Abstract

We investigate the nonlinear effects resulting from the high peak-to-average power ratio of optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) signals in the optical fiber transmission. To mitigate this nonlinear impairment of optical signals in long-haul communication systems, we propose and experimentally demonstrate a new scheme of the uniform power transmission of 10 Gb/s OFDM signals over 1040km single-mode fibers in the direct-detection optical OFDM system.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. W. Shieh, X. Yi, Y. Ma, Q. Yang, “Coherent optical OFDM: has its time come?” J. Opt. Netw., vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 234–255, 2008.
    [CrossRef]
  2. W. Wei, C. Wang, J. Yu, N. Cvijetic, T. Wang, “Optical orthogonal frequency division multiple access networking for the future Internet,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 236–246, 2009.
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. Nespola, S. Abrate, R. Gaudino, C. Zerna, B. Offenbeck, N. Weber, “High-speed communications over polymer optical fibers for in-building cabling and home networking,” IEEE Photon. J., vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 347–358, 2010.
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. L. Jansen, I. Morita, T. C. W. Schenk, N. Takeda, H. Tanaka, “Coherent optical 25.8-Gb∕s OFDM transmission over 4160-km SSMF,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 6–15, 2008.
    [CrossRef]
  5. B. J. Schmidt, A. J. Lowery, J. Armstrong, “Experimental demonstrations of electronic dispersion compensation for long-haul transmission using direct-detection optical OFDM,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 196–203, 2008.
    [CrossRef]
  6. L. Xu, J. Hu, D. Qian, T. Wang, “Coherent optical OFDM systems using self optical carrier extraction,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2008, paper OMU4.
  7. B. Goebel, S. Hellerbrand, N. Haufe, N. Hanik, “PAPR reduction techniques for coherent optical OFDM transmission,” in 11th Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks, 2009, paper Mo.B2.4.
  8. X. Liang, W. Li, W. Ma, K. Wang, “A simple peak-to-average power ratio reduction scheme for all optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing systems with intensity modulation and direct detection,” Opt. Express, vol. 17, no. 18, pp. 15614–15622, 2009.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. J. Yu, X. Zhou, M.-F. Huang, “8×114 Gb∕s, 25 GHz-spaced, PolMux-RZ-8QAM straight-line transmission over 800 km of SSMF,” in 35th European Conf. on Optical Communication, Vienna, Austria, 2009, paper P4.02.
  10. Z. Dong, Z. Cao, J. Lu, Y. Li, L. Chen, S. Wen, “Transmission performance of optical OFDM signals with low peak-to-average power ratio by a phase modulator,” Opt. Commun., vol. 282, no. 21, pp. 4194–4197, 2009.
    [CrossRef]
  11. P. C. Becker, N. A. Olsson, J. R. Simpson, Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifiers: Fundamentals and Technology. San Diego: Academic Press, 1999, ch. 6, pp. 153–195.
    [CrossRef]

2010 (1)

A. Nespola, S. Abrate, R. Gaudino, C. Zerna, B. Offenbeck, N. Weber, “High-speed communications over polymer optical fibers for in-building cabling and home networking,” IEEE Photon. J., vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 347–358, 2010.
[CrossRef]

2009 (3)

Z. Dong, Z. Cao, J. Lu, Y. Li, L. Chen, S. Wen, “Transmission performance of optical OFDM signals with low peak-to-average power ratio by a phase modulator,” Opt. Commun., vol. 282, no. 21, pp. 4194–4197, 2009.
[CrossRef]

W. Wei, C. Wang, J. Yu, N. Cvijetic, T. Wang, “Optical orthogonal frequency division multiple access networking for the future Internet,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 236–246, 2009.
[CrossRef]

X. Liang, W. Li, W. Ma, K. Wang, “A simple peak-to-average power ratio reduction scheme for all optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing systems with intensity modulation and direct detection,” Opt. Express, vol. 17, no. 18, pp. 15614–15622, 2009.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (3)

Abrate, S.

A. Nespola, S. Abrate, R. Gaudino, C. Zerna, B. Offenbeck, N. Weber, “High-speed communications over polymer optical fibers for in-building cabling and home networking,” IEEE Photon. J., vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 347–358, 2010.
[CrossRef]

Armstrong, J.

Becker, P. C.

P. C. Becker, N. A. Olsson, J. R. Simpson, Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifiers: Fundamentals and Technology. San Diego: Academic Press, 1999, ch. 6, pp. 153–195.
[CrossRef]

Cao, Z.

Z. Dong, Z. Cao, J. Lu, Y. Li, L. Chen, S. Wen, “Transmission performance of optical OFDM signals with low peak-to-average power ratio by a phase modulator,” Opt. Commun., vol. 282, no. 21, pp. 4194–4197, 2009.
[CrossRef]

Chen, L.

Z. Dong, Z. Cao, J. Lu, Y. Li, L. Chen, S. Wen, “Transmission performance of optical OFDM signals with low peak-to-average power ratio by a phase modulator,” Opt. Commun., vol. 282, no. 21, pp. 4194–4197, 2009.
[CrossRef]

Cvijetic, N.

W. Wei, C. Wang, J. Yu, N. Cvijetic, T. Wang, “Optical orthogonal frequency division multiple access networking for the future Internet,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 236–246, 2009.
[CrossRef]

Dong, Z.

Z. Dong, Z. Cao, J. Lu, Y. Li, L. Chen, S. Wen, “Transmission performance of optical OFDM signals with low peak-to-average power ratio by a phase modulator,” Opt. Commun., vol. 282, no. 21, pp. 4194–4197, 2009.
[CrossRef]

Gaudino, R.

A. Nespola, S. Abrate, R. Gaudino, C. Zerna, B. Offenbeck, N. Weber, “High-speed communications over polymer optical fibers for in-building cabling and home networking,” IEEE Photon. J., vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 347–358, 2010.
[CrossRef]

Goebel, B.

B. Goebel, S. Hellerbrand, N. Haufe, N. Hanik, “PAPR reduction techniques for coherent optical OFDM transmission,” in 11th Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks, 2009, paper Mo.B2.4.

Hanik, N.

B. Goebel, S. Hellerbrand, N. Haufe, N. Hanik, “PAPR reduction techniques for coherent optical OFDM transmission,” in 11th Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks, 2009, paper Mo.B2.4.

Haufe, N.

B. Goebel, S. Hellerbrand, N. Haufe, N. Hanik, “PAPR reduction techniques for coherent optical OFDM transmission,” in 11th Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks, 2009, paper Mo.B2.4.

Hellerbrand, S.

B. Goebel, S. Hellerbrand, N. Haufe, N. Hanik, “PAPR reduction techniques for coherent optical OFDM transmission,” in 11th Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks, 2009, paper Mo.B2.4.

Hu, J.

L. Xu, J. Hu, D. Qian, T. Wang, “Coherent optical OFDM systems using self optical carrier extraction,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2008, paper OMU4.

Huang, M.-F.

J. Yu, X. Zhou, M.-F. Huang, “8×114 Gb∕s, 25 GHz-spaced, PolMux-RZ-8QAM straight-line transmission over 800 km of SSMF,” in 35th European Conf. on Optical Communication, Vienna, Austria, 2009, paper P4.02.

Jansen, S. L.

Li, W.

Li, Y.

Z. Dong, Z. Cao, J. Lu, Y. Li, L. Chen, S. Wen, “Transmission performance of optical OFDM signals with low peak-to-average power ratio by a phase modulator,” Opt. Commun., vol. 282, no. 21, pp. 4194–4197, 2009.
[CrossRef]

Liang, X.

Lowery, A. J.

Lu, J.

Z. Dong, Z. Cao, J. Lu, Y. Li, L. Chen, S. Wen, “Transmission performance of optical OFDM signals with low peak-to-average power ratio by a phase modulator,” Opt. Commun., vol. 282, no. 21, pp. 4194–4197, 2009.
[CrossRef]

Ma, W.

Ma, Y.

Morita, I.

Nespola, A.

A. Nespola, S. Abrate, R. Gaudino, C. Zerna, B. Offenbeck, N. Weber, “High-speed communications over polymer optical fibers for in-building cabling and home networking,” IEEE Photon. J., vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 347–358, 2010.
[CrossRef]

Offenbeck, B.

A. Nespola, S. Abrate, R. Gaudino, C. Zerna, B. Offenbeck, N. Weber, “High-speed communications over polymer optical fibers for in-building cabling and home networking,” IEEE Photon. J., vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 347–358, 2010.
[CrossRef]

Olsson, N. A.

P. C. Becker, N. A. Olsson, J. R. Simpson, Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifiers: Fundamentals and Technology. San Diego: Academic Press, 1999, ch. 6, pp. 153–195.
[CrossRef]

Qian, D.

L. Xu, J. Hu, D. Qian, T. Wang, “Coherent optical OFDM systems using self optical carrier extraction,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2008, paper OMU4.

Schenk, T. C. W.

Schmidt, B. J.

Shieh, W.

Simpson, J. R.

P. C. Becker, N. A. Olsson, J. R. Simpson, Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifiers: Fundamentals and Technology. San Diego: Academic Press, 1999, ch. 6, pp. 153–195.
[CrossRef]

Takeda, N.

Tanaka, H.

Wang, C.

W. Wei, C. Wang, J. Yu, N. Cvijetic, T. Wang, “Optical orthogonal frequency division multiple access networking for the future Internet,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 236–246, 2009.
[CrossRef]

Wang, K.

Wang, T.

W. Wei, C. Wang, J. Yu, N. Cvijetic, T. Wang, “Optical orthogonal frequency division multiple access networking for the future Internet,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 236–246, 2009.
[CrossRef]

L. Xu, J. Hu, D. Qian, T. Wang, “Coherent optical OFDM systems using self optical carrier extraction,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2008, paper OMU4.

Weber, N.

A. Nespola, S. Abrate, R. Gaudino, C. Zerna, B. Offenbeck, N. Weber, “High-speed communications over polymer optical fibers for in-building cabling and home networking,” IEEE Photon. J., vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 347–358, 2010.
[CrossRef]

Wei, W.

W. Wei, C. Wang, J. Yu, N. Cvijetic, T. Wang, “Optical orthogonal frequency division multiple access networking for the future Internet,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 236–246, 2009.
[CrossRef]

Wen, S.

Z. Dong, Z. Cao, J. Lu, Y. Li, L. Chen, S. Wen, “Transmission performance of optical OFDM signals with low peak-to-average power ratio by a phase modulator,” Opt. Commun., vol. 282, no. 21, pp. 4194–4197, 2009.
[CrossRef]

Xu, L.

L. Xu, J. Hu, D. Qian, T. Wang, “Coherent optical OFDM systems using self optical carrier extraction,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2008, paper OMU4.

Yang, Q.

Yi, X.

Yu, J.

W. Wei, C. Wang, J. Yu, N. Cvijetic, T. Wang, “Optical orthogonal frequency division multiple access networking for the future Internet,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 236–246, 2009.
[CrossRef]

J. Yu, X. Zhou, M.-F. Huang, “8×114 Gb∕s, 25 GHz-spaced, PolMux-RZ-8QAM straight-line transmission over 800 km of SSMF,” in 35th European Conf. on Optical Communication, Vienna, Austria, 2009, paper P4.02.

Zerna, C.

A. Nespola, S. Abrate, R. Gaudino, C. Zerna, B. Offenbeck, N. Weber, “High-speed communications over polymer optical fibers for in-building cabling and home networking,” IEEE Photon. J., vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 347–358, 2010.
[CrossRef]

Zhou, X.

J. Yu, X. Zhou, M.-F. Huang, “8×114 Gb∕s, 25 GHz-spaced, PolMux-RZ-8QAM straight-line transmission over 800 km of SSMF,” in 35th European Conf. on Optical Communication, Vienna, Austria, 2009, paper P4.02.

IEEE Photon. J. (1)

A. Nespola, S. Abrate, R. Gaudino, C. Zerna, B. Offenbeck, N. Weber, “High-speed communications over polymer optical fibers for in-building cabling and home networking,” IEEE Photon. J., vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 347–358, 2010.
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

J. Opt. Commun. Netw. (1)

W. Wei, C. Wang, J. Yu, N. Cvijetic, T. Wang, “Optical orthogonal frequency division multiple access networking for the future Internet,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 236–246, 2009.
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Netw. (1)

Opt. Commun. (1)

Z. Dong, Z. Cao, J. Lu, Y. Li, L. Chen, S. Wen, “Transmission performance of optical OFDM signals with low peak-to-average power ratio by a phase modulator,” Opt. Commun., vol. 282, no. 21, pp. 4194–4197, 2009.
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Other (4)

P. C. Becker, N. A. Olsson, J. R. Simpson, Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifiers: Fundamentals and Technology. San Diego: Academic Press, 1999, ch. 6, pp. 153–195.
[CrossRef]

L. Xu, J. Hu, D. Qian, T. Wang, “Coherent optical OFDM systems using self optical carrier extraction,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2008, paper OMU4.

B. Goebel, S. Hellerbrand, N. Haufe, N. Hanik, “PAPR reduction techniques for coherent optical OFDM transmission,” in 11th Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks, 2009, paper Mo.B2.4.

J. Yu, X. Zhou, M.-F. Huang, “8×114 Gb∕s, 25 GHz-spaced, PolMux-RZ-8QAM straight-line transmission over 800 km of SSMF,” in 35th European Conf. on Optical Communication, Vienna, Austria, 2009, paper P4.02.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Simulation results of the EDFA gain versus the input power based on the EDFA rate equations. EDFA simulation parameters: fiber length, 6 m ; lifetime, 0.01 s ; Er concentration, 2.5 × 10 24 m 3 ; Er core radius, 1.5 × 10 6 ; background loss, 0.03 dB m ; backward pumping at wavelength 980 nm .

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Simulation results of the PAPRs of IM-OFDM and PM-OFDM signals in the standard single-mode-fiber transmission.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Simulated EVM versus EDFA output power in a SSMF-OFDM span. The 10 Gb s OFDM signals are composed of 160 subcarriers with the FFT size of 256, each of which transmits one QPSK symbol.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Experimental setup of 1040 km transmission of 10 Gb s DDO PM-OFDM. LD, laser diode; LNA, low-noise amplifier; LPF, low-pass filter.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Measured spectra corresponding to the positions (a), (b), (c) of the experimental setup in Fig. 3: (a) at the output of the transmitter EDFA, (b) after the 1040 km SSMF, (c) after the IL.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Plot of the BER versus OSNR measurements of DDO-PM-OFDM systems. The inset shows the QPSK constellation of OFDM symbols after 1040 km SSMF with OSNR 12.8 dB .

Tables (1)

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Table 1 OFDM Parameters

Equations (5)

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e i { Re [ x ( t ) ] cos ( ω IF t ) + Im [ x ( t ) ] sin ( ω IF t ) } = ( n = i n J n ( Re [ x ( t ) ] ) e i n ω IF t ) ( n = J n ( Im [ x ( t ) ] ) e i n ω IF t ) ,
J n ( x ( t ) ) 1 2 n n ! x ( t ) n ,
J n ( x ( t ) ) ( 1 ) n 2 n n ! x ( t ) n .
s ( t ) | 1 + i Re [ x ( t ) ] 2 e i ω IF t + Im [ x ( t ) ] 2 e i ω IF t | 2 = ( 1 + | x ( t ) | 2 4 ) + Re ( i x ( t ) * e i ω IF t ) .
N FFT N FFT + N CP × ( 1 overhead ) × Bandwidth × Bit Subcarrier .