Abstract

New Internet applications are increasingly generating high-bandwidth and short-lived demands. If network resources are available, establishing a lightpath on demand only takes a few minutes on today’s reconfigurable optical networks. These demands thus create a more variable and unpredictable environment for long-term network planning. At the same time, upgrading backbone networks remains expensive and infrequent. Dimensioning network resources to sustain variable traffic demands for a long time, while requiring fewer upgrades to achieve high performance, has become a challenging problem. Two kinds of dimensioning problems for optical opaque networks are proposed and studied in this paper: basic dimensioning allocates network resources for a newly built network, and incremental dimensioning allocates extra resources for future demand growth and variations. We propose new metrics to quantify the traffic load and the traffic pattern evolution for dynamically routed networks. We evaluate the performance under load scaling, traffic evolution, and misdimensioning. We show that a dimensioned network can sustain a much higher load while providing the same performance compared with misdimensioned ones. Our approach is better adapted to traffic evolution than a uniform allocation and an asymptotic optimization approach proposed earlier.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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2009 (1)

2008 (1)

Y. Pointurier, M. Brandt-Pearce, S. Subramaniam, B. Xu, “Cross-layer adaptive routing and wavelength assignment in all-optical networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 28, no. 6, pp. 32–44, Aug. 2008.
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

C. Xin, “Blocking analysis of dynamic traffic grooming in mesh WDM optical networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 721–733, June 2007.
[CrossRef]

G. Weichenberg, V. Chan, M. Medard, “On the capacity of optical networks: a framework for comparing different transport architectures,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 25, no. 6, pp. 84–101, Aug. 2007.
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

X. Tian, X. Qi, Q. Ma, X. Zhang, “Study on a distributed wavelength routing algorithm in WDM optical transport networks,” Photonic Network Commun., vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 271–276, May 2006.
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

S. Sinha, C. S. R. Murthy, “Information theoretic approach to traffic adaptive WDM networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 881–894, 2005.
[CrossRef]

B. Wang, A. Deshmukh, “An all hops optimal algorithm for dynamic routing of sliding scheduled traffic demands,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol. 9, no. 10, pp. 936–938, Oct. 2005.
[CrossRef]

X. Yang, B. Ramamurthy, “Sparse regeneration in translucent wavelength-routed optical networks: architecture, network design and wavelength routing,” Photonic Network Commun., vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 39–53, July 2005.
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

M. Liu, J. Baras, “Fixed point approximation for multirate multihop loss networks with state-dependent routing,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 361–374, Apr. 2004.
[CrossRef]

H. Levy, T. Mendelson, G. Goren, “Dynamic allocation of resources to virtual path agents,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 746–758, Aug. 2004.
[CrossRef]

N. Srinivas, C. S. R. Murthy, “Design and dimensioning of a WDM mesh network to groom dynamically varying traffic,” Photonic Network Commun., vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 179–191, Mar. 2004.
[CrossRef]

2003 (6)

P. Iovanna, R. Sabella, M. Settembre, “A traffic engineering system for multilayer networks based on the GMPLS paradigm,” IEEE Network, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 28–37, Mar./Apr. 2003.
[CrossRef]

J. L. Marzo, E. Calle, C. Scoglio, T. Anjah, “QoS online routing and MPLS multilevel protection: a survey,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 41, no. 10, pp. 126–132, Oct. 2003.
[CrossRef]

E. Yetginer, E. Karasan, “Regenerator placement and traffic engineering with restoration in GMPLS networks,” Photonic Network Commun., vol. 6, no. 11, pp. 139–149, Sept. 2003.
[CrossRef]

T. K. Nayak, K. N. Sivarajan, “Routing and dimensioning of optical networks under traffic growth models: an asymptotic analysis,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas in Commun., vol. 21, no. 8, pp. 2721–2725, Oct. 2003.
[CrossRef]

A. Elwalid, D. Mitra, I. Saniee, I. Widjaja, “Routing and protection in GMPLS networks: from shortest paths to optimized designs,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 21, no. 11, pp. 2828–2838, 2003.
[CrossRef]

J. Strand, A. Chiu, “Realizing the advantages of optical reconfigurability and restoration with integrated optical cross-connects,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 21, no. 11, pp. 2871–2882, Nov. 2003.
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

Y. Lee, J. M. Tien, “Static and dynamic approaches to modeling end-to-end routing in circuit-switched networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 10, no. 5, pp. 693–705, 2002.
[CrossRef]

B. Szviatovszky, A. Szentesi, A. Juttner, “Minimizing re-routing in MPLS networks with preemption-aware constraint-based routing,” Comput. Commun., vol. 25, pp. 1076–1083, 2002.
[CrossRef]

2001 (3)

S. Xu, S. Kaoru, “Comparison between shortest path first routing and dynamic least load routing in WDM networks,” IEICE Tech. Rep., vol. 101, pp. 11–16, 2001.

S.-W. Kim, S.-W. Seo, “Regenerator placement algorithms for connection establishment in all-optical networks,” IEE Proc.-Commun., vol. 148, no. 1, pp. 25–30, Feb. 2001.
[CrossRef]

J. Strand, A. L. Chiu, R. Tkach, “Issues for routing in the optical layer,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 81–87, Feb. 2001.
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

S. Ramesh, G. N. Rouskas, H. G. Perros, “Computing blocking probabilities in multiclass wavelength routing networks,” ACM Trans. Model. Comput. Simul., vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 87–103, 2000.
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

N. Ghani, S. Dixit, “Channel provisioning for higher-layer protocols in WDM networks,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 3843, no. 1, pp. 22–32, 1999.
[CrossRef]

J. Späth, “Dynamic routing and resource allocation in WDM transport networks,” Comput. Netw., vol. 32, pp. 519–538, May 1999.
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

G. Apostolopoulos, R. Guérin, S. Kamat, S. K. Tripathi, “Quality of service based routing: a performance perspective,” Comput. Commun. Rev., vol. 28, no. 4, pp. 17–28, 1998.
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

H.-W. Chu, D. H. K. Tsang, “Modified least loaded routing in virtual path based ATM networks,” Telecommun. Syst., vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 45–57, June 1997.
[CrossRef]

S. Baroni, P. Bayvel, “Wavelength requirements in arbitrarily connected wavelength-routed optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 242–251, Feb. 1997.
[CrossRef]

1996 (3)

S. Subramaniam, M. Azizoglu, A. Somani, “All-optical networks with sparse wavelength conversion,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 544–557, Aug. 1996.
[CrossRef]

Z. Wang, J. Crowcroft, “Quality-of-service routing for supporting multimedia applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 14, no. 7, pp. 1228–1234, 1996.
[CrossRef]

R. Ramaswami, K. Sivarajan, “Design of logical topologies for wavelength-routed optical networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 14, no. 5, pp. 840–851, June 1996.
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

G. N. Rouskas, M. H. Ammar, “Dynamic reconfiguration in multihop WDM networks,” J. High Speed Networks, vol. 4, pp. 221–238, 1995.

A. Farago, S. Blaabjerg, L. Ast, G. Gordos, T. Henk, “A new degree of freedom in ATM network dimensioning: optimizing the logical configuration,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 13, no. 7, pp. 1199–1206, Sept. 1995.
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

A. Girard, B. Liau, “Dimensioning of adaptively routed networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 1, no. 4, pp. 460–468, 1993.
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

F. P. Kelly, “Loss Networks,” Ann. Appl. Probab., vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 319–378, 1991.
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

B. R. Hurley, C. J. R. Seidl, W. F. Sewell, “A survey of dynamic routing methods for circuit-switched traffic,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 25, no. 9, pp. 13–21, 1987.
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

F. P. Kelly, “Blocking probabilities in large circuit-switched networks,” Adv. Appl. Probab., vol. 18, pp. 473–505, 1986.
[CrossRef]

Ammar, M. H.

G. N. Rouskas, M. H. Ammar, “Dynamic reconfiguration in multihop WDM networks,” J. High Speed Networks, vol. 4, pp. 221–238, 1995.

Anjah, T.

J. L. Marzo, E. Calle, C. Scoglio, T. Anjah, “QoS online routing and MPLS multilevel protection: a survey,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 41, no. 10, pp. 126–132, Oct. 2003.
[CrossRef]

Apostolopoulos, G.

G. Apostolopoulos, R. Guérin, S. Kamat, S. K. Tripathi, “Quality of service based routing: a performance perspective,” Comput. Commun. Rev., vol. 28, no. 4, pp. 17–28, 1998.
[CrossRef]

Aravena, M.

A. Zapata, A. Leiva, R. Vallejos, M. Aravena, “Static vs. dynamic WDM optical networks under single-cable failure conditions,” in 13th Conf. on Optical Network Design and Modeling, Braunschweig, Germany, 2009.

Ast, L.

A. Farago, S. Blaabjerg, L. Ast, G. Gordos, T. Henk, “A new degree of freedom in ATM network dimensioning: optimizing the logical configuration,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 13, no. 7, pp. 1199–1206, Sept. 1995.
[CrossRef]

Azizoglu, M.

S. Subramaniam, M. Azizoglu, A. Somani, “All-optical networks with sparse wavelength conversion,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 544–557, Aug. 1996.
[CrossRef]

Baras, J.

M. Liu, J. Baras, “Fixed point approximation for multirate multihop loss networks with state-dependent routing,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 361–374, Apr. 2004.
[CrossRef]

Baroni, S.

S. Baroni, P. Bayvel, “Wavelength requirements in arbitrarily connected wavelength-routed optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 242–251, Feb. 1997.
[CrossRef]

Battestilli, L.

Y. Xin, L. Battestilli, G. Karmous-Edwards, “Generic optical network provisioning services to support emerging grid applications,” in 4th Int. Conf. on Broadband Communication, Networks, and Systems, Raleigh, NC, 2007, pp. 131–140.

Bayvel, P.

S. Baroni, P. Bayvel, “Wavelength requirements in arbitrarily connected wavelength-routed optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 242–251, Feb. 1997.
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IEEE Network (1)

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IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. (7)

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IEICE Tech. Rep. (1)

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J. Lightwave Technol. (4)

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E. Yetginer, E. Karasan, “Regenerator placement and traffic engineering with restoration in GMPLS networks,” Photonic Network Commun., vol. 6, no. 11, pp. 139–149, Sept. 2003.
[CrossRef]

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Other (40)

D. Medhi, I. Sukiman, “Admission control and dynamic routing schemes for wide-area broadband networks: their interaction and network performance,” in Proc. of the Int. IFIP/IEEE Conf. on Broadband Communications, Montreal, Canada, 1996, pp. 99–110.

L. Li, A. Somani, “Dynamic wavelength routing techniques and their performance analyses,” in Optical WDM Networks: Principles and Practice, K. M. Sivalingam and S. Subramaniam, Eds. Springer, 2002, pp. 247–272.
[CrossRef]

B. Zhou, H. T. Mouftah, “Adaptive least loaded routing for multi-fiber WDM networks using approximate congestion information,” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications, 2002, vol. 5, pp. 2725–2749.

R. Mewanou, S. Pierre, “Dynamic routing algorithms in all-optical networks,” in Canadian Conf. on Electrical and Computer Engineering, 2003, vol. 2, pp. 773–776.

A. Shaikh, J. Rexford, K. G. Shin, “Load-sensitive routing of long-lived IP flows,” in SIGCOMM ’99: Proc. of the Conf. on Applications, Technologies, Architectures, and Protocols for Computer Communication, 1999, pp. 215–226.

T. D. Wallace, A. Shami, “Connection management algorithm for advance lightpath reservation in WDM networks,” 4th Int. Conf. on Broadband Communications, Networks and Systems, 2007, pp. 837–844.

S. Fortune, L. Zhang, “The effect of bridge-and-roll on minimizing wavelength conversion for dynamic traffic,” in 34th European Conf. on Optical Communication, 2008.

R. Guerin, A. Orda, D. Williams, “QoS routing mechanisms and OSPF extensions,” in IEEE Global Telecommunications Conf., 1997, pp. 1903–1908.

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Figures (15)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Optical-electronic-optical node structure. All ports are bidirectional. The number of working wavelengths associates to the number of optical transponders (OTs), wavelength multiplexers/demultiplexers (D/MUXs), and the switching size.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Optical node structure with dynamic wavelength converters. All ports are bidirectional. The number of working wavelengths affects the number of wavelength converters (WCs), wavelength multiplexers/demultiplexers (D/MUXs), wavelength-selective switches (WSSs), add/drop ports (A/Ds), and the switching size. The number and size of equipment may vary depending on the design. Most practical systems use regenerators instead of all-optical WCs for wavelength conversion. A minimum of two dynamic WCs are needed to achieve full wavelength conversion for the illustrated case.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Routing algorithms to route a connection request i on the current residual network capacity C.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Network topologies with link and node numbers.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Steady-state performance on NJ LATA.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Comparing projected load scaling (denoted by u, with l = u , ϵ = 0 ) and offered load scaling (denoted by l, with u = 0.85 , ϵ = 0 ) using Algorithm 2 and SPF routing.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Comparison of MEAN and SD on traffic pattern evolution on ARPANET (using Algorithm 2 with u = l = 0.85 ).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Comparison of MEAN and SD on traffic pattern evolution on COST 239 (using Algorithm 2 with u = l = 0.85 ).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Comparison of MEAN and SD on ARPANET dimensioned with 100 random projected traffic matrices, with varying traffic loads and patterns (using Algorithm 3, α = 0 ).

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Comparison of MEAN and SD on COST 239 dimensioned with 100 random projected traffic matrices, with varying traffic loads and patterns (using Algorithm 3, α = 0 ).

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Comparison of total dimensioned capacity with m = 100 randomly picked projected traffic matrices.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Performance of SPF on SD dimensioned networks for actual, expected, and random traffic patterns.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Performance degradation on misdimensioned networks for WSP routing (using Algorithm 3).

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Comparison of UNI, ABS, and BAL for random traffic patterns on ARPANET (using Algorithm 2 with l = u , ϵ = 1 ).

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Comparison of UNI, ABS, and BAL for random traffic patterns on COST 239 (using Algorithm 2 with l = u , ϵ = 1 ).

Tables (5)

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Table 1 Algorithm 1: Dimensioning procedures ( B , X ) = BAL ( T , u , ζ ) . One only needs to normalize capacity to integer once if the incremental dimensioning is performed immediately after the basic dimensioning.

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Table 2 Algorithm 2: Test procedure for load scaling with variable projected load ratio ( l = u , ϵ = 0 ) , variable offered load ratio ( u = 0.85 , ϵ = 0 ) , and random evolutionary traffic patterns ( u = l ) .

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Table 3 Algorithm 3: Test procedure for expected traffic evolution and randomized misdimensioning ( l = u ) .

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Table 1 Network Notation

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Table 2 Mean Square Capacity Difference (MSD) for Dimensioning for Various Projected Loads

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

e E B e = i R λ i r i μ i TSL i ,
u = e E B e e E ( B e + X e ) .
λ i n = λ i λ r μ i R TSL i i R λ i r i μ i TSL i .
l i = r i λ i μ i μ i n r i n λ i n .
T ϵ = ( 1 ϵ ) T n + ϵ T .
1 | E | e E ( B ¯ e M + X ¯ e M B ¯ e S X ¯ e S ) 2 .