Abstract

This paper presents a multiwavelength multicast packet switch and studies its multicast traffic performance analytically and by simulation. The switch employs the broadcast-and-select architecture to realize packet multicasting and enables multiple optical packets to be concurrently transmitted to the same output fiber of the switch. By means of a multi-timeslot replication scheme, a multicast packet is allowed to be replicated in multiple timeslots to reduce the output contention. An analytical model of the switch with the multi-timeslot replication scheme is developed and then verified by simulation. We compare traffic performance of the switch with and without the multi-timeslot replication scheme through simulation. It is shown that the packet loss probability and delay of the switch are considerably deteriorated as the multicast traffic ratio increases without using the multi-timeslot replication scheme; with the multi-timeslot replication scheme, the switch can achieve a much lower packet loss probability and delay, which is not affected by the multicast traffic ratio, and thus a higher throughput. Scalability analysis indicates that the switch with more wavelengths per fiber can achieve a fixed packet loss probability with less power loss.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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2010

2009

2008

Q. Huang, W. D. Zhong, “An optical wavelength-routed multicast packet switch based on multi-timeslot multiwavelength conversion,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 20, no. 18, pp. 1518–1520, Sept. 2008.
[CrossRef]

Q. Huang, W. D. Zhong, “Traffic performance evaluation of an optical packet switch with multicast operation,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol. 12, no. 12, pp. 894–896, Dec. 2008.
[CrossRef]

T. Segawa, S. Matsuo, T. Ishii, Y. Ohiso, Y. Shibata, H. Suzuki, “High-speed wavelength-tunable optical filter using cascaded Mach-Zehnder interferometers with apodized sampled gratings,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 44, no. 10, pp. 922–930, Oct. 2008.
[CrossRef]

2006

2005

2003

J. Yamawaku, H. Takara, T. Ohara, K. Sato, A. Takada, T. Morioka, O. Tadanaga, H. Miyazawa, M. Asobe, “Simultaneous 25 GHz-spaced DWDM wavelength conversion of 1.03 Tbit∕s(103×10 Gbit∕s) signals in PPLN waveguide,” Electron. Lett., vol. 39, no. 15, pp. 1144–1145, July 2003.
[CrossRef]

G. N. Rouskas, “Optical layer multicast: rationale, building blocks, and challenges,” IEEE Network, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 60–65, Jan./Feb. 2003.
[CrossRef]

2001

2000

1999

D. K. Hunter, M. H. M. Nizam, M. C. Chia, I. Andonovic, K. M. Guild, A. Tzanakaki, M. J. O’Mahony, J. D. Bainbridge, M. F. C. Stephens, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, “WASPNET: a wavelength switched packet network,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 37, no. 3, pp. 120–129, Mar. 1999.
[CrossRef]

1998

W. D. Zhong, R. S. Tucker, “Wavelength-routing based photonic packet buffers and their applications in photonic packet switching,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 10, pp. 1737–1745, Oct. 1998.
[CrossRef]

P. Gambini, M. Renaud, C. Guillemot, F. Callegati, I. Andonovic, B. Bostica, D. Chiaroni, G. Corazza, S. L. Danielsen, P. Gravey, P. B. Hansen, M. Henry, C. Janz, A. Kloch, R. Krähenbühl, C. Raffaelli, M. Schilling, A. Talneau, L. Zucchelli, “Transparent optical packet switching: network architecture and demonstrators in the KEOPS project,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 16, no. 7, pp. 1245–1259, Sept. 1998.
[CrossRef]

A. Misawa, Y. Yamada, M. Tsukada, K. Sasayama, K. Habara, T. Matsunaga, K. Yukimatsu, “A prototype broadcast-and-select photonic ATM switch with a WDM output buffer,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 16, no. 12, pp. 2202–2211, Dec. 1998.
[CrossRef]

1997

S. L. Danielsen, B. Mikkelsen, C. Joergensen, T. Durhuus, K. E. Stubjaer, “WDM packet switch architectures and analysis of the influence of tunable wavelength converters on the performance,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 219–227, Feb. 1997.
[CrossRef]

1993

A. Y.-M. Lin, J. A. Silvester, “On the performance of an ATM switch with multichannel transmission groups,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 41, pp. 760–769, May 1993.
[CrossRef]

1988

M. G. Hluchyj, M. J. Karol, “Queuing in high-performance packet switching,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 6, pp. 1587–1597, Dec. 1988.
[CrossRef]

Achouche, M.

G. Charlet, J. Renaudier, H. Mardoyan, P. Tran, O. Bertran-Pardo, F. Verluise, M. Achouche, A. Boutin, F. Blache, J.-Y. Dupuy, S. Bigo, “Transmission of 16.4 Tbit∕s capacity over 2,550 km using PDM QPSK modulation format and a coherent receiver,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., San Diego, CA, 2008, paper PDP3.

Andonovic, I.

M. C. Chia, D. K. Hunter, I. Andonovic, P. Ball, I. Wright, S. P. Ferguson, K. M. Guild, M. J. O’Mahony, “Packet loss and delay performance of feedback and feed-forward arrayed-waveguide gratings-based optical packet switches with WDM inputs-outputs,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 19, no. 9, pp. 1241–1254, Sept. 2001.
[CrossRef]

D. K. Hunter, M. H. M. Nizam, M. C. Chia, I. Andonovic, K. M. Guild, A. Tzanakaki, M. J. O’Mahony, J. D. Bainbridge, M. F. C. Stephens, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, “WASPNET: a wavelength switched packet network,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 37, no. 3, pp. 120–129, Mar. 1999.
[CrossRef]

P. Gambini, M. Renaud, C. Guillemot, F. Callegati, I. Andonovic, B. Bostica, D. Chiaroni, G. Corazza, S. L. Danielsen, P. Gravey, P. B. Hansen, M. Henry, C. Janz, A. Kloch, R. Krähenbühl, C. Raffaelli, M. Schilling, A. Talneau, L. Zucchelli, “Transparent optical packet switching: network architecture and demonstrators in the KEOPS project,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 16, no. 7, pp. 1245–1259, Sept. 1998.
[CrossRef]

Asobe, M.

J. Yamawaku, H. Takara, T. Ohara, K. Sato, A. Takada, T. Morioka, O. Tadanaga, H. Miyazawa, M. Asobe, “Simultaneous 25 GHz-spaced DWDM wavelength conversion of 1.03 Tbit∕s(103×10 Gbit∕s) signals in PPLN waveguide,” Electron. Lett., vol. 39, no. 15, pp. 1144–1145, July 2003.
[CrossRef]

Bainbridge, J. D.

D. K. Hunter, M. H. M. Nizam, M. C. Chia, I. Andonovic, K. M. Guild, A. Tzanakaki, M. J. O’Mahony, J. D. Bainbridge, M. F. C. Stephens, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, “WASPNET: a wavelength switched packet network,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 37, no. 3, pp. 120–129, Mar. 1999.
[CrossRef]

Ball, P.

Bernasconi, P.

Bertran-Pardo, O.

G. Charlet, J. Renaudier, H. Mardoyan, P. Tran, O. Bertran-Pardo, F. Verluise, M. Achouche, A. Boutin, F. Blache, J.-Y. Dupuy, S. Bigo, “Transmission of 16.4 Tbit∕s capacity over 2,550 km using PDM QPSK modulation format and a coherent receiver,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., San Diego, CA, 2008, paper PDP3.

Bigo, S.

G. Charlet, J. Renaudier, H. Mardoyan, P. Tran, O. Bertran-Pardo, F. Verluise, M. Achouche, A. Boutin, F. Blache, J.-Y. Dupuy, S. Bigo, “Transmission of 16.4 Tbit∕s capacity over 2,550 km using PDM QPSK modulation format and a coherent receiver,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., San Diego, CA, 2008, paper PDP3.

Blache, F.

G. Charlet, J. Renaudier, H. Mardoyan, P. Tran, O. Bertran-Pardo, F. Verluise, M. Achouche, A. Boutin, F. Blache, J.-Y. Dupuy, S. Bigo, “Transmission of 16.4 Tbit∕s capacity over 2,550 km using PDM QPSK modulation format and a coherent receiver,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., San Diego, CA, 2008, paper PDP3.

Blumenthal, D. J.

D. J. Blumenthal, “LASOR (label switched optical router): architecture and underlying integration technologies,” in 31st European Conf. on Optical Communication, Glasgow, UK, 2005, paper We1.1.4.

Bostica, B.

P. Gambini, M. Renaud, C. Guillemot, F. Callegati, I. Andonovic, B. Bostica, D. Chiaroni, G. Corazza, S. L. Danielsen, P. Gravey, P. B. Hansen, M. Henry, C. Janz, A. Kloch, R. Krähenbühl, C. Raffaelli, M. Schilling, A. Talneau, L. Zucchelli, “Transparent optical packet switching: network architecture and demonstrators in the KEOPS project,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 16, no. 7, pp. 1245–1259, Sept. 1998.
[CrossRef]

Bouard, D. D.

F. Masetti, M. Sotom, D. D. Bouard, D. Chiaroni, P. Parmentier, F. Callegati, G. Corazza, C. Raffaelli, S. L. Danielsen, K. E. Stubkjaer, “Design and performance of a broadcast-and-select photonic switching architecture,” in 22nd European Conf. on Optical Communication, 1996, vol. 3, pp. 309–312.

Boutin, A.

G. Charlet, J. Renaudier, H. Mardoyan, P. Tran, O. Bertran-Pardo, F. Verluise, M. Achouche, A. Boutin, F. Blache, J.-Y. Dupuy, S. Bigo, “Transmission of 16.4 Tbit∕s capacity over 2,550 km using PDM QPSK modulation format and a coherent receiver,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., San Diego, CA, 2008, paper PDP3.

Buhl, L.

Callegati, F.

P. Gambini, M. Renaud, C. Guillemot, F. Callegati, I. Andonovic, B. Bostica, D. Chiaroni, G. Corazza, S. L. Danielsen, P. Gravey, P. B. Hansen, M. Henry, C. Janz, A. Kloch, R. Krähenbühl, C. Raffaelli, M. Schilling, A. Talneau, L. Zucchelli, “Transparent optical packet switching: network architecture and demonstrators in the KEOPS project,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 16, no. 7, pp. 1245–1259, Sept. 1998.
[CrossRef]

F. Masetti, M. Sotom, D. D. Bouard, D. Chiaroni, P. Parmentier, F. Callegati, G. Corazza, C. Raffaelli, S. L. Danielsen, K. E. Stubkjaer, “Design and performance of a broadcast-and-select photonic switching architecture,” in 22nd European Conf. on Optical Communication, 1996, vol. 3, pp. 309–312.

Charlet, G.

G. Charlet, E. Corbel, J. Lazaro, A. Klekamp, R. Dischler, P. Tran, “WDM transmission at 6-Tbit∕s capacity over transatlantic distance, using 42.7-Gb∕s differential phase-shift keying without pulse carver,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 104–107, Jan. 2005.
[CrossRef]

G. Charlet, J. Renaudier, H. Mardoyan, P. Tran, O. Bertran-Pardo, F. Verluise, M. Achouche, A. Boutin, F. Blache, J.-Y. Dupuy, S. Bigo, “Transmission of 16.4 Tbit∕s capacity over 2,550 km using PDM QPSK modulation format and a coherent receiver,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., San Diego, CA, 2008, paper PDP3.

Chia, M. C.

M. C. Chia, D. K. Hunter, I. Andonovic, P. Ball, I. Wright, S. P. Ferguson, K. M. Guild, M. J. O’Mahony, “Packet loss and delay performance of feedback and feed-forward arrayed-waveguide gratings-based optical packet switches with WDM inputs-outputs,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 19, no. 9, pp. 1241–1254, Sept. 2001.
[CrossRef]

D. K. Hunter, M. H. M. Nizam, M. C. Chia, I. Andonovic, K. M. Guild, A. Tzanakaki, M. J. O’Mahony, J. D. Bainbridge, M. F. C. Stephens, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, “WASPNET: a wavelength switched packet network,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 37, no. 3, pp. 120–129, Mar. 1999.
[CrossRef]

Chiaroni, D.

P. Gambini, M. Renaud, C. Guillemot, F. Callegati, I. Andonovic, B. Bostica, D. Chiaroni, G. Corazza, S. L. Danielsen, P. Gravey, P. B. Hansen, M. Henry, C. Janz, A. Kloch, R. Krähenbühl, C. Raffaelli, M. Schilling, A. Talneau, L. Zucchelli, “Transparent optical packet switching: network architecture and demonstrators in the KEOPS project,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 16, no. 7, pp. 1245–1259, Sept. 1998.
[CrossRef]

F. Masetti, M. Sotom, D. D. Bouard, D. Chiaroni, P. Parmentier, F. Callegati, G. Corazza, C. Raffaelli, S. L. Danielsen, K. E. Stubkjaer, “Design and performance of a broadcast-and-select photonic switching architecture,” in 22nd European Conf. on Optical Communication, 1996, vol. 3, pp. 309–312.

Corazza, G.

P. Gambini, M. Renaud, C. Guillemot, F. Callegati, I. Andonovic, B. Bostica, D. Chiaroni, G. Corazza, S. L. Danielsen, P. Gravey, P. B. Hansen, M. Henry, C. Janz, A. Kloch, R. Krähenbühl, C. Raffaelli, M. Schilling, A. Talneau, L. Zucchelli, “Transparent optical packet switching: network architecture and demonstrators in the KEOPS project,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 16, no. 7, pp. 1245–1259, Sept. 1998.
[CrossRef]

F. Masetti, M. Sotom, D. D. Bouard, D. Chiaroni, P. Parmentier, F. Callegati, G. Corazza, C. Raffaelli, S. L. Danielsen, K. E. Stubkjaer, “Design and performance of a broadcast-and-select photonic switching architecture,” in 22nd European Conf. on Optical Communication, 1996, vol. 3, pp. 309–312.

Corbel, E.

Cuda, D.

D. Cuda, R. Gaudino, G. A. Gavilanes, F. Neri, G. Maier, C. Raffaelli, M. Savi, “Capacity/cost tradeoffs in optical switching fabrics for terabit packet switches,” in Int. Conf. on Optical Network Design and Modeling, Braunschweig, Germany, 2009.

Danielsen, S. L.

P. Gambini, M. Renaud, C. Guillemot, F. Callegati, I. Andonovic, B. Bostica, D. Chiaroni, G. Corazza, S. L. Danielsen, P. Gravey, P. B. Hansen, M. Henry, C. Janz, A. Kloch, R. Krähenbühl, C. Raffaelli, M. Schilling, A. Talneau, L. Zucchelli, “Transparent optical packet switching: network architecture and demonstrators in the KEOPS project,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 16, no. 7, pp. 1245–1259, Sept. 1998.
[CrossRef]

S. L. Danielsen, B. Mikkelsen, C. Joergensen, T. Durhuus, K. E. Stubjaer, “WDM packet switch architectures and analysis of the influence of tunable wavelength converters on the performance,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 219–227, Feb. 1997.
[CrossRef]

F. Masetti, M. Sotom, D. D. Bouard, D. Chiaroni, P. Parmentier, F. Callegati, G. Corazza, C. Raffaelli, S. L. Danielsen, K. E. Stubkjaer, “Design and performance of a broadcast-and-select photonic switching architecture,” in 22nd European Conf. on Optical Communication, 1996, vol. 3, pp. 309–312.

Dischler, R.

Dupuy, J.-Y.

G. Charlet, J. Renaudier, H. Mardoyan, P. Tran, O. Bertran-Pardo, F. Verluise, M. Achouche, A. Boutin, F. Blache, J.-Y. Dupuy, S. Bigo, “Transmission of 16.4 Tbit∕s capacity over 2,550 km using PDM QPSK modulation format and a coherent receiver,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., San Diego, CA, 2008, paper PDP3.

Durhuus, T.

S. L. Danielsen, B. Mikkelsen, C. Joergensen, T. Durhuus, K. E. Stubjaer, “WDM packet switch architectures and analysis of the influence of tunable wavelength converters on the performance,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 219–227, Feb. 1997.
[CrossRef]

Eramo, V.

Ferguson, S. P.

Finochietto, J. M.

R. Gaudino, G. A. Gavilanes Castillo, F. Neri, J. M. Finochietto, “Multiplane optical fabrics for terabit packet switches,” in Int. Conf. on Optical Network Design and Modeling, Vilanova, Catalonia, Spain, 2008.

R. Gaudino, G. A. Gavilanes Castillo, F. Neri, J. M. Finochietto, “Simple optical fabrics for scalable terabit packet switches,” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications, Beijing, China, 2008, pp. 5331–5337.

Furukawa, H.

Gambini, P.

P. Gambini, M. Renaud, C. Guillemot, F. Callegati, I. Andonovic, B. Bostica, D. Chiaroni, G. Corazza, S. L. Danielsen, P. Gravey, P. B. Hansen, M. Henry, C. Janz, A. Kloch, R. Krähenbühl, C. Raffaelli, M. Schilling, A. Talneau, L. Zucchelli, “Transparent optical packet switching: network architecture and demonstrators in the KEOPS project,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 16, no. 7, pp. 1245–1259, Sept. 1998.
[CrossRef]

Gaudino, R.

R. Gaudino, G. A. Gavilanes Castillo, F. Neri, J. M. Finochietto, “Multiplane optical fabrics for terabit packet switches,” in Int. Conf. on Optical Network Design and Modeling, Vilanova, Catalonia, Spain, 2008.

R. Gaudino, G. A. Gavilanes Castillo, F. Neri, J. M. Finochietto, “Simple optical fabrics for scalable terabit packet switches,” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications, Beijing, China, 2008, pp. 5331–5337.

D. Cuda, R. Gaudino, G. A. Gavilanes, F. Neri, G. Maier, C. Raffaelli, M. Savi, “Capacity/cost tradeoffs in optical switching fabrics for terabit packet switches,” in Int. Conf. on Optical Network Design and Modeling, Braunschweig, Germany, 2009.

Gavilanes, G. A.

D. Cuda, R. Gaudino, G. A. Gavilanes, F. Neri, G. Maier, C. Raffaelli, M. Savi, “Capacity/cost tradeoffs in optical switching fabrics for terabit packet switches,” in Int. Conf. on Optical Network Design and Modeling, Braunschweig, Germany, 2009.

Gavilanes Castillo, G. A.

R. Gaudino, G. A. Gavilanes Castillo, F. Neri, J. M. Finochietto, “Simple optical fabrics for scalable terabit packet switches,” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications, Beijing, China, 2008, pp. 5331–5337.

R. Gaudino, G. A. Gavilanes Castillo, F. Neri, J. M. Finochietto, “Multiplane optical fabrics for terabit packet switches,” in Int. Conf. on Optical Network Design and Modeling, Vilanova, Catalonia, Spain, 2008.

Gravey, P.

P. Gambini, M. Renaud, C. Guillemot, F. Callegati, I. Andonovic, B. Bostica, D. Chiaroni, G. Corazza, S. L. Danielsen, P. Gravey, P. B. Hansen, M. Henry, C. Janz, A. Kloch, R. Krähenbühl, C. Raffaelli, M. Schilling, A. Talneau, L. Zucchelli, “Transparent optical packet switching: network architecture and demonstrators in the KEOPS project,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 16, no. 7, pp. 1245–1259, Sept. 1998.
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Guild, K. M.

M. C. Chia, D. K. Hunter, I. Andonovic, P. Ball, I. Wright, S. P. Ferguson, K. M. Guild, M. J. O’Mahony, “Packet loss and delay performance of feedback and feed-forward arrayed-waveguide gratings-based optical packet switches with WDM inputs-outputs,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 19, no. 9, pp. 1241–1254, Sept. 2001.
[CrossRef]

D. K. Hunter, M. H. M. Nizam, M. C. Chia, I. Andonovic, K. M. Guild, A. Tzanakaki, M. J. O’Mahony, J. D. Bainbridge, M. F. C. Stephens, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, “WASPNET: a wavelength switched packet network,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 37, no. 3, pp. 120–129, Mar. 1999.
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Guillemot, C.

P. Gambini, M. Renaud, C. Guillemot, F. Callegati, I. Andonovic, B. Bostica, D. Chiaroni, G. Corazza, S. L. Danielsen, P. Gravey, P. B. Hansen, M. Henry, C. Janz, A. Kloch, R. Krähenbühl, C. Raffaelli, M. Schilling, A. Talneau, L. Zucchelli, “Transparent optical packet switching: network architecture and demonstrators in the KEOPS project,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 16, no. 7, pp. 1245–1259, Sept. 1998.
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Hansen, P. B.

P. Gambini, M. Renaud, C. Guillemot, F. Callegati, I. Andonovic, B. Bostica, D. Chiaroni, G. Corazza, S. L. Danielsen, P. Gravey, P. B. Hansen, M. Henry, C. Janz, A. Kloch, R. Krähenbühl, C. Raffaelli, M. Schilling, A. Talneau, L. Zucchelli, “Transparent optical packet switching: network architecture and demonstrators in the KEOPS project,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 16, no. 7, pp. 1245–1259, Sept. 1998.
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Henry, M.

P. Gambini, M. Renaud, C. Guillemot, F. Callegati, I. Andonovic, B. Bostica, D. Chiaroni, G. Corazza, S. L. Danielsen, P. Gravey, P. B. Hansen, M. Henry, C. Janz, A. Kloch, R. Krähenbühl, C. Raffaelli, M. Schilling, A. Talneau, L. Zucchelli, “Transparent optical packet switching: network architecture and demonstrators in the KEOPS project,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 16, no. 7, pp. 1245–1259, Sept. 1998.
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M. G. Hluchyj, M. J. Karol, “Queuing in high-performance packet switching,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 6, pp. 1587–1597, Dec. 1988.
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Q. Huang, W. D. Zhong, “Wavelength-routed optical multicast packet switch with improved performance,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 27, no. 24, pp. 5657–5664, Dec. 2009.
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Q. Huang, W. D. Zhong, “An optical wavelength-routed multicast packet switch based on multi-timeslot multiwavelength conversion,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 20, no. 18, pp. 1518–1520, Sept. 2008.
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Q. Huang, W. D. Zhong, “Traffic performance evaluation of an optical packet switch with multicast operation,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol. 12, no. 12, pp. 894–896, Dec. 2008.
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M. C. Chia, D. K. Hunter, I. Andonovic, P. Ball, I. Wright, S. P. Ferguson, K. M. Guild, M. J. O’Mahony, “Packet loss and delay performance of feedback and feed-forward arrayed-waveguide gratings-based optical packet switches with WDM inputs-outputs,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 19, no. 9, pp. 1241–1254, Sept. 2001.
[CrossRef]

D. K. Hunter, M. H. M. Nizam, M. C. Chia, I. Andonovic, K. M. Guild, A. Tzanakaki, M. J. O’Mahony, J. D. Bainbridge, M. F. C. Stephens, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, “WASPNET: a wavelength switched packet network,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 37, no. 3, pp. 120–129, Mar. 1999.
[CrossRef]

Ishii, T.

T. Segawa, S. Matsuo, T. Ishii, Y. Ohiso, Y. Shibata, H. Suzuki, “High-speed wavelength-tunable optical filter using cascaded Mach-Zehnder interferometers with apodized sampled gratings,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 44, no. 10, pp. 922–930, Oct. 2008.
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Janz, C.

P. Gambini, M. Renaud, C. Guillemot, F. Callegati, I. Andonovic, B. Bostica, D. Chiaroni, G. Corazza, S. L. Danielsen, P. Gravey, P. B. Hansen, M. Henry, C. Janz, A. Kloch, R. Krähenbühl, C. Raffaelli, M. Schilling, A. Talneau, L. Zucchelli, “Transparent optical packet switching: network architecture and demonstrators in the KEOPS project,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 16, no. 7, pp. 1245–1259, Sept. 1998.
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Joergensen, C.

S. L. Danielsen, B. Mikkelsen, C. Joergensen, T. Durhuus, K. E. Stubjaer, “WDM packet switch architectures and analysis of the influence of tunable wavelength converters on the performance,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 219–227, Feb. 1997.
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Karol, M. J.

M. G. Hluchyj, M. J. Karol, “Queuing in high-performance packet switching,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 6, pp. 1587–1597, Dec. 1988.
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Klekamp, A.

Kloch, A.

P. Gambini, M. Renaud, C. Guillemot, F. Callegati, I. Andonovic, B. Bostica, D. Chiaroni, G. Corazza, S. L. Danielsen, P. Gravey, P. B. Hansen, M. Henry, C. Janz, A. Kloch, R. Krähenbühl, C. Raffaelli, M. Schilling, A. Talneau, L. Zucchelli, “Transparent optical packet switching: network architecture and demonstrators in the KEOPS project,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 16, no. 7, pp. 1245–1259, Sept. 1998.
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Krähenbühl, R.

P. Gambini, M. Renaud, C. Guillemot, F. Callegati, I. Andonovic, B. Bostica, D. Chiaroni, G. Corazza, S. L. Danielsen, P. Gravey, P. B. Hansen, M. Henry, C. Janz, A. Kloch, R. Krähenbühl, C. Raffaelli, M. Schilling, A. Talneau, L. Zucchelli, “Transparent optical packet switching: network architecture and demonstrators in the KEOPS project,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 16, no. 7, pp. 1245–1259, Sept. 1998.
[CrossRef]

Lazaro, J.

Le Grange, J. D.

Lin, A. Y.-M.

A. Y.-M. Lin, J. A. Silvester, “On the performance of an ATM switch with multichannel transmission groups,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 41, pp. 760–769, May 1993.
[CrossRef]

Listanti, M.

Maier, G.

D. Cuda, R. Gaudino, G. A. Gavilanes, F. Neri, G. Maier, C. Raffaelli, M. Savi, “Capacity/cost tradeoffs in optical switching fabrics for terabit packet switches,” in Int. Conf. on Optical Network Design and Modeling, Braunschweig, Germany, 2009.

Mardoyan, H.

G. Charlet, J. Renaudier, H. Mardoyan, P. Tran, O. Bertran-Pardo, F. Verluise, M. Achouche, A. Boutin, F. Blache, J.-Y. Dupuy, S. Bigo, “Transmission of 16.4 Tbit∕s capacity over 2,550 km using PDM QPSK modulation format and a coherent receiver,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., San Diego, CA, 2008, paper PDP3.

Masetti, F.

F. Masetti, M. Sotom, D. D. Bouard, D. Chiaroni, P. Parmentier, F. Callegati, G. Corazza, C. Raffaelli, S. L. Danielsen, K. E. Stubkjaer, “Design and performance of a broadcast-and-select photonic switching architecture,” in 22nd European Conf. on Optical Communication, 1996, vol. 3, pp. 309–312.

Matsunaga, T.

Matsuo, S.

T. Segawa, S. Matsuo, T. Ishii, Y. Ohiso, Y. Shibata, H. Suzuki, “High-speed wavelength-tunable optical filter using cascaded Mach-Zehnder interferometers with apodized sampled gratings,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 44, no. 10, pp. 922–930, Oct. 2008.
[CrossRef]

Mikkelsen, B.

S. L. Danielsen, B. Mikkelsen, C. Joergensen, T. Durhuus, K. E. Stubjaer, “WDM packet switch architectures and analysis of the influence of tunable wavelength converters on the performance,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 219–227, Feb. 1997.
[CrossRef]

Misawa, A.

Miyazaki, T.

Miyazawa, H.

J. Yamawaku, H. Takara, T. Ohara, K. Sato, A. Takada, T. Morioka, O. Tadanaga, H. Miyazawa, M. Asobe, “Simultaneous 25 GHz-spaced DWDM wavelength conversion of 1.03 Tbit∕s(103×10 Gbit∕s) signals in PPLN waveguide,” Electron. Lett., vol. 39, no. 15, pp. 1144–1145, July 2003.
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Morioka, T.

J. Yamawaku, H. Takara, T. Ohara, K. Sato, A. Takada, T. Morioka, O. Tadanaga, H. Miyazawa, M. Asobe, “Simultaneous 25 GHz-spaced DWDM wavelength conversion of 1.03 Tbit∕s(103×10 Gbit∕s) signals in PPLN waveguide,” Electron. Lett., vol. 39, no. 15, pp. 1144–1145, July 2003.
[CrossRef]

Neilson, D. T.

Neri, F.

R. Gaudino, G. A. Gavilanes Castillo, F. Neri, J. M. Finochietto, “Multiplane optical fabrics for terabit packet switches,” in Int. Conf. on Optical Network Design and Modeling, Vilanova, Catalonia, Spain, 2008.

R. Gaudino, G. A. Gavilanes Castillo, F. Neri, J. M. Finochietto, “Simple optical fabrics for scalable terabit packet switches,” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications, Beijing, China, 2008, pp. 5331–5337.

D. Cuda, R. Gaudino, G. A. Gavilanes, F. Neri, G. Maier, C. Raffaelli, M. Savi, “Capacity/cost tradeoffs in optical switching fabrics for terabit packet switches,” in Int. Conf. on Optical Network Design and Modeling, Braunschweig, Germany, 2009.

Nizam, M. H. M.

D. K. Hunter, M. H. M. Nizam, M. C. Chia, I. Andonovic, K. M. Guild, A. Tzanakaki, M. J. O’Mahony, J. D. Bainbridge, M. F. C. Stephens, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, “WASPNET: a wavelength switched packet network,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 37, no. 3, pp. 120–129, Mar. 1999.
[CrossRef]

O’Mahony, M. J.

M. C. Chia, D. K. Hunter, I. Andonovic, P. Ball, I. Wright, S. P. Ferguson, K. M. Guild, M. J. O’Mahony, “Packet loss and delay performance of feedback and feed-forward arrayed-waveguide gratings-based optical packet switches with WDM inputs-outputs,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 19, no. 9, pp. 1241–1254, Sept. 2001.
[CrossRef]

D. K. Hunter, M. H. M. Nizam, M. C. Chia, I. Andonovic, K. M. Guild, A. Tzanakaki, M. J. O’Mahony, J. D. Bainbridge, M. F. C. Stephens, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, “WASPNET: a wavelength switched packet network,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 37, no. 3, pp. 120–129, Mar. 1999.
[CrossRef]

Ohara, T.

J. Yamawaku, H. Takara, T. Ohara, K. Sato, A. Takada, T. Morioka, O. Tadanaga, H. Miyazawa, M. Asobe, “Simultaneous 25 GHz-spaced DWDM wavelength conversion of 1.03 Tbit∕s(103×10 Gbit∕s) signals in PPLN waveguide,” Electron. Lett., vol. 39, no. 15, pp. 1144–1145, July 2003.
[CrossRef]

Ohiso, Y.

T. Segawa, S. Matsuo, T. Ishii, Y. Ohiso, Y. Shibata, H. Suzuki, “High-speed wavelength-tunable optical filter using cascaded Mach-Zehnder interferometers with apodized sampled gratings,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 44, no. 10, pp. 922–930, Oct. 2008.
[CrossRef]

Parmentier, P.

F. Masetti, M. Sotom, D. D. Bouard, D. Chiaroni, P. Parmentier, F. Callegati, G. Corazza, C. Raffaelli, S. L. Danielsen, K. E. Stubkjaer, “Design and performance of a broadcast-and-select photonic switching architecture,” in 22nd European Conf. on Optical Communication, 1996, vol. 3, pp. 309–312.

Penty, R. V.

D. K. Hunter, M. H. M. Nizam, M. C. Chia, I. Andonovic, K. M. Guild, A. Tzanakaki, M. J. O’Mahony, J. D. Bainbridge, M. F. C. Stephens, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, “WASPNET: a wavelength switched packet network,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 37, no. 3, pp. 120–129, Mar. 1999.
[CrossRef]

Raffaelli, C.

P. Gambini, M. Renaud, C. Guillemot, F. Callegati, I. Andonovic, B. Bostica, D. Chiaroni, G. Corazza, S. L. Danielsen, P. Gravey, P. B. Hansen, M. Henry, C. Janz, A. Kloch, R. Krähenbühl, C. Raffaelli, M. Schilling, A. Talneau, L. Zucchelli, “Transparent optical packet switching: network architecture and demonstrators in the KEOPS project,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 16, no. 7, pp. 1245–1259, Sept. 1998.
[CrossRef]

F. Masetti, M. Sotom, D. D. Bouard, D. Chiaroni, P. Parmentier, F. Callegati, G. Corazza, C. Raffaelli, S. L. Danielsen, K. E. Stubkjaer, “Design and performance of a broadcast-and-select photonic switching architecture,” in 22nd European Conf. on Optical Communication, 1996, vol. 3, pp. 309–312.

D. Cuda, R. Gaudino, G. A. Gavilanes, F. Neri, G. Maier, C. Raffaelli, M. Savi, “Capacity/cost tradeoffs in optical switching fabrics for terabit packet switches,” in Int. Conf. on Optical Network Design and Modeling, Braunschweig, Germany, 2009.

Renaud, M.

P. Gambini, M. Renaud, C. Guillemot, F. Callegati, I. Andonovic, B. Bostica, D. Chiaroni, G. Corazza, S. L. Danielsen, P. Gravey, P. B. Hansen, M. Henry, C. Janz, A. Kloch, R. Krähenbühl, C. Raffaelli, M. Schilling, A. Talneau, L. Zucchelli, “Transparent optical packet switching: network architecture and demonstrators in the KEOPS project,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 16, no. 7, pp. 1245–1259, Sept. 1998.
[CrossRef]

Renaudier, J.

G. Charlet, J. Renaudier, H. Mardoyan, P. Tran, O. Bertran-Pardo, F. Verluise, M. Achouche, A. Boutin, F. Blache, J.-Y. Dupuy, S. Bigo, “Transmission of 16.4 Tbit∕s capacity over 2,550 km using PDM QPSK modulation format and a coherent receiver,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., San Diego, CA, 2008, paper PDP3.

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G. N. Rouskas, “Optical layer multicast: rationale, building blocks, and challenges,” IEEE Network, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 60–65, Jan./Feb. 2003.
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Sasayama, K.

Sato, K.

J. Yamawaku, H. Takara, T. Ohara, K. Sato, A. Takada, T. Morioka, O. Tadanaga, H. Miyazawa, M. Asobe, “Simultaneous 25 GHz-spaced DWDM wavelength conversion of 1.03 Tbit∕s(103×10 Gbit∕s) signals in PPLN waveguide,” Electron. Lett., vol. 39, no. 15, pp. 1144–1145, July 2003.
[CrossRef]

Savi, M.

D. Cuda, R. Gaudino, G. A. Gavilanes, F. Neri, G. Maier, C. Raffaelli, M. Savi, “Capacity/cost tradeoffs in optical switching fabrics for terabit packet switches,” in Int. Conf. on Optical Network Design and Modeling, Braunschweig, Germany, 2009.

Schilling, M.

P. Gambini, M. Renaud, C. Guillemot, F. Callegati, I. Andonovic, B. Bostica, D. Chiaroni, G. Corazza, S. L. Danielsen, P. Gravey, P. B. Hansen, M. Henry, C. Janz, A. Kloch, R. Krähenbühl, C. Raffaelli, M. Schilling, A. Talneau, L. Zucchelli, “Transparent optical packet switching: network architecture and demonstrators in the KEOPS project,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 16, no. 7, pp. 1245–1259, Sept. 1998.
[CrossRef]

Segawa, T.

T. Segawa, S. Matsuo, T. Ishii, Y. Ohiso, Y. Shibata, H. Suzuki, “High-speed wavelength-tunable optical filter using cascaded Mach-Zehnder interferometers with apodized sampled gratings,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 44, no. 10, pp. 922–930, Oct. 2008.
[CrossRef]

Shibata, Y.

T. Segawa, S. Matsuo, T. Ishii, Y. Ohiso, Y. Shibata, H. Suzuki, “High-speed wavelength-tunable optical filter using cascaded Mach-Zehnder interferometers with apodized sampled gratings,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 44, no. 10, pp. 922–930, Oct. 2008.
[CrossRef]

Silvester, J. A.

A. Y.-M. Lin, J. A. Silvester, “On the performance of an ATM switch with multichannel transmission groups,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 41, pp. 760–769, May 1993.
[CrossRef]

Simsarian, J. E.

Sotom, M.

F. Masetti, M. Sotom, D. D. Bouard, D. Chiaroni, P. Parmentier, F. Callegati, G. Corazza, C. Raffaelli, S. L. Danielsen, K. E. Stubkjaer, “Design and performance of a broadcast-and-select photonic switching architecture,” in 22nd European Conf. on Optical Communication, 1996, vol. 3, pp. 309–312.

Stephens, M. F. C.

D. K. Hunter, M. H. M. Nizam, M. C. Chia, I. Andonovic, K. M. Guild, A. Tzanakaki, M. J. O’Mahony, J. D. Bainbridge, M. F. C. Stephens, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, “WASPNET: a wavelength switched packet network,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 37, no. 3, pp. 120–129, Mar. 1999.
[CrossRef]

Stiliadis, D.

Stubjaer, K. E.

S. L. Danielsen, B. Mikkelsen, C. Joergensen, T. Durhuus, K. E. Stubjaer, “WDM packet switch architectures and analysis of the influence of tunable wavelength converters on the performance,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 219–227, Feb. 1997.
[CrossRef]

Stubkjaer, K. E.

F. Masetti, M. Sotom, D. D. Bouard, D. Chiaroni, P. Parmentier, F. Callegati, G. Corazza, C. Raffaelli, S. L. Danielsen, K. E. Stubkjaer, “Design and performance of a broadcast-and-select photonic switching architecture,” in 22nd European Conf. on Optical Communication, 1996, vol. 3, pp. 309–312.

Suzuki, H.

T. Segawa, S. Matsuo, T. Ishii, Y. Ohiso, Y. Shibata, H. Suzuki, “High-speed wavelength-tunable optical filter using cascaded Mach-Zehnder interferometers with apodized sampled gratings,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 44, no. 10, pp. 922–930, Oct. 2008.
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Tadanaga, O.

J. Yamawaku, H. Takara, T. Ohara, K. Sato, A. Takada, T. Morioka, O. Tadanaga, H. Miyazawa, M. Asobe, “Simultaneous 25 GHz-spaced DWDM wavelength conversion of 1.03 Tbit∕s(103×10 Gbit∕s) signals in PPLN waveguide,” Electron. Lett., vol. 39, no. 15, pp. 1144–1145, July 2003.
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Takada, A.

J. Yamawaku, H. Takara, T. Ohara, K. Sato, A. Takada, T. Morioka, O. Tadanaga, H. Miyazawa, M. Asobe, “Simultaneous 25 GHz-spaced DWDM wavelength conversion of 1.03 Tbit∕s(103×10 Gbit∕s) signals in PPLN waveguide,” Electron. Lett., vol. 39, no. 15, pp. 1144–1145, July 2003.
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Takara, H.

J. Yamawaku, H. Takara, T. Ohara, K. Sato, A. Takada, T. Morioka, O. Tadanaga, H. Miyazawa, M. Asobe, “Simultaneous 25 GHz-spaced DWDM wavelength conversion of 1.03 Tbit∕s(103×10 Gbit∕s) signals in PPLN waveguide,” Electron. Lett., vol. 39, no. 15, pp. 1144–1145, July 2003.
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Talneau, A.

P. Gambini, M. Renaud, C. Guillemot, F. Callegati, I. Andonovic, B. Bostica, D. Chiaroni, G. Corazza, S. L. Danielsen, P. Gravey, P. B. Hansen, M. Henry, C. Janz, A. Kloch, R. Krähenbühl, C. Raffaelli, M. Schilling, A. Talneau, L. Zucchelli, “Transparent optical packet switching: network architecture and demonstrators in the KEOPS project,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 16, no. 7, pp. 1245–1259, Sept. 1998.
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Tran, P.

G. Charlet, E. Corbel, J. Lazaro, A. Klekamp, R. Dischler, P. Tran, “WDM transmission at 6-Tbit∕s capacity over transatlantic distance, using 42.7-Gb∕s differential phase-shift keying without pulse carver,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 104–107, Jan. 2005.
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G. Charlet, J. Renaudier, H. Mardoyan, P. Tran, O. Bertran-Pardo, F. Verluise, M. Achouche, A. Boutin, F. Blache, J.-Y. Dupuy, S. Bigo, “Transmission of 16.4 Tbit∕s capacity over 2,550 km using PDM QPSK modulation format and a coherent receiver,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., San Diego, CA, 2008, paper PDP3.

Tsukada, M.

Tucker, R. S.

W. D. Zhong, R. S. Tucker, “A new wavelength-routed photonic packet buffer combining traveling delay lines with delay-line loops,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 19, no. 8, pp. 1085–1092, Aug. 2001.
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W. D. Zhong, R. S. Tucker, “Wavelength-routing based photonic packet buffers and their applications in photonic packet switching,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 10, pp. 1737–1745, Oct. 1998.
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Tzanakaki, A.

D. K. Hunter, M. H. M. Nizam, M. C. Chia, I. Andonovic, K. M. Guild, A. Tzanakaki, M. J. O’Mahony, J. D. Bainbridge, M. F. C. Stephens, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, “WASPNET: a wavelength switched packet network,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 37, no. 3, pp. 120–129, Mar. 1999.
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Verluise, F.

G. Charlet, J. Renaudier, H. Mardoyan, P. Tran, O. Bertran-Pardo, F. Verluise, M. Achouche, A. Boutin, F. Blache, J.-Y. Dupuy, S. Bigo, “Transmission of 16.4 Tbit∕s capacity over 2,550 km using PDM QPSK modulation format and a coherent receiver,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., San Diego, CA, 2008, paper PDP3.

Wada, N.

White, I. H.

D. K. Hunter, M. H. M. Nizam, M. C. Chia, I. Andonovic, K. M. Guild, A. Tzanakaki, M. J. O’Mahony, J. D. Bainbridge, M. F. C. Stephens, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, “WASPNET: a wavelength switched packet network,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 37, no. 3, pp. 120–129, Mar. 1999.
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Wright, I.

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Figures (15)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Architecture of the present multiwavelength multicast packet switch based on the broadcast-and-select mechanism and the multi-timeslot replication scheme.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Queuing model at each output fiber of the multiwavelength multicast packet switch.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

State transition diagram of the number of packets in the queues of an output fiber of the switch.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Packet loss probability as a function of the input offered traffic load for the present multicast switch with different values of N and m. The number of FDLs is K = 8 , and the multicast traffic ratio is r = 0.5 with E ( X ) = 4 .

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Packet loss probability as a function of the number of fiber delay lines for a 16 × 16 multicast switch for different E ( X ) when λ = 0.5 . The number of wavelengths per fiber is m = 4 , and the multicast traffic ratio is r = 0.5 .

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Packet loss probability as a function of the input offered traffic load for a 16 × 16 multicast switch under different values of r with E ( X ) = 4 . The number of wavelengths per fiber is m = 4 , and the number of FDLs is K = 8 .

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Mean delay as a function of the input offered traffic load for a 16 × 16 multicast switch with different values of m. The number of FDLs is K = 20 , and the multicast traffic ratio is r = 0.5 with E ( X ) = 8 .

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Mean delay as a function of the input offered traffic load for a 16 × 16 multicast switch under different values of E ( X ) when r = 0.5 . The number of wavelengths per fiber is m = 4 , and the number of FDLs is K = 20 .

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Packet loss probability for a 16 × 16 multicast switch using the one-timeslot replication and multi-timeslot replication schemes in uncorrelated traffic with E ( X ) = 8 . The number of wavelengths per fiber is m = 4 , and the number of FDLs is K = 8 .

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Packet loss probability for a 16 × 16 multicast switch using the one-timeslot replication and multi-timeslot replication schemes in correlated traffic with E ( X ) = 8 and E ( ON ) = 4 . The number of wavelengths per fiber is m = 4 , and the number of FDLs is K = 8 .

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Mean delay for a 16 × 16 multicast switch using the one-timeslot replication and multi-timeslot replication schemes in uncorrelated traffic with E ( X ) = 8 . The number of wavelengths per fiber is m = 4 , and the number of FDLs is K = 20 .

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Mean delay for a 16 × 16 multicast switch using the one-timeslot replication and multi-timeslot replication schemes in correlated traffic with E ( X ) = 8 and E ( ON ) = 4 . The number of wavelengths per fiber is m = 4 , and the number of FDLs is K = 20 .

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Normalized throughput for a 16 × 16 multicast switch using the one-timeslot replication and multi-timeslot replication schemes with different values of m in uncorrelated traffic with E ( X ) = 8 . The number of FDLs is K = 4 , and the multicast traffic ratio is r = 1.0 .

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Normalized throughput for a 16 × 16 multicast switch using the one-timeslot replication and multi-timeslot replication schemes with different values of m in correlated traffic with E ( X ) = 8 and E ( ON ) = 4 . The number of FDLs is K = 4 , and the multicast traffic ratio is r = 1.0 .

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Power loss versus switch size ( N ) of the proposed switch with different values of m to achieve a packet loss probability 10 6 at ρ efff = 0.8 in uncorrelated traffic.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Number of FDLs in the Present Switch to Achieve a Packet Loss Probability of 10 6 at ρ eff = 0.8 in Uncorrelated Traffic

Equations (21)

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P ( X = k ) = ( 1 q ) q k 1 q q N , 2 k N .
E ( X ) = k = 2 N k P ( X = k ) = 2 q q 2 ( N + 1 ) q N + N q N + 1 ( 1 q ) ( q q N ) .
P e = λ ( 1 N ( 1 R ) + 1 N R E ( X ) ) .
ρ u = λ ( 1 R ) ,
ρ m = λ R E ( X ) ,
ρ eff = ρ u + ρ m = λ ( ( 1 R ) + R E ( X ) ) .
a k = ( m N k ) ( P e ) k ( 1 P e ) m N k .
P i j = { k = 0 m i a k , 0 i m , j = 0 a j i + m , 1 i m , 1 j S 1 a j i + m , m + 1 i S 1 , i m j S 1 t = S i + m m N a t , 0 i S , j = S 0 else } .
q j = Pr ( Q = j ) = i = 0 S Pr ( Q = i ) P i j = i = 0 S q i P i j .
[ q 0 q 1 q S ] = [ P 00 P 10 p S 0 P 01 p 11 P S 1 P 0 S P 1 S P S S ] [ q 0 q 1 q S ] .
[ P 00 1 P 10 P S 0 P 01 P 11 1 P S 1 P 0 S P 1 S P S S 1 1 1 1 ] [ q 0 q 1 q S ] = [ 0 0 0 1 ] .
u i = Pr ( U = i ) = j = 0 m i q j a m i j .
E ( U ) = i = 0 m u i i = i = 0 m j = 0 m i q j a m i j i .
μ = 1 E ( U ) m .
PLP = 1 μ ρ .
Q ¯ = n = 0 S n q n m .
D ¯ = Q ¯ μ = n = 0 S n q n m μ .
L SC 1 = { 10 log ( N ) N K 10 log ( K ) N < K } ,
L FDL = 10 log ( K ) ,
L SC 2 = { 10 log ( m ) m K 10 log ( K ) m < K } .
L input-output = L SC 1 + L FDL + L SC 2 .