Abstract

This paper describes sleep and adaptive link rate (ALR) control functions to reduce the power consumption of optical network units (ONUs) in 10Gbs Ethernet passive optical network (10G-EPON) systems. A hybrid mechanism that includes both sleep and ALR control functions is proposed with a view to further improving the power-saving performance. The sleep control function switches the ONU mode, i.e., active or sleep, depending on the presence or absence of traffic. The ALR control function switches the downlink rates between an optical line terminal (OLT) and an ONU, i.e., 1Gbs or 10Gbs, depending on the quantity of traffic. The proposed hybrid mechanism offers effective power management of ONUs on the basis of the traffic conditions. The proposed hybrid mechanism is validated by a numerical simulation and an experiment.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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2010 (1)

R. Kubo, J. Kani, Y. Fujimoto, N. Yoshimoto, K. Kumozaki, “Adaptive power saving mechanism for 10 Gigabit class PON systems,” IEICE Trans. Commun., vol. E93-B, no. 2, pp. 280–288, Feb. 2010.
[CrossRef]

2009 (5)

2008 (1)

C. Gunaratne, K. Christensen, B. Nordman, S. Suen, “Reducing the energy consumption of Ethernet with adaptive link rate (ALR),” IEEE Trans. Comput., vol. 57, no. 4, pp. 448–461, Apr. 2008.
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

2006 (1)

R. Davey, J. Kani, F. Bourgart, K. McCammon, “Options for future optical access networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 44, no. 10, pp. 50–56, Oct. 2006.
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

C. Gunaratne, K. Christensen, B. Nordman, “Managing energy consumption costs in desktop PCs and LAN switches with proxying, split TCP connections, and scaling of link speed,” Int. J. Network Manage., vol. 15, no. 5, pp. 297–310, Sept. 2005.
[CrossRef]

Afshar, P.

P. Reviriego, D. Larrabeiti, J. A. Maestro, J. A. Hernandez, P. Afshar, L. G. Kazovsky, “Energy efficiency in 10 Gbps Ethernet transceivers: copper versus fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2010, paper JThA51.

S. W. Wong, S. H. Yen, P. Afshar, S. Yamashita, L. Kazovsky, “Demonstration of energy conserving TDM-PON with sleep mode ONU using fast clock recovery circuit,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2010, paper OThW7.

Aleksic, S.

Ananthanarayanan, G.

G. Ananthanarayanan, R. H. Katz, “Greening the switch,” in Proc. USENIX Workshop HotPower, 2008.

Ayre, R.

J. Baliga, R. Ayre, K. Hinton, W. V. Sorin, R. S. Tucker, “Energy consumption in optical IP networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 27, no. 13, pp. 2391–2403, July 2009.
[CrossRef]

J. Baliga, R. Ayre, W. V. Sorin, K. Hinton, R. S. Tucker, “Energy consumption in access networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2008, paper OThT6.

Ayre, R. W. A.

Baliga, J.

Blanquicet, F.

F. Blanquicet, K. Christensen, “An initial performance evaluation of rapid PHY selection (RPS) for energy efficient Ethernet,” in Proc. 32nd IEEE Conf. LCN, 2007, pp. 223–225.

Bourgart, F.

J. Kani, F. Bourgart, A. Cui, A. Rafel, M. Campbell, R. Davey, S. Rodrigues, “Next-generation PON-part I: technology roadmap and general requirements,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 47, no. 11, pp. 43–49, Nov. 2009.
[CrossRef]

R. Davey, J. Kani, F. Bourgart, K. McCammon, “Options for future optical access networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 44, no. 10, pp. 50–56, Oct. 2006.
[CrossRef]

Campbell, M.

J. Kani, F. Bourgart, A. Cui, A. Rafel, M. Campbell, R. Davey, S. Rodrigues, “Next-generation PON-part I: technology roadmap and general requirements,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 47, no. 11, pp. 43–49, Nov. 2009.
[CrossRef]

Campelo, D. R.

S. Wong, L. Valcarenghi, S. Yen, D. R. Campelo, S. Yamashita, L. Kazovsky, “Sleep mode for energy saving PONs: advantages and drawbacks,” in Proc. IEEE GLOBECOM Workshops, 2009, pp. 1–6.

Christensen, K.

C. Gunaratne, K. Christensen, B. Nordman, S. Suen, “Reducing the energy consumption of Ethernet with adaptive link rate (ALR),” IEEE Trans. Comput., vol. 57, no. 4, pp. 448–461, Apr. 2008.
[CrossRef]

C. Gunaratne, K. Christensen, B. Nordman, “Managing energy consumption costs in desktop PCs and LAN switches with proxying, split TCP connections, and scaling of link speed,” Int. J. Network Manage., vol. 15, no. 5, pp. 297–310, Sept. 2005.
[CrossRef]

F. Blanquicet, K. Christensen, “An initial performance evaluation of rapid PHY selection (RPS) for energy efficient Ethernet,” in Proc. 32nd IEEE Conf. LCN, 2007, pp. 223–225.

Cui, A.

J. Kani, F. Bourgart, A. Cui, A. Rafel, M. Campbell, R. Davey, S. Rodrigues, “Next-generation PON-part I: technology roadmap and general requirements,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 47, no. 11, pp. 43–49, Nov. 2009.
[CrossRef]

Davey, R.

J. Kani, F. Bourgart, A. Cui, A. Rafel, M. Campbell, R. Davey, S. Rodrigues, “Next-generation PON-part I: technology roadmap and general requirements,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 47, no. 11, pp. 43–49, Nov. 2009.
[CrossRef]

R. Davey, J. Kani, F. Bourgart, K. McCammon, “Options for future optical access networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 44, no. 10, pp. 50–56, Oct. 2006.
[CrossRef]

Farahmand, F.

M. M. Hasan, F. Farahmand, J. P. Jue, “Energy-awareness in dynamic traffic grooming,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2010, paper OWY6.

Fujimoto, Y.

R. Kubo, J. Kani, Y. Fujimoto, N. Yoshimoto, K. Kumozaki, “Adaptive power saving mechanism for 10 Gigabit class PON systems,” IEICE Trans. Commun., vol. E93-B, no. 2, pp. 280–288, Feb. 2010.
[CrossRef]

R. Kubo, J. Kani, Y. Fujimoto, N. Yoshimoto, K. Kumozaki, “Sleep and adaptive link rate control for power saving in 10G-EPON systems,” in Proc. IEEE GLOBECOM, 2009, pp. 1–6.

Fukuda, Y.

H. Tamura, Y. Yahiro, Y. Fukuda, K. Kawahara, Y. Oie, “Performance analysis of energy saving scheme with extra active period for LAN switches,” in Proc. IEEE GLOBECOM, 2007, pp. 198–203.

George, A.

B. Zhang, K. Sabhanatarajan, A. Gordon-Ross, A. George, “Real-time performance analysis of adaptive link rate,” in Proc. 33rd IEEE Conf. LCN, 2008, pp. 282–288.

Gordon-Ross, A.

B. Zhang, K. Sabhanatarajan, A. Gordon-Ross, A. George, “Real-time performance analysis of adaptive link rate,” in Proc. 33rd IEEE Conf. LCN, 2008, pp. 282–288.

Grover, S.

M. Gupta, S. Grover, S. Singh, “A feasibility study for power management in LAN switches,” in Proc. 12th IEEE ICNP, 2004, pp. 361–371.

Gunaratne, C.

C. Gunaratne, K. Christensen, B. Nordman, S. Suen, “Reducing the energy consumption of Ethernet with adaptive link rate (ALR),” IEEE Trans. Comput., vol. 57, no. 4, pp. 448–461, Apr. 2008.
[CrossRef]

C. Gunaratne, K. Christensen, B. Nordman, “Managing energy consumption costs in desktop PCs and LAN switches with proxying, split TCP connections, and scaling of link speed,” Int. J. Network Manage., vol. 15, no. 5, pp. 297–310, Sept. 2005.
[CrossRef]

Gupta, M.

M. Gupta, S. Grover, S. Singh, “A feasibility study for power management in LAN switches,” in Proc. 12th IEEE ICNP, 2004, pp. 361–371.

M. Gupta, S. Singh, “Using low-power modes for energy conservation in Ethernet LANs,” in Proc. 26th IEEE INFOCOM, 2007, pp. 2451–2455.

M. Gupta, S. Singh, “Greening of the Internet,” in Proc. ACM SIGCOMM, 2003, pp. 19–26.

Hasan, M. M.

M. M. Hasan, F. Farahmand, J. P. Jue, “Energy-awareness in dynamic traffic grooming,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2010, paper OWY6.

Hernandez, J. A.

P. Reviriego, D. Larrabeiti, J. A. Maestro, J. A. Hernandez, P. Afshar, L. G. Kazovsky, “Energy efficiency in 10 Gbps Ethernet transceivers: copper versus fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2010, paper JThA51.

Hinton, K.

Iannaccone, G.

S. Nedevschi, L. Popa, G. Iannaccone, S. Ratnasamy, D. Wetherall, “Reducing network energy consumption via sleeping and rate-adaptation,” in Proc. 5th USENIX Symp. NSDI, 2008, pp. 323–336.

Jue, J. P.

M. M. Hasan, F. Farahmand, J. P. Jue, “Energy-awareness in dynamic traffic grooming,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2010, paper OWY6.

Kani, J.

R. Kubo, J. Kani, Y. Fujimoto, N. Yoshimoto, K. Kumozaki, “Adaptive power saving mechanism for 10 Gigabit class PON systems,” IEICE Trans. Commun., vol. E93-B, no. 2, pp. 280–288, Feb. 2010.
[CrossRef]

J. Kani, F. Bourgart, A. Cui, A. Rafel, M. Campbell, R. Davey, S. Rodrigues, “Next-generation PON-part I: technology roadmap and general requirements,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 47, no. 11, pp. 43–49, Nov. 2009.
[CrossRef]

R. Davey, J. Kani, F. Bourgart, K. McCammon, “Options for future optical access networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 44, no. 10, pp. 50–56, Oct. 2006.
[CrossRef]

R. Kubo, J. Kani, Y. Fujimoto, N. Yoshimoto, K. Kumozaki, “Sleep and adaptive link rate control for power saving in 10G-EPON systems,” in Proc. IEEE GLOBECOM, 2009, pp. 1–6.

Katz, R. H.

G. Ananthanarayanan, R. H. Katz, “Greening the switch,” in Proc. USENIX Workshop HotPower, 2008.

Kawahara, K.

H. Tamura, Y. Yahiro, Y. Fukuda, K. Kawahara, Y. Oie, “Performance analysis of energy saving scheme with extra active period for LAN switches,” in Proc. IEEE GLOBECOM, 2007, pp. 198–203.

Kazovsky, L.

S. W. Wong, S. H. Yen, P. Afshar, S. Yamashita, L. Kazovsky, “Demonstration of energy conserving TDM-PON with sleep mode ONU using fast clock recovery circuit,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2010, paper OThW7.

S. Wong, L. Valcarenghi, S. Yen, D. R. Campelo, S. Yamashita, L. Kazovsky, “Sleep mode for energy saving PONs: advantages and drawbacks,” in Proc. IEEE GLOBECOM Workshops, 2009, pp. 1–6.

Kazovsky, L. G.

P. Reviriego, D. Larrabeiti, J. A. Maestro, J. A. Hernandez, P. Afshar, L. G. Kazovsky, “Energy efficiency in 10 Gbps Ethernet transceivers: copper versus fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2010, paper JThA51.

Kubo, R.

R. Kubo, J. Kani, Y. Fujimoto, N. Yoshimoto, K. Kumozaki, “Adaptive power saving mechanism for 10 Gigabit class PON systems,” IEICE Trans. Commun., vol. E93-B, no. 2, pp. 280–288, Feb. 2010.
[CrossRef]

R. Kubo, J. Kani, Y. Fujimoto, N. Yoshimoto, K. Kumozaki, “Sleep and adaptive link rate control for power saving in 10G-EPON systems,” in Proc. IEEE GLOBECOM, 2009, pp. 1–6.

Kumozaki, K.

R. Kubo, J. Kani, Y. Fujimoto, N. Yoshimoto, K. Kumozaki, “Adaptive power saving mechanism for 10 Gigabit class PON systems,” IEICE Trans. Commun., vol. E93-B, no. 2, pp. 280–288, Feb. 2010.
[CrossRef]

T. Tatsuta, N. Oota, N. Miki, K. Kumozaki, “Design philosophy and performance of a GE-PON system for mass deployment,” J. Opt. Netw., vol. 6, no. 6, pp. 689–700, June 2007.
[CrossRef]

R. Kubo, J. Kani, Y. Fujimoto, N. Yoshimoto, K. Kumozaki, “Sleep and adaptive link rate control for power saving in 10G-EPON systems,” in Proc. IEEE GLOBECOM, 2009, pp. 1–6.

Larrabeiti, D.

P. Reviriego, D. Larrabeiti, J. A. Maestro, J. A. Hernandez, P. Afshar, L. G. Kazovsky, “Energy efficiency in 10 Gbps Ethernet transceivers: copper versus fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2010, paper JThA51.

Maestro, J. A.

P. Reviriego, D. Larrabeiti, J. A. Maestro, J. A. Hernandez, P. Afshar, L. G. Kazovsky, “Energy efficiency in 10 Gbps Ethernet transceivers: copper versus fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2010, paper JThA51.

Mandin, J.

J. Mandin, “EPON powersaving via sleep mode,” IEEE 802.3av, 2008.

McCammon, K.

R. Davey, J. Kani, F. Bourgart, K. McCammon, “Options for future optical access networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 44, no. 10, pp. 50–56, Oct. 2006.
[CrossRef]

Miki, N.

Nedevschi, S.

S. Nedevschi, L. Popa, G. Iannaccone, S. Ratnasamy, D. Wetherall, “Reducing network energy consumption via sleeping and rate-adaptation,” in Proc. 5th USENIX Symp. NSDI, 2008, pp. 323–336.

Nordman, B.

C. Gunaratne, K. Christensen, B. Nordman, S. Suen, “Reducing the energy consumption of Ethernet with adaptive link rate (ALR),” IEEE Trans. Comput., vol. 57, no. 4, pp. 448–461, Apr. 2008.
[CrossRef]

C. Gunaratne, K. Christensen, B. Nordman, “Managing energy consumption costs in desktop PCs and LAN switches with proxying, split TCP connections, and scaling of link speed,” Int. J. Network Manage., vol. 15, no. 5, pp. 297–310, Sept. 2005.
[CrossRef]

Oie, Y.

H. Tamura, Y. Yahiro, Y. Fukuda, K. Kawahara, Y. Oie, “Performance analysis of energy saving scheme with extra active period for LAN switches,” in Proc. IEEE GLOBECOM, 2007, pp. 198–203.

Oota, N.

Parthiban, R.

Popa, L.

S. Nedevschi, L. Popa, G. Iannaccone, S. Ratnasamy, D. Wetherall, “Reducing network energy consumption via sleeping and rate-adaptation,” in Proc. 5th USENIX Symp. NSDI, 2008, pp. 323–336.

Rafel, A.

J. Kani, F. Bourgart, A. Cui, A. Rafel, M. Campbell, R. Davey, S. Rodrigues, “Next-generation PON-part I: technology roadmap and general requirements,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 47, no. 11, pp. 43–49, Nov. 2009.
[CrossRef]

Ratnasamy, S.

S. Nedevschi, L. Popa, G. Iannaccone, S. Ratnasamy, D. Wetherall, “Reducing network energy consumption via sleeping and rate-adaptation,” in Proc. 5th USENIX Symp. NSDI, 2008, pp. 323–336.

Reviriego, P.

P. Reviriego, D. Larrabeiti, J. A. Maestro, J. A. Hernandez, P. Afshar, L. G. Kazovsky, “Energy efficiency in 10 Gbps Ethernet transceivers: copper versus fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2010, paper JThA51.

Rodrigues, S.

J. Kani, F. Bourgart, A. Cui, A. Rafel, M. Campbell, R. Davey, S. Rodrigues, “Next-generation PON-part I: technology roadmap and general requirements,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 47, no. 11, pp. 43–49, Nov. 2009.
[CrossRef]

Sabhanatarajan, K.

B. Zhang, K. Sabhanatarajan, A. Gordon-Ross, A. George, “Real-time performance analysis of adaptive link rate,” in Proc. 33rd IEEE Conf. LCN, 2008, pp. 282–288.

Shen, G.

Singh, S.

M. Gupta, S. Singh, “Using low-power modes for energy conservation in Ethernet LANs,” in Proc. 26th IEEE INFOCOM, 2007, pp. 2451–2455.

M. Gupta, S. Grover, S. Singh, “A feasibility study for power management in LAN switches,” in Proc. 12th IEEE ICNP, 2004, pp. 361–371.

M. Gupta, S. Singh, “Greening of the Internet,” in Proc. ACM SIGCOMM, 2003, pp. 19–26.

Sorin, W. V.

Suen, S.

C. Gunaratne, K. Christensen, B. Nordman, S. Suen, “Reducing the energy consumption of Ethernet with adaptive link rate (ALR),” IEEE Trans. Comput., vol. 57, no. 4, pp. 448–461, Apr. 2008.
[CrossRef]

Tamura, H.

H. Tamura, Y. Yahiro, Y. Fukuda, K. Kawahara, Y. Oie, “Performance analysis of energy saving scheme with extra active period for LAN switches,” in Proc. IEEE GLOBECOM, 2007, pp. 198–203.

Tatsuta, T.

Tucker, R. S.

Valcarenghi, L.

S. Wong, L. Valcarenghi, S. Yen, D. R. Campelo, S. Yamashita, L. Kazovsky, “Sleep mode for energy saving PONs: advantages and drawbacks,” in Proc. IEEE GLOBECOM Workshops, 2009, pp. 1–6.

Wetherall, D.

S. Nedevschi, L. Popa, G. Iannaccone, S. Ratnasamy, D. Wetherall, “Reducing network energy consumption via sleeping and rate-adaptation,” in Proc. 5th USENIX Symp. NSDI, 2008, pp. 323–336.

Wong, S.

S. Wong, L. Valcarenghi, S. Yen, D. R. Campelo, S. Yamashita, L. Kazovsky, “Sleep mode for energy saving PONs: advantages and drawbacks,” in Proc. IEEE GLOBECOM Workshops, 2009, pp. 1–6.

Wong, S. W.

S. W. Wong, S. H. Yen, P. Afshar, S. Yamashita, L. Kazovsky, “Demonstration of energy conserving TDM-PON with sleep mode ONU using fast clock recovery circuit,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2010, paper OThW7.

Yahiro, Y.

H. Tamura, Y. Yahiro, Y. Fukuda, K. Kawahara, Y. Oie, “Performance analysis of energy saving scheme with extra active period for LAN switches,” in Proc. IEEE GLOBECOM, 2007, pp. 198–203.

Yamashita, S.

S. W. Wong, S. H. Yen, P. Afshar, S. Yamashita, L. Kazovsky, “Demonstration of energy conserving TDM-PON with sleep mode ONU using fast clock recovery circuit,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2010, paper OThW7.

S. Wong, L. Valcarenghi, S. Yen, D. R. Campelo, S. Yamashita, L. Kazovsky, “Sleep mode for energy saving PONs: advantages and drawbacks,” in Proc. IEEE GLOBECOM Workshops, 2009, pp. 1–6.

Yen, S.

S. Wong, L. Valcarenghi, S. Yen, D. R. Campelo, S. Yamashita, L. Kazovsky, “Sleep mode for energy saving PONs: advantages and drawbacks,” in Proc. IEEE GLOBECOM Workshops, 2009, pp. 1–6.

Yen, S. H.

S. W. Wong, S. H. Yen, P. Afshar, S. Yamashita, L. Kazovsky, “Demonstration of energy conserving TDM-PON with sleep mode ONU using fast clock recovery circuit,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2010, paper OThW7.

Yoshimoto, N.

R. Kubo, J. Kani, Y. Fujimoto, N. Yoshimoto, K. Kumozaki, “Adaptive power saving mechanism for 10 Gigabit class PON systems,” IEICE Trans. Commun., vol. E93-B, no. 2, pp. 280–288, Feb. 2010.
[CrossRef]

R. Kubo, J. Kani, Y. Fujimoto, N. Yoshimoto, K. Kumozaki, “Sleep and adaptive link rate control for power saving in 10G-EPON systems,” in Proc. IEEE GLOBECOM, 2009, pp. 1–6.

Zhang, B.

B. Zhang, K. Sabhanatarajan, A. Gordon-Ross, A. George, “Real-time performance analysis of adaptive link rate,” in Proc. 33rd IEEE Conf. LCN, 2008, pp. 282–288.

IEEE Commun. Mag. (2)

R. Davey, J. Kani, F. Bourgart, K. McCammon, “Options for future optical access networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 44, no. 10, pp. 50–56, Oct. 2006.
[CrossRef]

J. Kani, F. Bourgart, A. Cui, A. Rafel, M. Campbell, R. Davey, S. Rodrigues, “Next-generation PON-part I: technology roadmap and general requirements,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 47, no. 11, pp. 43–49, Nov. 2009.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Comput. (1)

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Figures (17)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

PON architecture.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Asymmetric 10G-EPON system.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Coexistence of 1G-EPON and asymmetric 10G-EPON.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Concept of hybrid mechanism.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Energy efficient configuration of asymmetric 10G-EPON. (a) 10G OLT. (b) 10G ONU.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Example of message exchange in sleep control.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Example of message exchange in ALR control.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Simulation results (sleep control). (a) Average power consumption of the ONU. (b) Average queuing delay at the OLT.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Simulation results (ALR control). (a) Average power consumption of the ONU. (b) Average queuing delay at the OLT.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Simulation results (hybrid mechanism). (a) Average power consumption of the ONU. (b) Average queuing delay at the OLT.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Implementation of hybrid mechanism.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Experimental setup. (a) Experimental system. (b) Functional block diagram of the ONU.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Downstream traffic scenario utilized in the experiments.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Experimental results (sleep control). (a) State transition of ONU 1. (b) Delays of downstream traffic for ONU 1.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Experimental results (ALR control). (a) State transition of ONU 1. (b) Delays of downstream traffic for ONU 1.

Fig. 16
Fig. 16

Experimental results (hybrid mechanism). (a) State transition of ONU 1. (b) SPW operation of ONU 1. (c) Delays of downstream traffic for ONU 1.

Fig. 17
Fig. 17

Example of the migration scenario from 1G-EPON to 10G-EPON.

Tables (3)

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Table 1 Wavelength Allocation

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Table 2 Parameter Settings in a Hybrid Mechanism

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Table 3 Simulation Parameters

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

T = { T s if i i th 0 if i < i th } ,
D = { 10 G if B B th 1 G if B < B th } ,
i a , k = r i k 1 + ( 1 r ) i a , k 1 ,
P ab = T a × P 10 G + T s × P s T a + T s .
P ab = T a × P 1 G + T s × P s T a + T s .