing Results