J. Armitage, O. Crochat, J. Y. Le Boudec, “Design of a survivable WDM photonic network,” in Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, 1997, pp. 244–252.

N. Banerjee, S. Sharan, “An evolutionary algorithm for solving the single objective static routing and wavelength assignment problem in WDM networks,” in Proc. of ICISIP, 2004, pp. 13–18.

R. M. Garlick, R. S. Barr, “Dynamic wavelength routing in WDM networks via ant colony optimization,” in 3rd Int. Workshop on Ant Algorithms, LNCS 2463, 2002, vol. 3, pp. 250–255.

M. Dorigo, V. Maniezzo, A. Colorni, “Ant system: optimization by a colony of cooperating agents,” IEEE Trans. Syst., Man, Cybern., Part B: Cybern., vol. 26, pp. 29–41, 1996.

[CrossRef]

A. Nucci, B. Sanso, T. Crainic, E. Leonardi, M. A. Marsan, “Design of fault-tolerant logical topologies in wavelength-routed optical IP networks,” in Proc. of IEEE Globecom, 2001, pp. 2098–2103.

J. Armitage, O. Crochat, J. Y. Le Boudec, “Design of a survivable WDM photonic network,” in Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, 1997, pp. 244–252.

M. Dorigo, V. Maniezzo, A. Colorni, “Ant system: optimization by a colony of cooperating agents,” IEEE Trans. Syst., Man, Cybern., Part B: Cybern., vol. 26, pp. 29–41, 1996.

[CrossRef]

M. Dorigo, T. Stutzle, Ant Colony Optimization. Cambridge, MA: Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2004.

[CrossRef]

M. Dorigo, T. Stutzle, “The ant colony optimization metaheuristics: algorithms, applications, and advances,” in Handbook of Metaheuristics (International Series in Operations Research and Management Science 57), 2002, pp. 251–285.

F. Ducatelle, L. M. Gambardella, “A scalable algorithm for survivable routing in IP-over-WDM networks,” in Proc. of Int. Conf. on Broadband Networks, 2004, pp. 54–63.

A. E. Eiben, J. E. Smith, Introduction to Evolutionary Computing. Springer Verlag, 2003.

[CrossRef]

F. C. Ergin, A. Yayımlı, Ş. Uyar, “An evolutionary algorithm for survivable virtual topology mapping in optical WDM networks,” in EvoWorkshops09, LNCS 5484, 2009, pp. 31–40.

E. Kaldırım, F. C. Ergin, Ş. Uyar, A. Yayımlı, “Ant colony optimization for survivable virtual topology mapping in optical WDM networks,” in Proc. of ISCIS, 2009, pp. 334–339.

F. Ducatelle, L. M. Gambardella, “A scalable algorithm for survivable routing in IP-over-WDM networks,” in Proc. of Int. Conf. on Broadband Networks, 2004, pp. 54–63.

R. M. Garlick, R. S. Barr, “Dynamic wavelength routing in WDM networks via ant colony optimization,” in 3rd Int. Workshop on Ant Algorithms, LNCS 2463, 2002, vol. 3, pp. 250–255.

A. Hassan, C. Phillips, J. Pitts, “Dynamic routing and wavelength assignment using hybrid particle swarm optimization,” in EPSRC PGNet, 2007.

H. H. Hoos, T. Stutzle, Stochastic Local Search: Foundations and Applications. Morgan Kaufmann, 2005.

S. H. Ngo, X. Jiang, V. Le, S. Horiguchi, “Ant-based survivable routing in dynamic WDM networks with shared backup paths,” J. Supercomput., vol. 36, no. 3, pp. 297–307, 2006.

[CrossRef]

S. H. Ngo, X. Jiang, S. Horiguchi, “An ant-based approach for dynamic RWA in optical WDM networks,” Photonic Network Commun., vol. 11, pp. 39–48, 2006.

[CrossRef]

S. H. Ngo, X. Jiang, S. Horiguchi, “An ant-based approach for dynamic RWA in optical WDM networks,” Photonic Network Commun., vol. 11, pp. 39–48, 2006.

[CrossRef]

S. H. Ngo, X. Jiang, V. Le, S. Horiguchi, “Ant-based survivable routing in dynamic WDM networks with shared backup paths,” J. Supercomput., vol. 36, no. 3, pp. 297–307, 2006.

[CrossRef]

E. Kaldırım, F. C. Ergin, Ş. Uyar, A. Yayımlı, “Ant colony optimization for survivable virtual topology mapping in optical WDM networks,” in Proc. of ISCIS, 2009, pp. 334–339.

M. Kurant, P. Thiran, “Survivable mapping algorithm by ring trimming (SMART) for large IP-over-WDM networks,” in Proc. of Int. Conf. on Broadband Networks, 2004, pp. 44–53.

S. H. Ngo, X. Jiang, V. Le, S. Horiguchi, “Ant-based survivable routing in dynamic WDM networks with shared backup paths,” J. Supercomput., vol. 36, no. 3, pp. 297–307, 2006.

[CrossRef]

J. Armitage, O. Crochat, J. Y. Le Boudec, “Design of a survivable WDM photonic network,” in Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, 1997, pp. 244–252.

A. Nucci, B. Sanso, T. Crainic, E. Leonardi, M. A. Marsan, “Design of fault-tolerant logical topologies in wavelength-routed optical IP networks,” in Proc. of IEEE Globecom, 2001, pp. 2098–2103.

M. Dorigo, V. Maniezzo, A. Colorni, “Ant system: optimization by a colony of cooperating agents,” IEEE Trans. Syst., Man, Cybern., Part B: Cybern., vol. 26, pp. 29–41, 1996.

[CrossRef]

A. Nucci, B. Sanso, T. Crainic, E. Leonardi, M. A. Marsan, “Design of fault-tolerant logical topologies in wavelength-routed optical IP networks,” in Proc. of IEEE Globecom, 2001, pp. 2098–2103.

E. Modiano, A. Narula-Tam, “Survivable lightpath routing: a new approach to the design of WDM-based networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 800–809, 2002.

[CrossRef]

B. Mukherjee, Optical WDM Networks. New York: Springer, 2006.

E. Modiano, A. Narula-Tam, “Survivable lightpath routing: a new approach to the design of WDM-based networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 800–809, 2002.

[CrossRef]

S. H. Ngo, X. Jiang, V. Le, S. Horiguchi, “Ant-based survivable routing in dynamic WDM networks with shared backup paths,” J. Supercomput., vol. 36, no. 3, pp. 297–307, 2006.

[CrossRef]

S. H. Ngo, X. Jiang, S. Horiguchi, “An ant-based approach for dynamic RWA in optical WDM networks,” Photonic Network Commun., vol. 11, pp. 39–48, 2006.

[CrossRef]

A. Nucci, B. Sanso, T. Crainic, E. Leonardi, M. A. Marsan, “Design of fault-tolerant logical topologies in wavelength-routed optical IP networks,” in Proc. of IEEE Globecom, 2001, pp. 2098–2103.

A. Hassan, C. Phillips, J. Pitts, “Dynamic routing and wavelength assignment using hybrid particle swarm optimization,” in EPSRC PGNet, 2007.

A. Hassan, C. Phillips, J. Pitts, “Dynamic routing and wavelength assignment using hybrid particle swarm optimization,” in EPSRC PGNet, 2007.

A. Todimala, B. Ramamurthy, “A scalable approach for survivable virtual topology routing in optical WDM networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 25, no. 6, pp. 63–69, 2007.

[CrossRef]

M. Saha, I. Sengupta, “A genetic algorithm based approach for static virtual topology design in optical networks,” in Proc. of INDICON, 2005, pp. 392–395.

A. Nucci, B. Sanso, T. Crainic, E. Leonardi, M. A. Marsan, “Design of fault-tolerant logical topologies in wavelength-routed optical IP networks,” in Proc. of IEEE Globecom, 2001, pp. 2098–2103.

M. Saha, I. Sengupta, “A genetic algorithm based approach for static virtual topology design in optical networks,” in Proc. of INDICON, 2005, pp. 392–395.

N. Banerjee, S. Sharan, “An evolutionary algorithm for solving the single objective static routing and wavelength assignment problem in WDM networks,” in Proc. of ICISIP, 2004, pp. 13–18.

G. N. Varela, M. C. Sinclair, “Ant colony optimisation for virtual-wavelength-path routing and wavelength allocation,” in Congr. on Evolutionary Computation, 1999, vol. 3, pp. 1809–1816.

A. E. Eiben, J. E. Smith, Introduction to Evolutionary Computing. Springer Verlag, 2003.

[CrossRef]

T. Stutzle, Ant Colony Optimization Source Code, 2004. Available: http://www.aco-metaheuristic.org/aco-code.

M. Dorigo, T. Stutzle, “The ant colony optimization metaheuristics: algorithms, applications, and advances,” in Handbook of Metaheuristics (International Series in Operations Research and Management Science 57), 2002, pp. 251–285.

M. Dorigo, T. Stutzle, Ant Colony Optimization. Cambridge, MA: Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2004.

[CrossRef]

H. H. Hoos, T. Stutzle, Stochastic Local Search: Foundations and Applications. Morgan Kaufmann, 2005.

M. Kurant, P. Thiran, “Survivable mapping algorithm by ring trimming (SMART) for large IP-over-WDM networks,” in Proc. of Int. Conf. on Broadband Networks, 2004, pp. 44–53.

A. Todimala, B. Ramamurthy, “A scalable approach for survivable virtual topology routing in optical WDM networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 25, no. 6, pp. 63–69, 2007.

[CrossRef]

F. C. Ergin, A. Yayımlı, Ş. Uyar, “An evolutionary algorithm for survivable virtual topology mapping in optical WDM networks,” in EvoWorkshops09, LNCS 5484, 2009, pp. 31–40.

E. Kaldırım, F. C. Ergin, Ş. Uyar, A. Yayımlı, “Ant colony optimization for survivable virtual topology mapping in optical WDM networks,” in Proc. of ISCIS, 2009, pp. 334–339.

G. N. Varela, M. C. Sinclair, “Ant colony optimisation for virtual-wavelength-path routing and wavelength allocation,” in Congr. on Evolutionary Computation, 1999, vol. 3, pp. 1809–1816.

E. Kaldırım, F. C. Ergin, Ş. Uyar, A. Yayımlı, “Ant colony optimization for survivable virtual topology mapping in optical WDM networks,” in Proc. of ISCIS, 2009, pp. 334–339.

F. C. Ergin, A. Yayımlı, Ş. Uyar, “An evolutionary algorithm for survivable virtual topology mapping in optical WDM networks,” in EvoWorkshops09, LNCS 5484, 2009, pp. 31–40.

E. Modiano, A. Narula-Tam, “Survivable lightpath routing: a new approach to the design of WDM-based networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 800–809, 2002.

[CrossRef]

A. Todimala, B. Ramamurthy, “A scalable approach for survivable virtual topology routing in optical WDM networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 25, no. 6, pp. 63–69, 2007.

[CrossRef]

M. Dorigo, V. Maniezzo, A. Colorni, “Ant system: optimization by a colony of cooperating agents,” IEEE Trans. Syst., Man, Cybern., Part B: Cybern., vol. 26, pp. 29–41, 1996.

[CrossRef]

S. H. Ngo, X. Jiang, V. Le, S. Horiguchi, “Ant-based survivable routing in dynamic WDM networks with shared backup paths,” J. Supercomput., vol. 36, no. 3, pp. 297–307, 2006.

[CrossRef]

S. H. Ngo, X. Jiang, S. Horiguchi, “An ant-based approach for dynamic RWA in optical WDM networks,” Photonic Network Commun., vol. 11, pp. 39–48, 2006.

[CrossRef]

B. Mukherjee, Optical WDM Networks. New York: Springer, 2006.

A. Hassan, C. Phillips, J. Pitts, “Dynamic routing and wavelength assignment using hybrid particle swarm optimization,” in EPSRC PGNet, 2007.

E. Kaldırım, F. C. Ergin, Ş. Uyar, A. Yayımlı, “Ant colony optimization for survivable virtual topology mapping in optical WDM networks,” in Proc. of ISCIS, 2009, pp. 334–339.

H. H. Hoos, T. Stutzle, Stochastic Local Search: Foundations and Applications. Morgan Kaufmann, 2005.

A. E. Eiben, J. E. Smith, Introduction to Evolutionary Computing. Springer Verlag, 2003.

[CrossRef]

M. Dorigo, T. Stutzle, Ant Colony Optimization. Cambridge, MA: Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2004.

[CrossRef]

J. Armitage, O. Crochat, J. Y. Le Boudec, “Design of a survivable WDM photonic network,” in Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, 1997, pp. 244–252.

A. Nucci, B. Sanso, T. Crainic, E. Leonardi, M. A. Marsan, “Design of fault-tolerant logical topologies in wavelength-routed optical IP networks,” in Proc. of IEEE Globecom, 2001, pp. 2098–2103.

F. Ducatelle, L. M. Gambardella, “A scalable algorithm for survivable routing in IP-over-WDM networks,” in Proc. of Int. Conf. on Broadband Networks, 2004, pp. 54–63.

M. Kurant, P. Thiran, “Survivable mapping algorithm by ring trimming (SMART) for large IP-over-WDM networks,” in Proc. of Int. Conf. on Broadband Networks, 2004, pp. 44–53.

N. Banerjee, S. Sharan, “An evolutionary algorithm for solving the single objective static routing and wavelength assignment problem in WDM networks,” in Proc. of ICISIP, 2004, pp. 13–18.

M. Saha, I. Sengupta, “A genetic algorithm based approach for static virtual topology design in optical networks,” in Proc. of INDICON, 2005, pp. 392–395.

F. C. Ergin, A. Yayımlı, Ş. Uyar, “An evolutionary algorithm for survivable virtual topology mapping in optical WDM networks,” in EvoWorkshops09, LNCS 5484, 2009, pp. 31–40.

G. N. Varela, M. C. Sinclair, “Ant colony optimisation for virtual-wavelength-path routing and wavelength allocation,” in Congr. on Evolutionary Computation, 1999, vol. 3, pp. 1809–1816.

R. M. Garlick, R. S. Barr, “Dynamic wavelength routing in WDM networks via ant colony optimization,” in 3rd Int. Workshop on Ant Algorithms, LNCS 2463, 2002, vol. 3, pp. 250–255.

M. Dorigo, T. Stutzle, “The ant colony optimization metaheuristics: algorithms, applications, and advances,” in Handbook of Metaheuristics (International Series in Operations Research and Management Science 57), 2002, pp. 251–285.

T. Stutzle, Ant Colony Optimization Source Code, 2004. Available: http://www.aco-metaheuristic.org/aco-code.

ILOG CPLEX 6.5 User’s Manual, 2000.